Criticisms of Consequentialism and Kantian Ethics. Key Concepts (first hour) You Should Know. Criticisms of Consequentialism and Kantian Ethics May 13

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Criticisms of Consequentialism and Kantian Ethics. Key Concepts (first hour) You Should Know. Criticisms of Consequentialism and Kantian Ethics May 13"

Transcription

1 Criticisms of Consequentialism and Kantian Ethics May 13, 2002 Key Concepts (first hour) Moral rules and moral rights Justice (as one part of morality) Morally relevant difference between acts and omissions Intuition and reflective equilibrium Testing whether an argument withstands criticism You Should Know What are the main criticisms of consequentialism? How does the consequentialist respond to each of them? Different views on the role of theory in relation to our intuition on particular cases. Phil 240: Ethics 1

2 What are the problems of CBA? The dwarfing of soft variables stuff that can t easily be quantified in dollars like enjoyment of a sunny day. Defining the value of a human life in dollar terms. Expected future earnings? Willingness to pay for reduction in risks Wording of surveys Irrationality of judgments about risk Problems Applying vs. Criticisms Problems applying utilitarianism do not challenge the whole approach of the theory. (Criticisms do.) They are things utilitarians disagree about. If we decide consequentialism (utilitarianism) is the right theory, then we may still debate What things are good (happiness, etc.)? How to figure out the numbers (e.g., $ for life) Criticisms of Consequentialism 1. Utilitarianism does not take into account rights and rules. 2. Utilitarianism does not take into account justice. 3. Consequentialism does not take into account the morally relevant difference between acts and omissions 4. Consequentialism does not take into account special obligations to special people 5. Consequentialism requires too much of us (relate this to #3) Phil 240: Ethics 2

3 Consequentialism ignores moral rules and moral rights A fundamental question of all ethics: Do we need the notion of rights? Big problems: Where do rights come from? What rights do we have? But can we have an acceptable ethical theory without rights? Theory and Particular Cases Can t decide on particular case first and then pick the theory that matches. Why not? But we do test theory by application to specific cases. (Analogy with science.) Debate on role of intuition. Reflective equilibrium. Utilitarianism Ignores Justice Everyone has freedom Total happiness not as great 10% of population becomes slaves. 90% are extremely happy. Society has greatest balance of +/- points. Utilitarian chooses this. Phil 240: Ethics 3

4 Utilitarianism Ignores Special Obligations to Special People But why should I save my daughter over 100 starving children? Cannot appeal to feelings Cannot appeal to what most people would do. Need an ethical principle. Morally Relevant Difference Between Acts and Omissions Is it morally worse to kill a patient who wants to die than not to treat? Is it morally worse to bomb innocent civilians than to allow them to die by not acting? What if killing can reduce the number who die, as Williams Indian example? Is it wrong to buy running shoes when the money could save many people s lives? Keep in mind that the term acts and omissions doesn t mean anything by itself. (I m just using it as a shorthand here.) The question is whether there is a morally relevant DIFFERENCE between acts and omissions. Always include this whole idea when you are writing about this. Think About What is the strongest criticism of utilitarianism? Why? Can utilitarianism withstand criticism? Basic: A claim is well-grounded if the arguments for it can withstand criticism. A well-grounded claim is one more worthy of belief. Phil 240: Ethics 4

5 Kantian Ethics (second hour) Key Concepts (from last hour) Acts and omissions Kant: The good will Kant: The categorical imperative Questions You Should Be Able to Answer How does the criticism about the difference between acts and omissions relate to an act s intent? What is Williams criticism of consequentialism and how does it relate to acts/omissions? What does Williams mean by integrity? What does Kant mean by a good will? Phil 240: Ethics 5

6 Questions (continued) What is Kant s idea of a person as moral agent? What is the categorical imperative and why can it be thought of as a super-rule? What are 2 formulations of the categorical imperative? How do Kant s ideas of respect for persons and a kingdom of ends fit with his theory and conflict with utilitarianism? What are the main criticisms of Kant s ethics? The Good Will and Kant s Concept of a Person as Moral Agent Events in the world Cause Actions of persons as moral agents ACTION EVENT Intentions, purposes Kant s Good Will A will oriented toward following correct moral rules. NOT related to psychological desires or inclinations. Often requires opposing one s own strongest desires to do the moral thing for the sake of morality. Phil 240: Ethics 6

