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1 United Nations and NGOs and Dealing with Human Trafficking Introduction In this report, I look at the way the United Nations and Civil Society can cooperate. From the first cycle, I ve learned that there re a lot of types of immigration. I also came to have an interest about human trafficking through reading a book about a problem between Nepal and India. I could feel the awfulness of human trafficking directly because of the book. And in summer vacation, I went to Nepal with the NGO and researched the real situation. Now I know that human trafficking is a cruel crime which affronts human dignity, so I want to find many activities to protect people. When I think the actors to deal with human trafficking, two big actors occur to me, the United Nations and NGOs. In the third cycle I researched the NGO and focused on the United Nations in the forth cycle. Basically I was skeptical about the United Nations and such high level activities, because it s difficult for local people to get benefits directly I believe. Through my experience in Nepal, more and more I suspect the effectiveness of the United Nations. On the other hand, I found that NGOs had weak points too. In this report I want to think about the way to solve problems and find the way to get better world with governments and civil society. Nepal Basic Data Maiti Nepal is the biggest NGO in Nepal. This NGO is for human trafficking between Nepal and India. Every year almost 5000~7000 girls are trafficked and cross the open border. Most of them are teenager but some are even under 10 years old. Almost all were made to work as sex workers and they died of venereal diseases or

2 HIV/AIDS. Girls are deceived easily because of lack of knowledge and no hesitation of immigration. Nepal has a remittance economy. In world wars Britain made Gurkha. This is a mixture of British and Indian armies. Gurkha included Nepalese tribes, Gurung, Magar, Rai and Limbu, which are identified martial races by British. Many men immigrated and earned foreign currency. This is the beginning of immigration. Immigration is one of the Nepalese cultures and so people don t hesitate to leave Nepal to work more money. I believe this is one reason that girls are deceived easily. Girls are likely to go with brokers without consideration when they are introduced better place to earn money. Second reason is the poverty. Girls can t go to school and they don t know the ways to protect themselves. They believe others easily and have short-sighted. Some of them don t know human trafficking is crime. NGO Maiti Nepal has tried to change the bad situations for almost 15 years. Main tasks are prevention of girl trafficking, rescuing girls forced into prostitution and rehabilitation. There are three concrete steps. The first one is awareness and advocacy campaign. Maiti Nepal reaches out to the community and explains the situation of trafficking and its risks. Poor people can t read books so it uses musicals and movies. This campaign worked well and now Maiti Nepal is known to almost all Nepalese. The second one is hospices and shelters. Girls who are rescued usually have some diseases. Also many girls are mentally ill. Before they come back to their home town, girls stay hospices to have medical treatments. Moreover, some girls lost the place to

3 come back because their parents don t want to accept sick and socially undesirable girls even they re blood relatives. To give the place to live for such pity girls, Maiti Nepal have hospices. The third is, I think this is the most important role, fair trade. Not only prepare for the meals and spaces to sleep, but also Maiti Nepal give girls jobs. If they don t have any work, they live a life just as like domestic animals. So they learn sowing and making some accessories of beads, and then sell them. Moreover some girls are allowed to open food wagon. Furthermore they can earn money and also feel value to live. Opinion These activities work well. In reality many girls were rescued and the number of trafficking was decreased. However, the more famous Maiti Nepal became, the more they have problem. The serious problem is money. All of tasks need money. More and more people ask for help, Maiti Nepal have to help them. But it isn t easy to gather donors. Recently Maiti Nepal made rule whether accept clients or not. And also their impact is small. Now almost all Nepalese know Maiti Nepal, but it took over 15 years. I think NGO have 2 weak points. That is money and impact. Basic data The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) deals with crimes related to drugs, terrorism and political corruption. Actually the UNODC treats many types of crimes, so also does illicit trafficking. It was set up in 1997 and whole staffs are almost 500 in Vienna, New York and Brussels. The budget is $504.7million, 7.8% is from United Nations and the other is from donors. This office works in 4 levels from

4 global level, national level, selected provinces to selected communities. It means that it combines micro-level and macro-level when they work. Its objection is to equip government to handle crimes and comprehensive response on the interrelated issues. So it has three guidelines, which are education, awareness and law enforcement. About Human Trafficking, there are three ways such as definition, prevention and protection. This time I focus on Human Trafficking and compare to NGO activities. Three ways First I look at the definition part. We have a protocol, Protocol to prevent suppress and punish trafficking in persons especially women and children. It was made in 2000 and now 110 states have already accepted this. If people have same goals,they can work together effectively. This is why United Nations and governments make frames. If we want to treat problems spreading all over the world, Cross border cooperation is needed. There s, however, a problem to translate protocols problematically. After all, protocols result in prosecuting very few criminals. Prevention part is about awareness campaigns, not only making people aware of risks through advertisement, but also helping community-led activity with NGOs. For example, the UNODC makes videos and books in many languages to let people know situations. Moreover, in Nepal they started Community Vigilance Project. People supervise the border between Nepal and India and prevent brokers from trafficking girls. This project works well and the number of trafficking cases has decreased. Protection can involve alternative development. This project is for drug crimes but the number of other crimes is also decreased. It prevents and eliminates illicit cultivation, such as like narcotics, psychotropic substance. Moreover it gives farmers

5 economically another alternative. For example Laos was 1998 the 3 rd largest illicit opium poppy producer and highest opium addiction rates. After the guide from UNODC and NGOs, in 2005 the cultivation rate was reduced by 93% and opium addiction rate was reduced by 68%. Now Laos s people make rice and wheat. Some of them get skill learning, like sowing. This project works in Southern part of central Asia, Latin-America and South-east Asia. Opinion Through my research, I believe the United Nations and NGOs need to work together. Their weak points can be compensated from each other. For example, the United Nations has more money than NGOs and can work broader. Moreover it can make frames and gather helps effectively. On the other hand, NGOs can support local people directly and address causes of problems preciously. If they work together, United Nations will make frames and give money to NGOs and then NGOs will care local people directly. This is just an example. What we can do is to have interests broadly, and research about them, I believe. Through research, we may know some activities or conclusions what we can do. Maybe only a person, just like me, can t assist the poor, but I believe we can give impacts if we are together. I believe more and more they solve problems effectively. In the future I believe we can work together beyond existing levels of society.

6 References Articles Nepalese Labor Migration to Japan Transnational Migration and Work in Asia Books An Information Guide 6 th Trafficking of Women and Girls (International Organization for Migration) Reports Human Trafficking (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010) Lao People s Democratic Republic (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010) Maiti Nepal (Maiti Nepal, 2010) Prevention (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010) Protecting Victims of Human Trafficking (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010)

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