3 Hydraulic Control 101 Hydraulic, mechanical, electrical, and pneumatic are the four methods of energy transmission. Each method has advantages and disadvantages so a combination of these energy transmissions may be used on mobile equipment Hydraulic fluid provides force like a solid object (fluid molecules don t compress like gas molecules) Flow (GPM gallons per minute ) = hydraulic actuator speed Pressure (PSI) = hydraulic actuator force. Most mobiles systems are less than 3000 psi.
4 Hydraulic System Components A basic hydraulic control system consists of the following components: (Diesel Engine or Electric Motor)
5 Hydraulic System Components System Pump - Delivers constant flow of fluid and pressure - The pump shaft is driven by an engine or electric motor - Pumps have an inlet port and outlet port Example: (4) inline pumps connected to a motor for a mobile application
6 Hydraulic System Components Hydraulic Actuators Cylinder or RAM - Converts hydraulic energy to mechanical energy - Cylinders provide linear mechanical energy Pressure To Tank Hydraulic Cylinder Example
7 Hydraulic System Components Hydraulic Actuators (continued) Hydraulic Motors provide rotary mechanical energy Example: Shows two motors (middle) for cat-track movement
8 Hydraulic System Components Directional Valve Actuator Directional Valve Actuator: - Moves the valve spool position by, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, or by a mechanical interface Manual lever Pilot: air or hydraulic pressure is used to shift the spool Solenoid: electromechanical device that coverts electric power into linear mechanical force and motion. Manual Levers Solenoids Valve Body
9 Hydraulic System Components Directional Valves Directional Valves - Internal spool directs fluid flow from the pump to a hydraulic actuator - 4-way(4 ports): Commonly called bi-directional valves. Used for FWD/REV motion of a hydraulic actuator. See cross-section below. - 2-way (2 ports): Used for on-off (bang-bang) functions Internal Valve Spool Solenoid Solenoid Directional Valve
10 Hydraulic System Components Solenoids Solenoid Types A radio receiver will control the solenoid part of the hydraulic system. Solenoids come in different types and shapes. The two show below are very common. One is a valve type and the other is a coil type. The left picture shows a valve type. This adjusts fluid flow to move the internal valve spool. The right picture shows a coil type. When energized it has rod that pushes the valve spool.
11 Hydraulic System Components Solenoids Signals Here are some common types of radio output signals to control a valve: Digital Outputs are very common for all hydraulics. These are typically found on lower cost machines were proportional control is not needed. For proportional control, the most common type of proportional control signal for valves is the PWM signal. This is a similar signal used for controlling servo motors, and linear actuators. Some other common electrical output signals for valve control are: - Analog Output, (0-5VDC, 0-10VDC) electronic driver cards - Ratio Metric Analog (3-6-9VDC, where 6VDC is a neutral position) Danfoss PVG - Current Output (similar to a PWM) or current compensated closed loop
12 Hydraulic System Components Solenoid Signals (continued) The most common is the PWM, so what is a PWM signal? A PWM output is an unregulated output proportional to a command. This is an efficient technique to control current. A PWM output provides an apparent proportional output by driving a digital (on/off) output at high frequencies for proportionally longer or shorter periods of time. PWM can be low (25Hz to 400Hz) or a high 1000Hz. High frequencies produces a more constant ripple free amperage output. Here is a picture of a 100Hz PWM signal that one would see on a meter.
13 Hydraulic System Components Solenoid Signals (continued) Example of an open loop PWM Command from transmitter Receiver PWM Signal Solenoid Internal Valve Spool (shifts left or right) Hydraulic Fluid Flows to a hydraulic actuator (cylinder) and shifts fluid back to the hydraulic tank or reservoir Solenoid Solenoid Example: Valve has a solenoid valve controlling hydraulic fluid (blue area) to move the internal valve spool. The yellow area is pressurized fluid going to either a hydraulic actuator, or back to the fluid tank/reservoir.
14 Hydraulic System Components Solenoid Signals (continued) What is a Current Output? A current output is a regulated PWM output proportional to a command. Command from transmitter Receiver Solenoid Internal Valve Spool Hydraulic Fluid Flows to a hydraulic actuator (cylinder) and shifts fluid back to the hydraulic tank or reservoir Feed back signal Transducer Spool Position Signal Note: The radio receiver is constantly receiving spool position feedback and making adjustments to maintain a precise proportional output. What is the difference between a Current Output signal and a PWM signal? The open loop PWM is an unregulated output affected by changes in load, plus operating temperatures. The current output provides a regulated current source, that will not vary due to the changes in the load or temperature. Also, the valve electronics have a transducer that measures spool movement in relation to the input signal from the receiver and by means of a solenoid valve, controls the direction, velocity, and position of the internal valve spool.