7 Categorical Imperative: 2 Formulations For a rule to be a moral rule, it must be one that you could will to universalize. treats persons as ends in themselves and not mere means. Criticisms of Kant s Ethics It is too abstract to generate rules that can guide concrete action. Kant s ethics has no way to resolve conflicts of rules (or rights) Kantian rules are too rigid. (They fail to consider consequences!) Think About Which ethical theory seems more sound: utilitarianism or Kant s ethics? How might a medical researcher get people to participate in experiments to help other people and still follow Kant s ethics? Kant himself talks about rules, not rights. But how might someone use the spirit of Kant to talk about human rights? What would be a nonconsequentialist approach that, unlike Kant, would consider consequences of an action? Phil 240: Ethics 7

Professional Ethics PHIL 3340. Today s Topic Absolute Moral Rules & Kantian Ethics. Part I

Professional Ethics PHIL 3340. Today s Topic Absolute Moral Rules & Kantian Ethics. Part I Professional Ethics PHIL 3340 Today s Topic Absolute Moral Rules & Kantian Ethics Part I Consequentialism vs. Deontology Consequentialism: A type of ethical theory stating that to act morally we must base

More information

Intro to Ethics. Outline. Introduction. Subjective relativism. Cultural relativism. Divine command theory. Kantianism

Intro to Ethics. Outline. Introduction. Subjective relativism. Cultural relativism. Divine command theory. Kantianism Intro to Ethics Outline Introduction Subjective relativism Cultural relativism Divine command theory Kantianism Outline (Next) Act utilitarianism Rule utilitarianism Social contract theory Comparing workable

More information

PHIL 341: Ethical Theory

PHIL 341: Ethical Theory PHIL 341: Ethical Theory Student data (on cards) Contact info: name, address, phone number, university ID, etc. Background: especially data on satisfaction of the prerequisite (two prior courses in philosophy).

More information

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong?

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong? Moral Theory What makes things right or wrong? Consider: Moral Disagreement We have disagreements about right and wrong, about how people ought or ought not act. When we do, we (sometimes!) reason with

More information

MILL. The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness.

MILL. The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness. MILL The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness. Mill s principle of utility Mill s principle combines theories of the right

More information

Immanuel Kant. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. By Michael Diana

Immanuel Kant. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. By Michael Diana Immanuel Kant Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals By Michael Diana Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 (Never traveled more than 10 miles from hometown of Konigsberg!) The Basics Kantian ethics is a deontological

More information

Ethical Theories. A comparison of the three main branches of normative ethics

Ethical Theories. A comparison of the three main branches of normative ethics Ethical Theories A comparison of the three main branches of normative ethics Three main Ethical Approaches Three main approaches to normative ethics: Virtue ethics (ethics of character) Consequentialism

More information

Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. Ethics and morality. Ethical theories. Kantianism (Kant, 1724-1804) Act Utilitarianism (Bentham, 1748-1832)

Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. Ethics and morality. Ethical theories. Kantianism (Kant, 1724-1804) Act Utilitarianism (Bentham, 1748-1832) Ethics in Biomedical Engineering E. Morin, Queen s University Ethics and morality Ethics is the philosophical study of morality Examination of moral beliefs and behaviours Study of right and wrong and

More information

Lecture 8 Social Contract Theory. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Lecture 8 Social Contract Theory. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Lecture 8 Social Contract Theory Participation Quiz The word sustainable is unsustainable (A=T, B=F, C=WTF?) Course update This week s project Midterm: February 28 Baharak s Office Hours: Monday Social

More information

CHAPTER 1 Understanding Ethics

CHAPTER 1 Understanding Ethics CHAPTER 1 Understanding Ethics Chapter Summary This chapter begins by defining ethics and how people decipher between right and wrong or good and bad behavior. It explores how people live their lives according

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS PHIL 160 Summer Session I

INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS PHIL 160 Summer Session I INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS PHIL 160 Summer Session I This is a draft syllabus. The finalized syllabus will be available one week before the beginning of Summer Session I. Kiran Bhardwaj kbhardwa@live.unc.edu

More information

Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories

Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories I. Introduction In this ethics course, we are going to avoid divine command theory and various appeals to authority and put our trust in critical

More information

ETHICAL APPROACHES TO PUBLIC RELATIONS

ETHICAL APPROACHES TO PUBLIC RELATIONS ETHICAL APPROACHES TO PUBLIC RELATIONS Ethical baselines for justifying persuasion The following models are most often used to justify persuasive communication. 1 Enlightened self-interest Under this model,

More information

A. The Three Main Branches of the Philosophical Study of Ethics. 1. Meta-ethics. 2. Normative Ethics. 3. Applied Ethics

A. The Three Main Branches of the Philosophical Study of Ethics. 1. Meta-ethics. 2. Normative Ethics. 3. Applied Ethics A. The Three Main Branches of the Philosophical Study of Ethics 1. Meta-ethics 2. Normative Ethics 3. Applied Ethics 1 B. Meta-ethics consists in the attempt to answer the fundamental philosophical questions

More information

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong? What rules should society follow?

