1. Whereas the spinal cord is part of the, the cranial nerves are part of the. A) CNS, PNS B) PNS, CNS Ans: A

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1 Chapter 8: The Nervous System 1. Whereas the spinal cord is part of the, the cranial nerves are part of the. A) CNS, PNS B) PNS, CNS 2. Within the peripheral nervous system, myelin is formed by A) Schwann cells. B) neurons. C) microglial cells. D) astrocytes. 3. Of what does a neuron consist? A) axon B) cell body C) dendrite 4. The sensory neuron is A) impulse to muscle. B) impulse to CNS. C) always within CNS. 5. The interneuron is A) impulse to muscle. B) impulse to CNS. C) always within CNS. 6. The motor neuron is A) impulse to muscle. B) impulse to CNS. C) always within CNS. Page 60

2 7. Which has the nucleus? A) axon B) dendrite C) cell body 8. Of what does the action potential consist? A) depolarization B) repolarization C) resting potential D) depolarization and repolarization E) all of these 9. When the nerve is at rest, the inside charge is A) negative B) positive C) neutral 10. During depolarization A) potassium ions move outside. B) sodium ions move inside. C) electrons stream along the axon. 11. What flows across the synaptic cleft? A) ions B) electrons C) a neurotransmitter substance 12. Which is a neurotransmitter substance? A) acetylcholine B) acetylcholinesterase C) an enzyme D) acetylcholinesterase and an enzyme Page 61

3 13. In which direction does an impulse go across a synapse? A) dendrite to axon B) axon to dendrite C) either way 14. Which disease is due to an imbalance of the neurotransmitter dopamine within the brain? A) Parkinson disease B) Huntington disease C) Alzheimer disease figure Which letter in figure 8.1 points to the sensory neuron? Ans: c 16. Which letter in figure 8.1 points to the motor neuron? Ans: b 17. Which letter in figure 8.1 points to the effector organ? Ans: a 18. Which neuron is involved in a reflex arc? A) sensory B) motor C) interneuron Page 62

4 19. What do the ventricles of the brain contain? A) meninges B) dura mater C) cerebrospinal fluid D) meninges and dura mater 20. What protects the spinal cord? A) vertebrae B) meninges C) cerebrospinal fluid 21. Hydrocephalus occurs in A) infants. B) adults. C) infants and adults. 22. What are the main functions of the spinal cord? A) reflex center B) relay center between brain and peripheral nerves C) reflex center and relay center between brain and peripheral nerves 23. The spinal reflex location contains A) white matter. B) gray matter. C) gray matter and white matter. 24. The ascending and descending tracts contains A) white matter. B) gray matter. C) gray matter and white matter. 25. The spinal cord contains A) white matter. B) gray matter. C) gray matter and white matter. Page 63

5 26. The lateral ventricles are located in the A) cerebrum. B) medulla oblongata. C) thalamus. D) cerebellum. 27. The limbic system is conserned with A) relating feelings to experiences. B) our deepest emotions, such as rage and pleasure. C) learning and memory. D) All of these choices are correct. figure Which letter in figure 8.2 points to the cerebellum? Ans: a 29. Which letter in figure 8.2 points to the cerebrum? Ans: c 30. Which letter in figure 8.2 points to the medulla oblongata? Ans: b 31. Which area of the brain is concerned with homeostasis? A) hypothalamus B) cerebrum C) thalamus D) cerebellum Page 64

6 32. Which area of the brain is responsible for consciousness? A) hypothalamus B) cerebrum C) thalamus D) cerebellum 33. Which system is concerned with internal organs? A) somatic B) autonomic C) somatic and autonomic 34. Mixed nerves contain A) sensory fibers. B) motor fibers. C) sensory and motor fibers. 35. The optic nerve is a A) cranial nerve. B) sensory nerve. C) spinal nerve. D) cranial nerve and a sensory nerve. 36. Which peripheral nerves would most likely be adversely affected by someone using crutches? A) phrenic nerves B) radial nerves C) sciatic nerves D) an intercostal nerve 37. Restful activities stimulate the A) parasympathetic nervous system. B) sympathetic nervous system. C) parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. 38. Norepinephrine stimulates the A) parasympathetic nervous system. B) sympathetic nervous system. C) parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. Page 65