15 PWM Signals (continued) Here is an example of a PWM solenoid information that we will need in order to setup the radio receiver to drive the outputs properly for proportional control: Example: Solenoid Brand: Hydraforce Initial Value: 400mA (this is the threshold current) Final Value: 1200mA (this is the maximum current) Frequency: 100Hz (this is the PWM frequency) Threshold Current: The amount of current required to reach the point where increasing current input causes flow from the valve to begin to increase (normally closed valve) or decrease (normally open valve). Maximum Control Current: The point where increasing current input no longer results in an increase in valve flow. Most distributors / integrators should know this information, but some may not, so we may need to get a solenoid part number or specification sheet to look this information up.
16 Hydraulic System Components Directional Valve Actuators (continued) So, what radio receivers provide what type of outputs? Model Flex EM/EX Series Receivers - mechanical relay type digital output - Fused at 5A - No PWM or analog outputs available Model CAN-6 radio receiver - 8 solid state digital outputs (3A) - 8 analog (0-5, 0-10, or 3-6-9VDC) - No PWM outputs Model MHR radio receiver - 16 solid state digital on-off outputs (3A) -or - 16 PWM open loop outputs or - 16 Current PWM or current compensated closed loop outputs - No analog outputs
17 Mobile Hydraulic Radio Control ON-OFF systems For most simple on-off bang-bang hydraulic valves we will use the Flex EM/EX radio products to control the valves directly. The EM systems will be stock 12-24VDC systems with single speed operation that provide a digital output to the solenoid coil.
18 Mobile Hydraulic Control Analog Signal Output Example The model CAN-6 radio receiver can provide a 0-5VDC, or 0-10VDC output to a electronic driver module. The electronic driver module then provides a PWM output to the valves. OR
19 Mobile Hydraulic Radio Control CAN Output Example The model CAN-6 radio receiver can be paired up with a transmitter to drive any hydraulic valve directly that has solenoids requiring a digital on-off, or analog signal. The model CAN-6 can also provide CAN communications to CAN-bus controlled equipment.
20 CAN-Bus Control System with Radio Existing Machine Controls
21 CAN-Bus radio (continued) Benefits of radio control and CAN-Bus technology for mobile equipment: - Radio control is easily added as an interface module to the system - All hydraulic system adjustments are removed from the radio system - Can-Bus self diagnostics can help determine radio problems - Two way radio control provides data feedback for machine adjustments. (ex. rpm, temp, press, errors, etc.) - Radio control + electronic hydraulic control offers smooth machine control, which extends the life of the machine and hydraulic components
22 Mobile Hydraulic Radio Control Wireless CAN Bridge Two model CAN-6 units setup in a transceiver mode will make up the model WIC-2400 wireless CAN radio system providing a wireless link of CAN data between two modules. This system is meant to replace CAN system cables that are prone to breaking or wire isolation is needed. Example showing CAN engine data being transmitted and then displayed on a CAN based gauge.
23 Mobile Hydraulic Radio Control PWM Output Example The new model MHR radio receiver can be combined with a transmitter to provide CAN communications, digital, and PWM outputs for driving hydraulic valves directly. This radio receiver can provide the same precise control as a CAN-bus system, and includes inputs for getting feedback from external machine sensors, thus providing an intelligent direct drive valve control package.