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong? What rules should society follow? Moral Theory What makes things right or wrong? What rules should society follow? What principles determine how we ought to interact with other people? Social Justice: What makes for a just society? John

More information

Ethics in International Business

Ethics in International Business 4 Ethics in International Business INTRODUCTION Ethics refers to accepted principles of right or wrong that govern the conduct of a person, the members of a profession, or the actions of an organization.

More information

A Kantian Solution to the Problem of Evil. Dean Lubin 1

A Kantian Solution to the Problem of Evil. Dean Lubin 1 International Journal of Philosophy and Theology June 2015, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 53-58 ISSN: 2333-5750 (Print), 2333-5769 (Online) Copyright The Author(s). All Rights Reserved. Published by American Research

More information

Kant s deontological ethics

Kant s deontological ethics Michael Lacewing Kant s deontological ethics DEONTOLOGY Deontologists believe that morality is a matter of duty. We have moral duties to do things which it is right to do and moral duties not to do things

More information

Developing the details There are several key points about the principle that we need to look at before looking at objections to it.

Developing the details There are several key points about the principle that we need to look at before looking at objections to it. Michael Lacewing Mill s harm principle THE PRINCIPLE In On Liberty, Mill argues for one very simple principle, as entitled to govern absolutely the dealings of society with the individual in the way of

More information

Justice and Ethics. Jimmy Rising. October 18, 2002

Justice and Ethics. Jimmy Rising. October 18, 2002 Justice and Ethics Jimmy Rising October 18, 2002 1 Introduction Utilitarianism is an ethical system. John Stuart Mill s use of Utilitarianism to determine what is just and what is injustice may seem natural,

More information

Ruled-based Approaches to Ethics: Deontology

Ruled-based Approaches to Ethics: Deontology Ruled-based Approaches to Ethics: Deontology Lawrence M. Hinman, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy University of San Diego Larry@EthicsMatters.net Updated September 24, 2013 9/24/13 (c) Lawrence M. Hinman

More information

Critical Analysis o Understanding Ethical Failures in Leadership

Critical Analysis o Understanding Ethical Failures in Leadership Terry Price focus on the ethical theories and practices of the cognitive account. The author argues that leaders that even put their own interests aside may not be ethically successful. Thus, volitional

More information

In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory Nader Shoaibi University of California, Berkeley

In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory Nader Shoaibi University of California, Berkeley In Defense of Kantian Moral Theory University of California, Berkeley In this paper, I will argue that Kant provides us with a plausible account of morality. To show that, I will first offer a major criticism

More information

IMMANUEL KANT S ETHICAL THEORY RIGHTS AND DUTIES DR. DAVE YOUNT, MESA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

IMMANUEL KANT S ETHICAL THEORY RIGHTS AND DUTIES DR. DAVE YOUNT, MESA COMMUNITY COLLEGE IMMANUEL KANT S ETHICAL THEORY RIGHTS AND DUTIES DR. DAVE YOUNT, MESA COMMUNITY COLLEGE I. IMMANUEL KANT (1724-1804) A. THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE: The categorical imperative is the way in which you determine

More information

Moral Concepts And Theories

Moral Concepts And Theories Moral Concepts And Theories (ESSAY #3) Introduction In considering issues in engineering ethics, a distinction is sometimes made between morals and ethics. When this distinction is made, the term morals

More information

Divine command theory

Divine command theory Today we will be discussing divine command theory. But first I will give a (very) brief overview of the semester, and the discipline of philosophy. Why do this? One of the functions of an introductory

More information

Is it ethical to copy music from a CD and give it to a poor friend to listen to while he recovers from surgery? Hobart Hooper April 28, 2014

Is it ethical to copy music from a CD and give it to a poor friend to listen to while he recovers from surgery? Hobart Hooper April 28, 2014 Page 1 of 6 pages Is it ethical to copy music from a CD and give it to a poor friend to listen to while he recovers from surgery? Hobart Hooper April 28, 2014 My opinion before this analysis: I don t think

More information

Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural Rights Theories, and Religious Ethics

Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural Rights Theories, and Religious Ethics Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural Rights Theories, and Religious Ethics A utilitarian argument, in the strict sense, is one what alleges that we ought to do something because it will produce more

