Thermal comfort of individual rooms in the design of commercial buildings

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1 Cracow University of Technology Division of Building and Building Physics, Cracow, Poland Thermal comfort of individual rooms in the design of commercial buildings Authors: PhD Katarzyna Nowak Ms Sc Katarzyna Nowak-Dzieszko Ms Sc Małgorzata Rojewska-Warchał

2 Description of the problem 1. The national regulations regarding building design process draw specifically attention to the expected energy consumption, heat losses and heat gains. 2. In order to increase the solar gains and reduce heating need, large windows are located in southern rooms. 3. The overheating effect is not taken under consideration in the design process but is closely related to the thermal comfort of the entire building and of seperate rooms. 4. The microclimate of the interior space is the combined effect of the design process, erection and utilization of particular rooms. 5. According to polish national regulations the building should be designed to avoid risk of overheating during summer months.

3 Building description 1. academic building 2. plan area 72,9m x 21,7m; 10,5 m high with three levels. 3. exterior walls - solid brick with plaster at both sides: U = 1,51 [W/m 2 K] (maximum U value allowed by polish standard requirements for external walls in this kind of building is 0,3 [W/m 2 K]), concrete flat roof, insulated with 5 cm of styrofoam: U=0,59 [W/m 2 K], slab on ground insulated with 5 cm of styrofoam: U= 0,50 [W/m 2 K], double glazing windows: U = 1,7 [W/m 2 K]. 4. natural ventilation system 5. gas heating system with convection heaters. 6. Percentage share of glazing areas at the elevations is as follows: N 69% S 44% E 46%. W 46% Model view of the building South elevation

4 Building zones visualization Model view of the building South elevation Model view of the building ground level Model view of the building first floor

5 Building zones visualization Model view of the building South elevation Model view of the building second floor

6 General assumptions to the simulations - simulations conducted in the Design Builder program -simulations based on polish climatic conditions - natural ventilation system - per polish national standards for commercial buildings, 20 m 3 /hour per person, - metabolic activity: factor 0,9 - winter clothing clo=1.0, summer clothing clo=0.5 - heating system on from September to March (22 C), 7 days per week, 24 hours a day. - operating schedule: office rooms July thru August 8:00 am 4:00 pm, 5 days a week; September thru June 8:00 am 9:00 pm, 7 days a week lecture classes - September thru June 7:30 am 9:00 pm, 7 days a week, July thru August 7:30 am 9:00 pm, 5 days a week - occupancy density: office rooms 0,1 person per m 2 lecture classes 0,85 person per m 2 Analyzed data from 15 th of May thru 15 th of September overheating problem may appear.

7 Measurements of thermal comfort in room 213 Temperature PMV index

8 Simulation steps 1. Base case building in the service conditions 2. Building after thermal modernization 3. Building with reduced occupancy density and with internal shadings

9 Overheating hours for different office rooms base case - in all rooms the temperatures are much higher than the comfort conditions - overheating problems appear in all rooms during summer months

10 Influence of thermal insulation - thermal transmittance of the external walls improved up to U = 0,18 [W/m 2 K] - windows the same Office room number 213 before thermal modernization Office room number 213 after thermal modernization

11 Overheating hours for different office rooms -before and after thermal modernization - the general increase of the number of discomfort hours - the most unfavorable changes for 27/28 C - for higher temperatures significant increase noticeable - improvement of building envelope insulation reduces the heat losses during both heating months and summer season. The second aspect in a disadvantage of this solution. - during the building modernization not only the reducing of energy looses should be taken into consideration but in the same time reducing of both solar and internal gains.

12 Influence of occupancy density and shadings - occupancy density reduced to 25% - internal shadings (blinds with medium reflexivity slats) Lecture class number 209 base case Lecture class number 209 reduced occupancy density, shadings

13 Overheating hours in lecture class 209 base case 209* - with shadings and reduced occupancy density - the number of discomfort hours after modernization is much lower - temperatures higher than 32 o C were eliminated and the number of degree hours above 28 o C was significantly reduced.

14 Overheating hours for different office rooms -base case and building with reduced occupancy and shadings Discomfort hours for office rooms /27 27/28 28/29 29/30 30/31 31/32 > Base case Building with shadings and reduced occupancy density - the number of discomfort hours after modernization is much lower - temperatures higher than 32 o C were almost entirely eliminated

15 CONCLUSIONS 1. The conducted analyses show that improving of the building envelope thermal insulation alone can unfavourably affect the internal conditions during summer season. 2. In the rooms with a significant glazing ratio the solar protection level and shadings appears to have the greatest influence on the thermal comfort. 3. Cooling of the rooms must be applied if none of the external or/and interior shading systems are used to avoid overheating. 4. None of the measures considered eliminated the overheating entirely however employing a combination of different measures reduced overheating significantly. 5. In the building modernization process, using of external shadings to reduce summer overheating, could be also taken under consideration. Those solutions are the subject of further researches.

16 Cracow University of Technology Thank you for your attention

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