# Phys101 Lectures 4 & 5 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion

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1 Phys101 Lectures 4 & 5 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Key points: Newton s second law is a vector equation Action and reaction are acting on different objects Free-Body Diagrams Friction Inclines Ref: 4-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Page 1

2 Force A force is a push or pull. An object at rest needs a force to get it moving; a moving object needs a force to change its velocity. Page 2

3 Force is a vector Force is a vector, having both magnitude and direction. The magnitude of a force can be measured using a spring scale. Page 3

4 Newton s First Law of Motion This is Newton s first law, which is often called the law of inertia: Every object continues in its state of rest, or of uniform velocity in a straight line, as long as no net force acts on it. Demo: Driving without a seat belt. Page 4

5 Inertial Reference Frames: Newton s first law does not hold in every reference frame, such as a reference frame that is accelerating or rotating. An inertial reference frame is one in which Newton s first law is valid. This excludes rotating and accelerating frames. Page 5

6 Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s second law is the relation between acceleration and net force. Note: If we know the mass of an object and the net force acting on it, we will know its acceleration, but not the velocity (we don t know how fast the object moves unless we have additional information). Page 6

7 Newton s Third Law of Motion Newton s third law: Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first. Page 7

8 Newton s Third Law of Motion A key to the correct application of the third law is that the forces are exerted on different objects. Make sure you don t use them as if they were acting on the same object. Page 8

9 The Normal Force The force exerted perpendicular to a surface is called the normal force. Page 9

10 i-clicker question 4-1 A block of mass m rests on the floor of an elevator that is moving upward at constant speed. What is the relationship between the force due to gravity and the normal force on the block? A. 1) N > mg B. 2) N = mg C. 3) N < mg (but not zero) D. 4) N = 0 E. 5) depends on the size of the elevator m v Page 10

11 i-clicker question 4-2 Here you see two cases: a physics student pulling or pushing a sled with a force F that is applied at an angle q. In which case is the normal force greater? A) case 1 B) case 2 Case 2 Case 1 C) it s the same for both D) depends on the magnitude of the force F E) depends on the ice surface Page 11

12 Free-Body Diagram A diagram showing all forces acting on an object. What does free-body mean? Page 12

13 i-clicker question 4-3 and 4-4 A B C Conceptual Example: The hockey puck. A hockey puck is sliding at constant velocity across a flat horizontal ice surface that is assumed to be frictionless. Which of these sketches is the correct free-body diagram for this puck? What would your answer be if the puck slowed down? Page 13

14 Example: Tim pulls a 10-kg box by an attached cord on the smooth surface of a table. The magnitude of the force exerted by Tim is F P = 40.0 N, and it is exerted at a 30.0 angle as shown. Calculate the acceleration of the box. q Page 14

15 Example: Box slides down an incline. A box of mass m is placed on a smooth incline that makes an angle θ with the horizontal. (a) Determine the normal force on the box. (b) Determine the box s acceleration. (c) Evaluate for a mass m = 10 kg and an incline of θ = 30. Page 15

16 Example: Elevator and counterweight (Atwood s machine). The mass of the counterweight is 1000 kg. The total mass of the elevator with passengers is 1150 kg. Calculate (a) the acceleration of the elevator and (b) the tension in the cable. Ignore the mass of cable and friction. Page 16

17 i-clicker question 4-5 A If you push with force F on either the heavy box (m 1 ) or F m 2 m 1 the light box (m 2 ), in which of the two cases is the B contact force between the two boxes larger? Ignore m 2 m 1 F friction. 1) case A 2) case B 3) same in both cases

18 Friction Friction is always present when two solid surfaces slide along each other. The microscopic details are not yet fully understood. Page 18

19 Kinetic Friction Sliding friction is called kinetic friction. Approximation of the frictional force: F fr = μ k F N. Here, F N is the normal force, and μ k is the coefficient of kinetic friction, which is different for each pair of surfaces. Page 19

20 Static Friction Static friction applies when two surfaces are at rest with respect to each other (such as a book sitting on a table). The static frictional force is as big as it needs to be to prevent slipping, up to a maximum value. F fr μ s F N. Usually the coefficient of static friction is greater than the coefficient of kinetic friction. Page 20

21 Static and Kinetic Frictions Note that, in general, μ s > μ k. Page 21

22 Example: Friction: static and kinetic. Our 10.0-kg mystery box rests on a horizontal floor. The coefficient of static friction is 0.40 and the coefficient of kinetic friction is Determine the force of friction acting on the box if a horizontal external applied force is exerted on it of magnitude: (a) 0, (b) 10 N, (c) 20 N, (d) 38 N, and (e) 40 N. Page 22

23 i-clicker question 4-6 To push or to pull a sled? Your little sister wants a ride on her sled. If you are on flat ground, will you exert less force if you push her or pull her? Assume the same angle θ in each case. A) Push B) Pull C) No difference F fr = μ k F N. Page 23

24 Example: Pulling against friction. A 10.0-kg box is pulled along a horizontal surface by a force of 40.0 N applied at a 30.0 angle above horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction is Calculate the acceleration. Page 24

25 Example: A ramp, a pulley, and two boxes. Box A, of mass 10.0 kg, rests on a surface inclined at 37 to the horizontal. It is connected by a lightweight cord, which passes over a massless and frictionless pulley, to a second box B, which hangs freely as shown. (a) If the coefficient of static friction is 0.40, determine what range of values for mass B will keep the system at rest. (b) If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.30, and m B = 10.0 kg, determine the acceleration of the system. Page 25

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