24 The new model MHR receiver Model MHR mobile hydraulic radio receiver Outputs - Drives up to eight bi-directional (fwd/rev) 16 functions - Provides PWM, current PWM outputs (25 to 1000Hz) - Provides on-off outputs rated at 3A. (total output max 21A) - Two separate E-Stop outputs (double redundancy) Inputs - Six analog or digital inputs (0-12VDC) Communication - USB port, (2) CAN-Bus ports, Infrared Port Other available Inputs The 16 outputs can also be configurable to be digital inputs as well. Input types: digital inputs, and frequency inputs (encoders / RPM) Input voltage: 9-36VDC (20ohm impedance)
25 The new model MHR receiver
26 MHR receiver Connector C1/C2 IO Con1 Nam e Functions A1 CANH1 CAN bus 1 Port A2 USB+ USB Port A3 USB- USB Port B1 CANH2 CAN bus 2 Port B2 CANL2 CAN bus 2 Port B3 CANL1 CAN bus 1 Port C1 Stop 2 Machine Stop output/digital Output C2 Vref Com Common for Voltage Supply C3 +5V Vref +5V Voltage Supply (100mA max) D1 Stop 1 Machine Stop output D2 -Vbattery -V Bat D3 +Vbattery +V Bat E1 ADF1 Analog/Digital In1 E2 ADF2 Analog/Digital In2 E3 ADF3 Analog/Digital In3 F1 ADF4 Analog/Digital In4 F2 ADF5 Analog/Digital In5 F3 ADF6 Analog/Digital In6 Con2 Nam e Functions A1 IO1 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 1 A2 IO2 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 2 A3 Return 1 Return for Out 1&2 B1 IO3 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 3 B2 IO4 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 4 B3 Return 2 Return for Out 3&4 C1 IO5 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 5 C2 IO6 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 6 C3 Return 3 Return for Out 5&6 D1 IO7 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 7 D2 IO8 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 8 D3 Return 4 Return for Out 7&8 E1 IO9 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 9 E2 IO10 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 10 E3 Return 5 Return for Out 9&10 F1 IO11 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 11 F2 IO12 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 12 F3 Return 6 Return for Out 11&12
27 MHR receiver C2 I/O continued Con2 Nam e Functions G1 IO13 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 13 G2 IO14 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 14 G3 Return 7 Return for Out 13&14 H1 IO15 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 15 H2 IO16 CC Out/PWM Out/Dig Out/Dig In/Freq 16 H3 Return 8 Return for Out 15&16 J1 -Vbattery -V Bat J2 -Vbattery -V Bat J3 -Vbattery -V Bat K1 Vbattery +V Bat K2 Vbattery +V Bat K3 Vbattery +V Bat
28 The new model MHR receiver Model MHR mobile hydraulic radio receiver Unique features: - Graphic display and four pushbutton keypad for diagnostics and system set up. - Two separate internal computer processors (double redundancy) - Two separate E-Stop outputs (double redundancy) - Tested to IP-66 / 67 sealing tests - System can be expanded by adding another receiver or another module like the CAN-M1 module additional inputs or outputs. - A PC software program will be available for setting up proportional valve parameters, with an easy to use interface
29 MHR receiver LCD Graphic Display
30 MHR receiver LCD Graphic Display (continued) Header Indication of the current menu context Parameter List List of parameter to choose from to modify. To cycle through the list use the UP/DOWN buttons. To enter a submenu, use the SELECT button. The BACK button w ill take the user back to the Setup Mode menu. The list of choices are: PWM Frequency Output # (There w ill be one for each output available on the unit)
31 MHR receiver LCD Graphic Display (continued) Header Indication of the current menu context Parameter List List of parameter to choose from to modify. To cycle through the list use the UP/DOWN buttons. To enter a submenu, use the SELECT button. The BACK button w ill take the user back to the IO Config menu. The list of choices are: Config Type Unused Digital Output Current Compenstated Open Loop PWM Digital Input Minimum Current (Only used for Current Comp) Maximum Current (Only used for Current Comp) Start Ramp Stop Ramp Min Duty Cycle (Only used for Open Loop PWM) Max Duty Cycle (Only used for Open Loop PWM)
32 MHR receiver Proposed PC Setup Screen 1
33 MHR receiver Proposed PC Setup Screen 2
34 MHR receiver versus the competition - Provides both open and closed loop PMW signals, other systems typical just provide the open loop type. - Takes inputs such as analog sensors, and digital switches, where others only supply outputs or would need to add other modules, thus increasing their system cost - Offers programmable I/O with the use of the graphic display or the PC software that will be available soon. - Graphic display provides more system data and status versus LED lights - 4 button keypad can digitally adjust outputs, where others use rotary potentiometers located internally on the printed circuit board - Sealed and tested to IP-66/67 specifications. - Receiver can be mounted out in the open with internal / external antenna options - When matched up with the list of Magnetek transmitters, the MHR can supply a number of options that will be most needed. - The MHR will work with the following transmitters: Enrange Flex EM / EX / and Pro series transmitters Enrange PGT / MBT transmitters Enrange MLTX transmitters Enrange XLTX transmitters Enrange DTX transmitters
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