More information

My Revision Notes: OCR AS Religious Studies: Religious Ethics

My Revision Notes: OCR AS Religious Studies: Religious Ethics My Revision Notes: OCR AS Religious Studies: Religious Ethics Exam practice questions OCR G572 2007 2012. Answer guidance has not been written or approved by OCR. These are guidelines of what might be

More information

Ethics Handout 20 Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality

Ethics Handout 20 Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality 24.231 Ethics Handout 20 Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality General Question: How much does morality demand of us? And how far short of living up to those demands do most of us fall? Singer argues

More information

By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Noah Lawrence

By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Noah Lawrence Directed Studies: Philosophy Professor Jonathan Gilmore By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Noah Lawrence The Cost Of Duty-Free

More information

A Framework for Deciding Issues in Ethics

A Framework for Deciding Issues in Ethics A Framework for Deciding Issues in Ethics DIANAWOODWARD ABSTRACT DISCIJSSES THE ADVANTAGES and disadvantages of two ethical theories-consequen tialism and deon tology-as bases for reasoning about ethical

More information

This excerpt is from Michael J. Sandel, Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do?, pp , by permission of the publisher.

This excerpt is from Michael J. Sandel, Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do?, pp , by permission of the publisher. 124 JUSTICE This excerpt is from Michael J. Sandel, Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do?, pp. 124-129, by permission of the publisher. Questions for Kant Kant s moral philosophy is powerful and compelling.

More information

MS 102- PROFESSIONAL & BUSINESS ETHICS 2 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS UNIT I

MS 102- PROFESSIONAL & BUSINESS ETHICS 2 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS UNIT I 1. Define Ethics? MS 102- PROFESSIONAL & BUSINESS ETHICS 2 MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS UNIT I * Study of right or wrong. * Good and evil. * Obligations & rights. * Justice. * Social & Political deals.

More information

Session 8 Smith, Is There A Prima Facie Obligation to Obey the Law?

Session 8 Smith, Is There A Prima Facie Obligation to Obey the Law? Session 8 Smith, Is There A Prima Facie Obligation to Obey the Law? Identifying the Question Not: Does the fact that some act is against the law provide us with a reason to believe (i.e. evidence) that

More information

Ethics Fall 2011

Ethics Fall 2011 Ethics 125-01 Fall 2011 PROFESSOR Martin Gunderson Office: Old Main 112 Office Hours: Wednesday, Friday 1:10-2:10, Monday 4:40-5:40, and by appointment Phone: Office: 651-696-6153 Home: 651-699-2749 COURSE

More information

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals G. J. Mattey Winter, 2015/ Philosophy 1 The Division of Philosophical Labor Kant generally endorses the ancient Greek division of philosophy into

More information

STEPS OF THE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS

STEPS OF THE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS STEPS OF THE ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS EESE Faculty Development Workshop Douglas R. May, Professor and Co-Director International Center for Ethics in Business SUMMARY OF THE STEPS OF THE ETHICAL

More information

W.D. Ross s Moral Theory

W.D. Ross s Moral Theory W.D. Ross s Moral Theory The next theory we will consider comes from William David Ross (1877-1971) While mostly deontological, Ross s theory is somewhat in between stricter deontological theories, like

More information

Ethics: What Is Right?

Ethics: What Is Right? 8 Ethics: What Is Right? The word ethics comes from the Greek word ethos, meaning custom. The Latin equivalent of this term is mores (customs), from which we derive our words moral and morality. Although

More information

Right is right, even if everyone is against it; and wrong is wrong, even if everyone is for it.

Right is right, even if everyone is against it; and wrong is wrong, even if everyone is for it. Business Law 210: Unit 1 Chapter 5: Ethics and Business Decision Making Law and the Legal Environment of Business [Professor Scott Bergstedt] Slide #: 1 Slide Title: Slide 1 Quote of the day Right is right,

More information

Stephen G. Post (ed.), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan Reference, 2004), Vol. 3, p. 1412

Stephen G. Post (ed.), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan Reference, 2004), Vol. 3, p. 1412 Ethics in Practice Case Study Analysis Isobel Stevenson Peter, a 32 year old, suffered horrific injuries as the result of the collapse of a bridge over which he was driving his car. He has been classified

More information

MILD DILEMMAS. Keywords: standard moral dilemmas, mild dilemmas, blame

MILD DILEMMAS. Keywords: standard moral dilemmas, mild dilemmas, blame MILD DILEMMAS Gregory Mellema Department of Philosophy Calvin College Grand Rapids, MI mell@calvin.edu Abstract. This paper argues that, while the existence of strong moral dilemmas is notoriously controversial,

