climate responsive design

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2 climate responsive design

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4

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6 today s lecture

7 lecture overview melbourne's climate Climate responsive design strategies orientation thermal mass shading strategies daylighting strategies natural ventilation water strategies

8 climate climate Weather day to day experience Climate long-term records, trends and average

9 climate

10 climate

11 climate

12 temperatures Temperature ( C) summer autumn / spring 10 winter :00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 Date: Mon Thu Sun 13/May 25/Jul 01/Feb Dry-bulb temperature: (MelbourneIWEC.fwt) 30 melbourne's average monthly temperatures 25 Temperature o C Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Mean Maximum Temperature Comfort Temperature - Upper Band Monthly Average Temperature Mean Minimum Temperature Comfort Temperature - Low er Band

13 temperatures perth's average monthly temperatures Temperature o C Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Mean Maximum Temperature Comfort Temperature - Upper Band Monthly Average Temperature Mean Minimum Temperature Comfort Temperature - Low er Band

14 dealing with temperature changes thermal insulation term for materials that reduce the rate of heat transfer through them R-value a measure of how well a material reduces heat transfer internal gains

15 sun = free heat + free light

16 sun sun path diagram for melbourne 2-dimensional mapping of sun movement effect of the sun dependant on surrounding features of the site

17 winds speeds wind rose diagram for January (hottest month) in melbourne N wind rose diagrams map wind speed, direction & duration over a period of time at air speeds of between 0.5 to 1.0 m/sec the body will feel 2-3 cooler in 25 C air

18 winds speeds wind rose diagram for January in melbourne Hyderabad Sind, Pakistan Bad-gir or windscoops in use for at least 500 years BEDZED, UK 2004 wind rose diagrams map wind speed, direction & duration over a period of time

19 winds speeds wind rose diagram for July (coldest month) in melbourne N

20 humidity Relative humidity in Melbourne Mean 9am relative humidity (%) Mean 3pm relative humidity (%) January February March April May June July August September October November December Absolute humidity is the mass of water vapor divided by the mass of dry air in a volume of air at a given temperature. The hotter the air is, the more water it can contain. Relative humidity is the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the highest possible absolute humidity this is dependant on the temperature

21 precipitation Monthly Rainfall and Wet Days Data Rainfall (mm) Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Average Number of Days per month Average Rainfall (mm) Average number of days per month rainfall is above 1mm Monthly Clear Days average annual rainfall in melbourne: 640mm rainwater that can be collected from 1m2 of roof area: 640L /year is the release of water from the atmosphere to the earth s surface as a solid or liquid. It includes rain, snow, hail, sleet and dew.

22 precipitation Monthly Rainfall and Wet Days Data in Sydney Rainfall (mm) Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Average Number of Days per month Average Rainfall (mm) Average number of days per month rainfall is above 1mm Monthly Clear Days average annual rainfall in sydney: 1212mm

23 precipitation Monthly Rainfall and Wet Days Data Rainfall (mm) Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Average Number of Days per month Average Rainfall (mm) Average number of days per month rainfall is above 1mm Monthly Clear Days average annual rainfall in melbourne: 640mm Annual inflows into Melbourne s 4 major reservoirs the average dropped by almost 40% in the past 12 yrs rainwater that can be collected from 1m2 of roof area: 640L

24 melbourne s climate Temperature o C melbourne's average monthly temperatures Wider diurnal temperature range in summer than in winter Mean Maximum Temperature Mean Minimum Temperature Comfort Temperature - Upper Band Comfort Temperature - Low er Band Monthly Average Temperature Predominantly a heating climate wet winters dry summers N S & SW winds dominate in summer low rainfall = need to conserve water 1m2 of roof area = 640L of rainwater N &NE & E winds in winter

25 sites

26 sites N

27 sites N

28 sites N

29 climate responsive design orientation thermal mass shading strategies daylighting strategies natural ventilation water strategies F bioclimatic chart

30 climate responsive design F bioclimatic chart

31 orientation Heat gain in winter Heat gain in summer Design Considerations Maximise North facing glazing Minimise West facing glazing to prevent afternoon heat gains Minimize South, SW and SE glazing to reduce heat losses

32 orientation design considerations for passive solar heating Orient buildings to the North or try to introduce a Northern aspect (courtyards, clerestory windows & building shape) Zone spaces living areas to the North, amenities to the South or West, bedrooms to the East.

