A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 1

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1 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 1 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network Alok Upadhyay 1, Ravi Sharma 2, Manish Mahajan 3 1, 2, 3 Research Scholar 1, 2 Asst. Professor 3 MITM, Indore 1, 3, CIIT, Indore 2

2 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 2 Abstract Due to wireless environment, mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is affected by many security threats. A severe threat to disrupt functionality of routing protocol is commonly called as wormhole attack. These attacks can be performed by two or more attackers who spread wrong routing information in the whole network, gaining un- authorized access or choosing the illegal way of communication. The main aim of attackers is to pass all traffic through them so that attacker can drop, modify or duplicate the packets. In the routing process, attacking node retains frequently occurrence of associated links and continuously drop the packets is more than the normal wireless link.in this paper, we are introducing the various types of network vulnerabilities attacks according to network layers in MANET, which affects the whole network working functionality. Keywords: Ad- Hoc network, SANET, MANET, Vulnerabilities, Network Attacks.

3 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 3 I. INTRODUCTION Network is a collection of two or more communicating devices which are connected to each other and can share data directly or indirectly. There are following two types of the networks wired and wireless network.wired Network is the type of network in which computer devices connects with each other with the help of cable or a wire. In this network the cable is the medium of communication for transmitting and receiving the data from source to destination. In the wireless network all the computer devices are connected to each other without the use of any wire or cables. They use the radio/electromagnetic signals for wireless communication. Destination device must lie within communication range. Wireless network is gaining more popularity than wired network because it allows mobility, simplicity and very affordable and cost saving installation to wireless devices. On the basis of connectivity, wireless network can be classified into two types such as infrastructure based network and infrastructure less or Ad-hoc network [1]. Infrastructure based networks consist of a network with fixed wired medium. A mobile host communicates with a base station within its communication area. In this approach the base stations are fixed. In wireless network, mobile nodes can move within geographical zone while it s communicating to other nodes. If it goes out of range of one base station, it connects with new base station automatically and communication starts through new base station. This is called hand-off. Ad-hoc networks don t have a base station or centralized authority, whereas entire node works as a router that follows specific routing protocols. II. AD-HOC NETWORK A network is a type of wireless network which does not depend on any fixed infrastructure or any control module. Mostly it is established; where infrastructure network is not possible [2]. That s why, it is also called infrastructure less (ad-hoc) network. All nodes in ad-hoc network are connected to each other and communicated through the wireless link. In the ad-hoc network all the node work as router and they do not have a restriction for participating or leaving the network. These networks have some conventional problem like limited bandwidth, battery power coverage area etc. Ad-hoc network can be classified into two categories Static Ad-hoc Network and Mobile Ad-hoc Network [2]. Static Ad-hoc Network (SANET) In SANET, geographical locations of all communicating nodes are fixed and they do not show mobility, so it is called static ad-hoc network.

4 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 4 Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) Mobile ad-hoc network is collection of self-configuring, autonomous nodes connected with wireless links. The MANET is an open network that does not depends on any fixed infrastructure or base stations [3]. MANET can be easily deployed in environments where setup of wired fixed infrastructure is not possible. A simplified diagram of ad-hoc network is shown below Figure 1.1. Figure 1.1:- Mobile Ad-hoc Network In Wireless LAN all mobile nodes are connected to a fixed access point using a wireless link and these fixed access points connected to each other with wired link. These access points acts as router and forward packet to other access point in the network. The routing functionality of each node of a MANET makes function of routing complex. The wireless environment of MANET is affected by many security threats. The most common security threats are denial of service attack, rushing attack, black hole attack, wormhole attack, gray-hole attack etc. Thesee threats become severe when they target to routing protocol of network [3]. Proactive/table-driven and reactive/on-demand both type of routing protocol is vulnerable to these security attacks. The attacks on these routing protocols comprises of routing table overflow, routing table poisoning, packet replication, route cache poisoning, rushing attack etc. These attacks can either be performed by internal or external nodes. An external attacker is any unknownn node comes in vicinity of MANET and performs malicious activities and an internal attacker is a legitimate node compromised by attacker. The attack performed by internal attacker is difficult to detect because sometime they acts as malicious node and sometime behave as legitimate node. There are many research has been done to deal these security threats. In the MANET every node must participate in forwarding the packets.

