The Age of Revolutions 1760s to 1800

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1 The Age of Revolutions 1760s to 1800 You will need to know about the causes, main events and consequences and leaders of three revolutions: The American Revolution (George Washington) The French Revolution (Maximilien Robespierre) The 1798 Rebellion [an attempted revolution that didn't succeed] (Wolfe Tone) You will need to prepare a People in History Essay on ONE of those (e.g. George Washington and American Revolution)

2 The Age of Revolutions 1760s to early 1800s

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4 What is meant by revolution? Why do they happen?

5 The American Revolution

6 The American Revolution (you should be able to answer these at the end of the topic) How the American Colonies were governed? Why the people were unhappy with the King and the government? When did it take place? What were the main events leading up to the War of Independence? What were the main events of the War of Independence? Who were the main people involved?

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9 European settlers in North America People from Europe (English, French, Spanish, etc..) travelled across the Atlantic to settle in North and South America Many British settled in 13 colonies along the east coast of North America African slaves also brought to North America to work on farms and plantations

10 How the 13 colonies were ruled The colonies were ruled by the English KING and PARLIAMENT who were based in London, England The parliament in London passed laws for the colonies and also collected taxes from the settlers living in the colonies The king nominated a GOVERNOR to run each colony Each colony had a local parliament called an ASSEMBLY which could advise the governor (only white men could vote in elections to the assembly) But the governor had to obey the king and parliament in London and could ignore the assembly

11 Background to American Revolution British King George III increased taxes to be paid by people living in 13 American Colonies Colonists unhappy at new taxes (Stamp Act etc..) Slogan No taxation without representation Sons of Liberty set up by colonists to fight taxes British troops kill some colonists at Boston Massacre The Sons of Liberty tarring and feathering a tax collector underneath the Liberty Tree

12 English troops shoot on Sons of Liberty in the Boston Massacre 1770

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14 Colonies King George III Prime Minister Parliament Laws Governor Assembly American settlers African slaves Native americans Stamp Act (Tax) Slogan: 'No taxation without representation' Sons of Liberty Protests Boston Massacre (1770) Protestors shot by British troops

15 What 2 things were people most unhappy about?

16 Boston Tea Party 1773 Colonists attack British ships in Boston Tea Party

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20 Background to American Revolution 2 (1st) Continental Congress meet to resist British taxes (1774) Colonists set up a private army (the Minutemen ) to fight British troops if necessary Battles between British troops and the Minutemen at Lexington and Concord 1775 Start of the American War of Independence

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24 200 British troops killed by Sons of Liberty at Battle of Lexington (1775)

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26 George Washington ( ) Early Life Born into a landowning family in Virginia Becomes officer in British army Later becomes a tobacco farmer Later elected to the Virginia Assembly (parliament)

27 Washington chosen to lead American troops (2nd) Continental Congress is organised to fight British (1775) Washington chosen to lead American troops in war against British British troops redcoats had more weapons but uniforms made them easy targets American troops knew territory very well

28 British Redcoats vs. American colonists

29 Thomas Paine: Common Sense

30 American War of Independence Main events 1 Americans issue Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776 British troops win 1st major battle at Bunker Hill Many American troops die during winter atvalley Forge (1777)

31 The American colonists issue a declaration of Independence 1776

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36 American War of Independence Main events 2 French send help to Americans (guns, troops, money) (1778) British surrender after being defeated at Yorktown (1781) 13 American colonies given independence in Treaty of Versailles (1782)

37 The United States of America 13 colonies become United States of America in 1788 Wrote constitution which guaranteed basic rights (free speech, freedom of religion, fair trial etc ) President to be head of government (elected every 4 years) 2 houses of Congress (parliament): House of Representatives and the Congress Supreme Court set up George Washington becomes 1st president in 1789

38 American Revolution: Keywords

39 American Revoltion Background: Keywords George III 13 colonies East coast of America European settlers, slaves, native americans ('indians') Parliament, Prime Minister and Government in London (Westminster) Intolerable Acts Sons of Liberty Slogan: No Taxation without Representation Boston Massacre 1770 Minutemen Boston Tea Party 1773 Governor Lexinton and Concord Assemblies (not much power) 1st Continental Congress 1774 Taxes Thomas Paine ('Common Sense') Stamp Act 2nd Continental Congress 1775

40 Revolutionary Leader: George Washington Keywords Declaration of independence 4 July French sent money, guns, troops 1776 British defeated at Yorktown George Washington American colonies granted Plantation owner Tobacco farmer Served in British Army Elected to Virginia Assembly Made Commander-in-chief of American Army British won 1st big battle: Bunker Hill Americans retreated to Valley Forge (many died of cold, disease etc..) independence in Treaty of Versailles 1782 Washington becomes 1st President of United States of America Constitution written (with rights and basic laws)

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