33 orientation

34 thermal mass autumn / spring

35 thermal mass term used to describe materials with the ability to store a high amount of heat Temperature ( C) summer autumn / spring winter 0 00 :00 06 :00 12:00 18:00 00:00 Date: Thu Mon Sun 13/May 01/Feb 25/Jul Dry-bulb temperature: (MelbourneIWEC.fwt) Material Thermal Mass or Storage Capacity (kj/m 3 K) Water 4186 Granite 2154 Concrete 2060 Sandstone 1800 Clay tiles 1768 Compressed earth block 1740 Rammed earth 1675 FC Sheet (compressed) 1530 Brick 1360 Earth Wall (adobe) 1300 Wood 904 AAC 550 Rockwool insulation 42.2 Fibreglass Insulation 9.2 works in conjunction with a sealed building

36 thermal mass North facing glazing North facing glazing rule of thumb size thermal mass 3-6 times north facing glazing area

37 shading Melbourne s critical sun angles external shading reduces heat gain by up to 85%

38 shading N horizontal shading E & W vertical shading S none ESE facing window

39 shading with plants Deciduous plants allow winter sun through and exclude summer sun. Trees with high canopies are useful for shading roofs and large portions of the building structure. Shrubs are appropriate for more localised shading of windows. Wall vines and ground cover insulate against summer heat and reduce reflected radiation.

40 Daylighting strategies

41 Daylighting strategies clerestories any window with sill above eye level good for getting the light source out of direct sightline effective ceiling illumination (which provides deeper penetration and good distribution). loss of view only view may be of the glaring sky South High quality consistent daylight, minimal heat gains, but thermal loss during heating conditions and associated comfort problems. North Good access to strong illumination, varies through the day. East & West Daylight access varies significantly through the day. Shading is critical for comfort, especially from heat gains on the west. light shelves horizontal shapes provide more even distribution. long and wide windows are generally perceived as less glaring than tall and narrow ones of the same area vertical windows are more likely to create light/dark contrasts taller windows mean deeper penetration. rule of thumb daylight penetration with standard north facing windows is typically 1.5 times head height, and times head height for windows with a light shelf

42 natural ventilation Single sided ventilation - good but not as effective as cross ventilation Stratification - hot air rises Cross ventilation - an effective and versatile cooling strategy Pressure - air flows from high (+) to low (-) pressure areas * effectively ventilates a room with a width up to 5 times it s ceiling height rule of thumb both the inlet and outlet area should be a minimum of 5% of the room s floor area

43 natural ventilation stack effect is the movement of air into and out of buildings driven by warm air rising. BRE Zero Carbon House UK 2007 at air speeds of between 0.5 to 1.0 m/sec the body will feel 2-3 cooler in 25 C air

44 water & cooling evaporative cooling warm/hot air absorbs moisture as it passes over or through water increasing its humidity and lowering its temperature.

45 water Conservation Water efficient fittings Composting toilets Rainwater Harvesting Mains water alternative Domestic hot water Toilet flushing Garden irrigation Clothes washing Car washing Reuse (grey and Black water) Toilet flushing Garden irrigation Factors to Consider Develop a water balance sheet Water usage profile Roof area Rainfall Space requirements Tank Sizing Roof Area X Annual Rainfall = Maximum Available for Capture

46 climate responsive design F bioclimatic chart

47 climate responsive design F bioclimatic chart

48 climate responsive design F bioclimatic chart

49 upcoming event useful references Books Sun, Wind & Light, Architectural Design Strategies G.Z Brown & M. Dekay Strategies for Sustainable Architecture Paola Sassi Proceed and Be Bold, Rural Studio After Samuel Mockbee A. Oppenheimer & T. Hursley Web

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