More information

February 17, 2010 Sheela Vardey, HO III Lynn Tran, 2 nd year Neonatology Fellow

February 17, 2010 Sheela Vardey, HO III Lynn Tran, 2 nd year Neonatology Fellow February 17, 2010 Sheela Vardey, HO III Lynn Tran, 2 nd year Neonatology Fellow Objectives To define ethics and introduce how it applies to clinical medicine To discuss the fundamental principles of ethics

More information

JUSTIFIABILITY TO EACH PERSON. Derek Parfit

JUSTIFIABILITY TO EACH PERSON. Derek Parfit , 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA. Ratio (new series) XVI 4 December 2003 0034 0006 JUSTIFIABILITY TO EACH PERSON Derek Parfit According to Scanlon s

More information

Global Business Today 7e

Global Business Today 7e Global Business Today 7e by Charles W.L. Hill McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Ethics in International Business 4-2 Introduction! Ethics

More information

Objections to Friedman s Shareholder/Stockholder Theory

Objections to Friedman s Shareholder/Stockholder Theory Objections to Friedman s Shareholder/Stockholder Theory 1. Legal Morally Permissible: Almeder offers several criticisms of Friedman s claim that the only obligation of businesses is to increase profit

More information

Understanding Options: Calls and Puts

Understanding Options: Calls and Puts 2 Understanding Options: Calls and Puts Important: in their simplest forms, options trades sound like, and are, very high risk investments. If reading about options makes you think they are too risky for

More information

Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations

Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Theodore Sider Utilitas 7 (1995): 273 9 1. Access principles Vagueness in the phrase can know aside, the principle of Access An act is obligatory only if its agent can

More information

Chapter Four. Ethics in International Business. Introduction. Ethical Issues in International Business

Chapter Four. Ethics in International Business. Introduction. Ethical Issues in International Business Chapter Four Ethics in International Business 4-2 Introduction Business ethics are the accepted principles of right or wrong governing the conduct of business people An ethical strategy is a strategy or

More information

Ethical Egoism. 1. What is Ethical Egoism?: Let s turn to another theory about the nature of morality: Ethical Egoism.

Ethical Egoism. 1. What is Ethical Egoism?: Let s turn to another theory about the nature of morality: Ethical Egoism. Ethical Egoism 1. What is Ethical Egoism?: Let s turn to another theory about the nature of morality: Ethical Egoism. Ethical Egoism: The morally right action is the one that best promotes the agent s

More information

Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Version 1.0 Richard Baron 27 February 2016 1 Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Availability and licence............ 3 2 Definitions of key terms 4

More information

Title of the paper: Act-utilitarianism, Relationships and Cheating. Mailing address: Sirkkalankatu 36 B 44, Turku, Finland

Title of the paper: Act-utilitarianism, Relationships and Cheating. Mailing address: Sirkkalankatu 36 B 44, Turku, Finland Author s name: Arvi Pakaslahti Title of the paper: Act-utilitarianism, Relationships and Cheating Institutional affiliation: University of Turku E-mail address: arvi.pakaslahti@utu.fi Telephone number:

More information

A SIMPLIFIED ACCOUNT OF KANT S ETHICS

A SIMPLIFIED ACCOUNT OF KANT S ETHICS A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics 411 A SIMPLIFIED ACCOUNT OF KANT S ETHICS Onora O Neill Onora Sylvia O Neill, Baroness O Neill of Bengarve (1941- ) is a leading scholar of Kant s moral philosophy.

More information

Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) NOÛS 43:4 (2009) 776 785 Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ELIZABETH HARMAN Princeton University In this

More information

323 GLOSSARY 359 INDEX

323 GLOSSARY 359 INDEX Contents in Brief PREFACE xiii CHAPTER 1 Arguments and Methodology 1 CHAPTER 2 Philosophical Ethics: An Introduction 16 CHAPTER 3 Our Philosophical Approaches 66 CHAPTER 4 Euthanasia 90 CHAPTER 5 Autonomy

More information

My Revision Notes: OCR AS Religious Studies: Religious Ethics

My Revision Notes: OCR AS Religious Studies: Religious Ethics My Revision Notes: OCR AS Religious Studies: Religious Ethics Exam practice questions OCR G572 2007 2012. Answer guidance has not been written or approved by OCR. These are guidelines of what might be

More information

The study of Ethics and Value Theory enables students to develop the skills to

The study of Ethics and Value Theory enables students to develop the skills to Ethics and Value Theory General objectives for students in Ethics and Value Theory The study of Ethics and Value Theory enables students to develop the skills to 1. Carefully read scholarly debates about

More information

A. What is Virtue Ethics?

A. What is Virtue Ethics? A. What is Virtue Ethics? 1. Can be described as another part of normative ethics: - axiology studies what makes things (e.g. pleasure or knowledge) good or bad - normative ethics of behavior studies what

More information

James Ninia. First-Degree Würde: A Means to What End?! An Examination of Human Dignity and Moral Status in Kantian Ethics and Utilitarianism!

