Network Security. Introduction. Università degli Studi di Brescia Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione 2014/2015

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1 Network Security Introduction Università degli Studi di Brescia Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione 2014/2015

2 Objectives - Syllabus 2

3 Objectives Introduce the key aspects of applied network security, without forgetting some of the theory The theory is mostly related to cryptography and the secure design of network protocols Systematic approach to the most common security protocols used in today s networks Laboratory exercises Give you the tools needed to include security in every network-related project you will be involved in, be it the design of a new protocol or the dimensioning of a new telecommunication network 3

4 Network security: simplified synoptic table Security mechanisms not based on cryptography Symmetric crypto algorithms Asymmetric crypto algorithms Crypto protocols Network standards and protocols Hash algorithms Passive Active Attacks Basic objectives of security systems Authentication Privacy Integrity protection Access control Nonrepudiation 4

5 Network security services: authentication Authentication is used to identify, with some form of proof, the participants to a given network transaction Participant Network node User An instance of a certain application IP packet... Authentication is usually based on the participant s ability to prove that they know or possess something 5

6 Network security services: access control Access control refers to the ability to check the rights of each participant to a given communication session It needs authentication 6

7 Network security services: confidentiality Guarantee that only authorized entities can access (read) protected information Once more, this assumes some form of authentication is enforced Two different cases, equally important: in transit information, stored information 7

8 Network security services: integrity protection Guarantee that unauthorized entities cannot modify information without being detected 8

9 Network security services: non repudiation Guarantee that an entity that generates data cannot deny their actions later No! Is this yours? 9

10 Cryptography A basic and necessary building block to build any strong network security service We will see the main principles of cryptography, including: Symmetric-key systems (private key) Asymmetric-key systems (public key) Hash and MAC functions Crypto protocols, i.e., rules that dictate how a certain set of crypto algorithm needs to be applied in order to achieve a specific objective (authentication, etc.) 10

11 Non-crypto mechanisms A few basic security systems in network protocols are realized using non-crypto mechanisms For example: Weak authentication using IP address, or pseudo-random values in TCP or DNS Access control using firewalls 11

12 Network protocols and security: two different aspects Network protocols that offer security. For example: IPSec TLS Security mechanisms that are used to strengthen network protocols. For example: Nonce-like mechanism in DNS Use of MAC functions to integrity-protect network messages 12

13 Attacks Passive attacks The attacker only captures and analyzes data Active attacks The attacker tries to actively modify data, systems, etc. Attacks can be brought against different levels: at the crypto level, protocol, system, etc. 13

14 Security is always relative to the scope of application Telecommunication networks Economic transactions Home security to the value of the entities/data that need to be protected Student s UniBS Physical access UniBS UniBS The relativity of security implies that adopted mechanisms will be relative to: Their sophistication level Cost Level of protection In practice, there is no such thing as absolute security: every security mechanism implements a compromise between cost, complexity, level of protection 14

15 System security network security System security Security of the single node Deals with design of HW, SW, operating system, applications and their interaction Network security Security of collections of nodes Deals mostly with protocols (end-to-end, hop-by-hop) We will see almost exclusively issues related to network security 15

16 Security standards Since the seventies, there have been several efforts to develop objective criteria for the evaluation of security grades of information systems The relativity of security makes these kinds of efforts very tough A bit of history Orange Book (USA, 1983) ITSEC (Canada + Europe, 1990) Common Criteria (for InformationTechnology Security Evaluation) v1 (Canada + Europe + USA, 1994) Common Criteria v2.x (Canada + Europe + USA, 1999) Common Criteria v3.x (Canada + Europe + USA, 2009) We will not deal with these standards, as they only refer to system security, as opposed to network security 16

17 The security of networks: architecture Outsider Insider Outsider Internet Protected resources Protected resources Perimeter Other networks 17

18 The security of networks: architecture Outsider Insider Outsider Internet Protected resources - Security perimeter: access control and monitoring. Insider/outsider. - Some architectures allow authorized outsiders to temporarily become insiders (VPN), or to always behave as insider for some classes of applications - Different types of outsiders Protected resources Perimeter Other networks 18

19 The security of networks: architecture Outsider Insider Outsider Internet - Protected resources: from insiders, from outsiders - End-to-end mechanisms, local mechanisms - Crypto/non-crypto mechanisms - Network architecture plays a role in security (e.g., DMZ) Protected resources Protected resources Perimeter Other networks 19

20 Syllabus Introduction to cryptography: theory, algorithms, protocols (~30%) Symmetric crypto Asymmetric crypto Hash and MAC functions Cryptographic protocols: what do you do with crypto algorithms? Network security: protocols (~30%) Authentication in practice: crypto/non-crypto Network security protocols (IPSec, SSL/TLS) Security in cellular networks: GSM, UMTS Security in wired and wireless LANs Application layer (in brief) Network security: architectures and models (~10%) Firewall, NIDS, Lab (~30%) Practical exercises with network security: certification authorities, i, etc. 20

21 Textbooks Network security: a couple of good books W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, 4 th ed., Prentice Hall, ISBN (disponibile anche la traduzione in Italiano) C. Kaufman, M. Speciner, R. Perlman, Network Security: Private Communication in a Public World, 2 nd ed., Pearson Education, ISBN Other recommended reading A. Menezes, P. van Oorschot, S. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press, 1996 B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography, 2 nd ed., Wiley & Sons, ISBN D. Stinson, Cryptography: Theory and Practice, 3 rd ed., Chapman & Hall, ISBN

22 Final introductory notes 22

23 Network security is often represented as a play Here are the actors Alice, Bob, Carol, Eve, Trudy, Alice, Bob: the legitimate participants to a (two-party) security protocol Carol: the third legitimate participant, when needed Eve: passive attacker (eavesdropper) Trudy: active attacker (intruder) Attacker Hacker vs. attacker: there is (used to be) quite a difference Insider An entity that works inside a given security perimeter An active participant to a security protocol An insider can be either good or bad Outsider 23

24 Finally, please make a mental note here This course s objective is to give you the fundamentals on how to design secure networks This course is not meant to give you details on how to go about attacking other people s networks (especially our faculty s network ) 100% security does not exist: each mechanism can be made arbitrarily more secure by arbitrarily increasing its complexity, cost, and by arbitrarily decreasing its ease of use When dealing with [network] security, always work in groups 24

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