7 39. The autonomic nervous system is the A) parasympathetic nervous system. B) sympathetic nervous system. C) parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. 40. The limbic system is involved in A) emotions. B) behavior. C) memory Which nerves innervate skeletal muscles? A) somatic B) sympathetic C) parasympathetic 42. A ganglion contains A) axons. B) dendrites. C) cell bodies. D) axons and dendrites. 43. Which control(s) internal organs? A) medulla B) hypothalamus C) cerebellum D) medulla and hypothalamus 44. Which portion of the brain has hemispheres? A) brain stem B) cerebrum C) hypothalamus D) medulla Page 66

8 45. Vision is controlled in the A) frontal lobe. B) temporal lobe. C) occipital lobe. 46. Concentration is controlled in the A) frontal lobe. B) temporal lobe. C) occipital lobe. 47. Hearing is controlled in the A) frontal lobe. B) temporal lobe. C) occipital lobe. 48. Describe the nerve impulse as it travels along a nerve fiber and across a synapse. nerve impulse is a wave of depolarization and repolarization, during which sodium ions first move into a neuron and then potassium ions move out of a neuron. This is called an action potential. When the action potential reaches the end of the axon, neurotransmitter substances are released into the synapse between adjacent neurons. These chemicals diffuse across the synapse and initiate an action potential in the next neuron. 49. Describe how the spinal cord acts as a reflex center and a relay center. Ans: The gray matter of the spinal cord contains the sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons involved in spinal reflexes. The white matter of the spinal cord contains nerve tracts composed of nerve fibers carrying impulses toward or away from the brain. 50. List the parts of the unconscious brain and state the function of each part. iencephalon - maintains homeostasis (Hypothalamus) and serves as a relay station for sensory impulses traveling toward the cerebrum (Thalamus) Cerebellum - controls balance and complex movements Medulla oblongata - contains vital centers and reflex centers Pons - contains axons traveling between the cerebellum and the rest of the CNS, and also contains vital centers and reflex centers Midbrain - contains tracts traveling between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, and reflex centers 51. If a person had an injury to the occipital lobe of the cerebrum, what functional losses would you expect them to have? Ans: vision and visual recognition of objects Page 67

9 52. When someone is frightened, they seem to have more strength to run or fight than normal. What is the reason for this? Ans: The sympathetic nervous system releases the neurotransmitter norepinephrine which accelerates the heartbeat and increases respiration. 53. List the causes of Parkinson, Huntington, and Alzheimer disease. Ans: Parkinson - deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine Huntington - malfunction of the neurotransmitter GABA Alzheimer - loss of neurons that use ACh as a neurotransmitter 54. Compare the left and right brain with regard to their abilities. Ans: The left brain contains centers for speech and is responsible for language ability. The right brain is better at dealing with spacial relationships, musical and artistic ability, and expression of emotions. 55. Organize the following divisions of the nervous system in outline form: autonomic ns, central ns, parasympathetic ns, peripheral ns, somatic ns, sympathetic ns. Ans: I. Central ns II. Peripheral ns A. Somatic ns B. Autonomic ns 1. Sympathetic ns 2. Parasympathetic ns 56. List the following reflex arc components in the order that they would function in producing reflex activity: effector organ, interneuron, motor neuron, receptor, sensory neuron. Ans: Receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector organ. 57. Compare the cerebrum and spinal cord with regard to the location of gray and white matter. Ans: Whereas gray matter is found in the center, or core, of the spinal cord, white matter is found near the surface. In the cerebrum, the gray matter is near the surface and the white matter is deeper. 58. Differentiate between gyri, sulci, and fissures. gyrus is a convolution (bump) on the surface of the cerebrum. A sulcus is a shallow groove between gyri. A fissure is a deep groove. 59. List and describe the three types of functional areas in the cerebrum. Ans: 1. Sensory areas receive sensory impulses and produce sensations. 2. Motor areas initiate nerve impulses that control muscle fibers. 3. Association areas are believed to contain areas for intelligence, artistic and creative ability, and learning. Page 68

10 60. The summing up of excitatory and inhibitory signals received by a neuron is called A) summation. B) potentiation. C) integration. D) transmission. 61. Which is the most superficial menix? A) arachnoid B) dura mater C) pia mater 62. The primary somatosensory area A) receives impulses from the skin and skeletal muscles. B) is posterior to the central sulcus. C) is located in the parietal lobe. D) All of these choices are correct. 63. Which is not a component of the brain stem? A) cerebellum B) medulla oblongata C) midbrain D) pons Page 69

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