James Ninia. First-Degree Würde: A Means to What End?! An Examination of Human Dignity and Moral Status in Kantian Ethics and Utilitarianism! First-Degree Würde: A Means to What End?! An Examination of Human Dignity and Moral Status in Kantian Ethics and Utilitarianism!! Kantian Ethics!! In Chapter 10 of his famous book Leviathan, philosopher

More information

John Stuart Mill. A Utilitarian Defense of Liberty

John Stuart Mill. A Utilitarian Defense of Liberty John Stuart Mill A Utilitarian Defense of Liberty I. Overview: What is the right way for humans to treat each other? Individual and Collective Rationality Put the Community first! What is freedom when

More information

"Is There a Need for a New Environmental Ethic?" Richard Routley

Is There a Need for a New Environmental Ethic? Richard Routley "Is There a Need for a New Environmental Ethic?" Richard Routley old and prevailing ethics do deal with man's relationship to nature but in that view the only moral obligation concerns the effects on other

More information

Differing Views of Australia's Involvement in the Vietnam War

Differing Views of Australia's Involvement in the Vietnam War Differing Views of Australia's Involvement in the Vietnam War XXXXXX XXXXXXX Australia 16th of May 1970 Appropriate letter writing formation Dear Granddad, I understand why you believe I should do my duty

More information

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Session II Fall 2015 Course description

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Session II Fall 2015 Course description BUS 2010 /09 Tues. Eve 6:00 10:15 St. Mary s Hall, room 207 Dr. Michael Rende PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Session II Fall 2015 Course description Students learn the relationship between

More information

In this essay, I will first outline my understanding of the basis for Kant's categorical

In this essay, I will first outline my understanding of the basis for Kant's categorical I ought never to act except in such a way that I can also will that my maxim should become a universal law. What does Kant mean by this, and does it give the right kind of guidance when we are choosing

More information

THE TEN-STEP METHOD OF DECISIONMAKING

THE TEN-STEP METHOD OF DECISIONMAKING Page 1 of 13 THE TEN-STEP METHOD OF DECISIONMAKING BACKGROUND Developed by Jon Pekel and Doug Wallace, the Ten Step Method of Decisionmaking has five features that make it practically useful in today's

More information

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Fourth Quarter, 2006 Vol. 29, No. 4 Editor s Watch Sandel and Nagel on Abortion Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Public Philosophy in The New York Review of Books.

More information

Attitudes toward the ethics of paying subjects for risky experiments

Attitudes toward the ethics of paying subjects for risky experiments Attitudes toward the ethics of paying subjects for risky experiments Jonathan Baron University of Pennsylvania Jason Karlawish Alzheimers Disease Center University of Pennsylvania David Casarett Institute

More information

#HUMN-104 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY

#HUMN-104 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY Coffeyville Community College #HUMN-104 COURSE SYLLABUS FOR INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY Mike Arpin Instructor COURSE NUMBER: HUMN-104 COURSE TITLE: Introduction to Philosophy CREDIT HOURS: 3 INSTRUCTOR:

More information

A DEFENSE OF ABORTION

A DEFENSE OF ABORTION JUDITH JARVIS THOMSON S A DEFENSE OF ABORTION Phil 100, Introduction to Philosophy Benjamin Visscher Hole IV JUDITH JARVIS THOMSON is an American philosopher who teaches at the Massachusetts Institute

More information

Background Information

Background Information Background Information DIRECTIONS: Please answer each question as accurately as possible by circling the correct answer or filling in the space provided. 1a. What is your age? 1b. What is your ethnic background?

More information

Quality Meets the CEO

Quality Meets the CEO Quality Meets the CEO Jeffery E. Payne jepayn@rstcorp.com Reliable Software Technologies Corporate management does not care about quality. This is the cold, hard reality of the software world. Management

More information

Explain and critically assess the Singer Solution to Global Poverty

Explain and critically assess the Singer Solution to Global Poverty 1 Explain and critically assess the Singer Solution to Global Poverty Introduction In this essay, I will summarise Singer's solution to world poverty, and then consider some of the objections that may

More information

INFO Koffka Khan. Tutorial 4

INFO Koffka Khan. Tutorial 4 INFO 1400 Koffka Khan Tutorial 4 1. What ethical, social, and political issues are raised by information systems? 1.1 Explain how ethical, social, and political issues are connected and give some examples.

