Architecture of the World II

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1 Rio del Plata Architecture of the World II Rio del Plata Inhabited by the Gununa Kena nomads until the 11 th Century when taken by the Mapucha. After the 15 th Century, Sir Francis Drake settles the area for Seal Lion colonies. The Portuguese then settled the area afterwards due to it s location for trade and diverse ability to support agriculture, fishing, and industry (after the railway was built from Buenos Aires to Argentina).

2 Del Plata Architecture influences by Europeans. Ancient River based on trade and global position. Spanish colonial influence prevalent in last three centuries of development.

3 Rio del Plata Ancient: Use of local natural materials; Utilitarian forms; Ease of construction. Modern: Embraces the abstract; Always an eye toward the avant garde; Preferred use of concrete & steel.

4 Rio del Plata Architecture of the World II Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo Assyrian and Neo Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC and after his death it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.

5 Pre Pottery Neolithic: Boreal Period (ca BC) Jarmo (ca bc ca BC) collapse: 8.2 kiloyear event (6200 BC) Pottery Neolithic: Hassuna (ca bc? BC), Samarra (ca BC 4900 BC) and Halaf (ca BC 5300 BC) "cultures" Chalcolithic or Copper age: Ubaid period (ca BC 4400 BC) collapse: 5.9 kiloyear event (3900 BC) Uruk period (ca BC 3200 BC) Jemdet Nasr period (ca BC 2900 BC) [10] Early Bronze Age Early Dynastic Sumerian city states (ca BC 2350 BC) Akkadian Empire (ca BC 2193 BC). collapse: 4.2 kiloyear event (ca BC) Third Dynasty of Ur (ca BC 2004 BC) Middle Bronze Age Early Babylonia (20th to 18th c. BC) Early Assyrian kingdom (20th to 18th c. BC) First Babylonian Dynasty (18th to 17th c. BC) collapse: Minoan Eruption (c BC) Late Bronze Age Kassite dynasty, Middle Assyrian period (16 th 12th c. BC) collapse: Bronze Age collapse (12th to 11th c. BC) Iron Age Neo Hittite or Syro Hittite regional states (11 th 7th c. BC) Neo Assyrian Empire (10th to 7th c. BC) Chaldea, Neo Babylonian Empire (7th to 6th c. BC) Classical Antiquity Persian Babylonia, Achaemenid Assyria (6th to 4th c. BC) Seleucid Mesopotamia (4th to 3rd c. BC) Parthian Asuristan (3rd c. BC to 3rd c. AD) Osroene (2nd c. BC to 3rd c. AD) Adiabene (1st to 2nd c. CE) Roman Mesopotamia, Roman Assyria (2nd c. CE) Late Antiquity Sassanid Asuristan (3rd to 7th c. CE) Muslim conquest, dissolution of Asuristan/Assyria (7th c. CE)

6 Village of Srouj near Qasr. Latakia arch.

7 Tigris Mesopotamian Architecture Neither stone nor wood was widely available for construction in ancient Mesopotamia, so the early architects of the region used mud bricks instead. Mud was easily available and mud bricks cost very little to make. The bricks were mixed with grass or dung, molded and then sun dried. Sometimes they were fired to make them more durable, but this was not done often because it increased the expense. The Mesopotamian Arch Because the Mesopotamian architects didn't have easy access to wood or stone, they couldn't use wood beams or stone supports to span the tops of doorways. The arch was invented to solve this problem, allowing the Mesopotamians to work around their lack of other local buildings materials. The Mesopotamian arches are made of the same mud brick as the walls.

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