More information

} } World View. Categories for World View (Ultimate Reality) A world view gives meaning to existence.

} } World View. Categories for World View (Ultimate Reality) A world view gives meaning to existence. World View A world view gives meaning to existence. A world view includes: A perspective on truth and reality An underlying foundation for decisions An underlying foundation for values An underlying foundation

More information

USING CASE STUDIES TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINK-

USING CASE STUDIES TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINK- USING CASE STUDIES TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINK- ING SKILLS IN ETHICS COURSES 1 Robert F. Card State University of New York, Oswego INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW The focus of this paper will be on techniques

More information

Utilitarian and Deontological Approaches to Criminal Justice Ethics

Utilitarian and Deontological Approaches to Criminal Justice Ethics CHAPTER 2 Utilitarian and Deontological Approaches to Criminal Justice Ethics Jeffrey Gold Over the past 15 to 20 years, interest in professional ethics has grown steadily. Business ethics, medical ethics,

More information

GCE. Religious Studies. Mark Scheme for January Advanced Subsidiary GCE Unit G572: Religious Ethics. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations

GCE. Religious Studies. Mark Scheme for January Advanced Subsidiary GCE Unit G572: Religious Ethics. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations GCE Religious Studies Advanced Subsidiary GCE Unit G572: Religious Ethics Mark Scheme for January 2011 Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA) is a leading UK awarding body,

More information

LOGICAL FALLACIES. Common Mistakes in Weak Arguments

LOGICAL FALLACIES. Common Mistakes in Weak Arguments LOGICAL FALLACIES Common Mistakes in Weak Arguments Definition Logical fallacies are flaws in reasoning that lead to faulty, illogical statements. They are unreasonable argumentative tactics named for

More information

Audience: The instructions below indicate how to structure the activity for nearly any age group.

Audience: The instructions below indicate how to structure the activity for nearly any age group. Color the World with Justice: Themes of Catholic Social Teaching Coloring Activity Created by the Catholic Campaign for Human Development Archdiocese of Baltimore Megan Maher CCHD Intern 2012 Description:

More information

Persuasive Language introduction to ethos, pathos & logos

Persuasive Language introduction to ethos, pathos & logos Persuasive Language introduction to ethos, pathos & logos ARISTOTLE was a Greek philosopher who lived in the th century BCE. He was an influential thinker and wrote on many subjects from logic and ethics,

More information

Ad hominem: An argument directed at an opponent in a disagreement, not at the topic under discussion.

Ad hominem: An argument directed at an opponent in a disagreement, not at the topic under discussion. Glossary of Key Terms Ad hominem: An argument directed at an opponent in a disagreement, not at the topic under discussion. Agent: One who acts and is held responsible for those actions. Analytic judgment:

More information

Introduction to Animal Welfare Ethics Student Activities

Introduction to Animal Welfare Ethics Student Activities Module 4 Introduction to Animal Welfare Ethics Questions 1. Briefly describe what the term speciesism means. (2 marks) Speciesism is the discrimination against or exploitation of certain animal species

More information

Killing And Letting Die

Killing And Letting Die [This essay originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd edition, ed. Lawrence Becker and Charlotte Becker (New York: Routledge, 2001), vol. 2, pp. 947-50.] Killing And Letting Die Is it worse

More information

Strategies for Understanding Student Learning and Development. Jason Bergeron & Tiffany Dennett

Strategies for Understanding Student Learning and Development. Jason Bergeron & Tiffany Dennett Strategies for Understanding Student Learning and Development Jason Bergeron & Tiffany Dennett Why is Student Development Important? Provides up a snapshot/insight as to why student might behave, think,

More information

Philosophy 1100 Introduction to Ethics. Lecture 3 Three Different Types of Ethical Theories

Philosophy 1100 Introduction to Ethics. Lecture 3 Three Different Types of Ethical Theories Philosophy 1100 Introduction to Ethics Lecture 3 Three Different Types of Ethical Theories The ethical theories that philosophers have advanced fall into three main groups. To understand these different

More information

Understanding Accounting Ethics Cheffers & Pakaluk (2005): Allen David Press. Basics of Accounting Ethics

Understanding Accounting Ethics Cheffers & Pakaluk (2005): Allen David Press. Basics of Accounting Ethics Understanding Accounting Ethics Cheffers & Pakaluk (2005): Allen David Press Basics of Accounting Ethics Basics of Accounting Ethics Main Topics Professionalism Public Interest The Virtues of an Accountant

More information

Lecture Notes: Capital Punishment

Lecture Notes: Capital Punishment Philosophy 104, Ethics, Queens College Russell Marcus, Instructor email: philosophy@thatmarcusfamily.org website: http://philosophy.thatmarcusfamily.org Office phone: (718) 997-5287 Lecture Notes: Capital

More information

MAURICE BLACKBURN LAWYERS ROAD ACCIDENT INJURIES SOUTH AUSTRALIA

MAURICE BLACKBURN LAWYERS ROAD ACCIDENT INJURIES SOUTH AUSTRALIA MAURICE BLACKBURN LAWYERS ROAD ACCIDENT INJURIES SOUTH AUSTRALIA 02 MAURICE BLACKBURN YOU RE WORTH FIGHTING FOR. If you are hurt, injured, or are facing an unfair situation, you and your family shouldn

More information

Principles of Ethical Reasoning Adapted from Business Ethics, Concepts and Cases: Manuel Velasquez (2006) Prentice Hall

Principles of Ethical Reasoning Adapted from Business Ethics, Concepts and Cases: Manuel Velasquez (2006) Prentice Hall Principles of Ethical Reasoning Adapted from Business Ethics, Concepts and Cases: Manuel Velasquez (2006) Prentice Hall Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a general term for any view that holds that actions

More information

Values Clarification

Values Clarification Values Clarification Values clarification is a self-assessment process that enables you to discover the content and strength of your own system of values. As a process it is more involved with how you

More information

Walking Through Some Examples of Futures and Options Contracts Speculation and Hedging

Walking Through Some Examples of Futures and Options Contracts Speculation and Hedging Walking Through Some Examples of Futures and Options Contracts Speculation and Hedging As Dr. Cogley said in class the other day, sometimes futures contracts and options are hard to wrap your head around

More information

Using the Myers-Briggs. Instrument with Blanchard s Situational Leadership. II Assessment

Using the Myers-Briggs. Instrument with Blanchard s Situational Leadership. II Assessment M Y E R S - B R I G G S / S L I I G U I D E / P A G E 1 Using the Myers-Briggs Instrument with Blanchard s Situational Leadership II Assessment Blanchard s Situational Leadership II (SLII ) is a model

More information

The Kantian Paradox. Raivydas Simenas Creighton University

The Kantian Paradox. Raivydas Simenas Creighton University The Kantian Paradox Raivydas Simenas Creighton University a) Introduction The success of Western cultural, political and especially economical development during the last two centuries not surprisingly

More information

DEMAND: PREFERENCES AND INCOME/WEALTH

DEMAND: PREFERENCES AND INCOME/WEALTH emand and the emand Curve 7 In capitalism firms produce commodities. Commodities are items goods and services produced to be sold. Not all economic systems involve the production of commodities; but the

More information

KANT: THE KINGDOM OF ENDS & HOBBES: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT. Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Benjamin Visscher Hole IV

KANT: THE KINGDOM OF ENDS & HOBBES: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT. Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Benjamin Visscher Hole IV KANT: THE KINGDOM OF ENDS & HOBBES: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Kant The Kingdom of Ends Review Formula of Universal Law Act only according to that maxim

More information

Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2015 Test 2 Answers

Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2015 Test 2 Answers 1. Descartes, Locke and Berkeley all believe that Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2015 Test 2 Answers a. nothing exists except minds and the ideas in them. b. we can t ever be justified in believing in

More information

An Introduction to Engineering Ethics. for Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineers. Part 2

An Introduction to Engineering Ethics. for Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineers. Part 2 An Introduction to Engineering Ethics for Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineers Part 2 1 Engineering Ethics: Overview Engineering Ethics Cases Basic Terms and Concepts of Engineering Ethics

More information

ETHICS ETHICS IN THE EMS. Part 1 in a series of articles by Martin J Botha INTRODUCTION

ETHICS ETHICS IN THE EMS. Part 1 in a series of articles by Martin J Botha INTRODUCTION ETHICS The Executive Committee of the Board at its recent meeting resolved that CPD providers be encouraged to develop multiple choice questions based on the information in the ethics article hereunder

More information

Descartes. Philosophy and Good Sense

Descartes. Philosophy and Good Sense Perspectives in Philosophy Rene Descartes Descartes Philosophy is the search for certainty the search to know, for yourself, what is really true and really false to know which beliefs are reliable. However,

More information