5 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 5 III. VULENRABILITIES MANETs are vulnerable due the different types of security threats, which are as follows [4]: a. Dynamic Topology: In the MANET:Due to the dynamically changing topology, each and every node can move freely from one location to another location, also it may have leave and join the network any time. MANET does have any physical or wired protection. Due to this situation, attacker can takes the benefits, and can reduce the network performance. b. Wireless Links: The bandwidth used in wireless communication is less as compared to wired communication. This factor is attracts the most of the intruders prevent themselves for communication with nodes. c. Cooperative Network: all the nodes in the network is assume that nodes are communicating securely, but due to feature of cooperativeness, some nodes may be malicious which can destroy the data or affects the communication. d. Lack of Defense:In the MANET, there is no defense mechanism or clear line. Attacker can do un-wanted activity from any direction. e. Limited Resources: Different types of wireless device are consisting in MANET, with thedifferent storage capacity. And different processing speeds. This limitation may attract the attackers. IV. TYPES OF NETWORK ATTACKS Wormhole attack can also be created by some other following methods [5][6]: Communication network follow a standard and conceptual reference model called OSI (Open System Interconnection) model which defines the internal functionality of communication system. It is included seven numbers of logical layers. These seven layers of OSI model has been divided in to the two groups of three layers. First three layers define how the applications will communicate with each other and another three layers define the end to end data transmission in the network. There are various types of attack which distract the communication process. We can classify these types of attack in ad-hoc networking on the basis of different layers [7]. These attacks are as follows: Physical Layer All the physical specifications and quantities of the communication medium are defined by the physical layer. Pins, connectors, current, use of pins Connectors, pins, electrical currents, encoding, and light modulation are all part of different physical layer specifications.physical and MAC Layer attacks are performed with the help of hardware. These attacks can be easily

6 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 6 performed even the attackers don t have knowledge of communication technology. Eavesdropping and jamming attacks comes in this category. Eavesdropping: - To perform the eavesdropping an attacker comes in the vicinity of wireless network and intercepting the communication between two legitimate nodes. The main aim of such attacks is to obtain the confidential information that should be kept secret during the communication [7]. Jamming Attack: - Jamming attack is type of denial of service attack (Dos) in which the main aim of jammer is to interfere in legitimate communication. The attacker prevents sender from sending packets and receiver from receiving packet in legitimate communication. Data Link Layer: It is the 2 nd layer of OSI model out of seven layers which is able to transfer the data in adjacent nodes of network in WAN. It also works on error and flow check & its control mechanism.below attack of data link layer is follows. Traffic Analysis: - The attackers monitor the packet transmission to predict important information about the traffic flow in the network such as information password, sourcedestination pair, topology information etc. Network Layer It is the fourth layer of OSI model which provides both types of services connectionless and connection oriented.it determines the suitable route to the destination and also provides fragmentation of data packets into smaller data packets.the network layer protocols in MANET provide communication between distant nodes using intermediate nodes. Every individual node takes route decision to forward the packets, so it is very easy for malicious nodes to perform adversary effect. The basic idea behind network layer attacks is to inject itself in the active pathfrom source to destination or to absorb network traffic. The main attacks at network layer are as follows [6]. Wormhole Attack: - In the Wormhole attack control packets and data packets are used by routing protocol which is vulnerable to attacks. In the attacks, data packets can be modify, drop or misdirects by the attackers. The aim of attacker is to attract traffic by sending false routing information in whole network. In any proactive routing protocol these attackers may advertise false link in control packets or remove a legitimate link from topology control packet [8]. The attacker may misdirect traffic by creating a tunnel. The node at either end of tunnel will incorrectly believe that they are neighbour of each other. Hence wrong topology information

7 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 7 distributes in the network. They analyse different attacks on both proactive and reactive routing protocols. They conclude that periodic update of routing information makes proactive routing protocol inherently more secure than reactive routing protocol. High Power: -In this method, received route request is broadcast at increased power level. In another words when a single attacker node receives the route request, it will broadcast with high range of power. Malicious node has a capability to transfer the data with high power, which has not available to another participating node. This broadcasted request is heard by a node with high range, will rebroadcast to the destination. By this method, attackers may increase the chance to attack on the network. Out of Band: - It is another mode of creation of wormhole attack. This mode of attack uses the out of band channel. In the network two malicious nodes creates a long range directional link between them. When a node sends the route request to another node, malicious node receives this request and sends that request with high speed to another malicious node [9]. Second malicious node broadcast this request to their neighbours including destination node. So the destination node always chooses this path because of it is faster and too short than another ways. Packet Relay: -In the packet relay, attackers node convince the two distant node that they are neighbours [9]. In this mode attacker node relays packets between two far away nodes. More cooperating nodes expand their victim nodes. For creation of wormhole attack, an intruder node is putted within transmission range of two distant nodes which are in range of each other. This intruder tunnels them to each other, and convinces both the distant nodes are the neighbours. This condition may create a chance to misdirect the network. Protocol Deviation: -Protocol deviation is also useful to attackers for creation of wormhole.for reduction of collision at MAC layer, nodes take a back off before forwarding the route request. Normal nodes use this back off for reducing the collision at the MAC layer. This factor is very beneficial to attackers so that they broadcast the route request without backing off. Because of this attacking mode, nodes only forward the first arriving packets. Blackhole Attack: - In the black hole attack malicious node advertises itself as having the shortest route to any destination. These fake responses can be made to divert network traffic through a malicious node for eavesdropping or simply to drive traffic to it to perform denial of service attack by dropping packets received. There is a more subtle form of these attacks when an attacker selectively forwards packets. An attacker suppresses or modifies packets originating

8 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 8 from some nodes, while leaving the data from the other nodes unaffected, which limits the suspicion of its wrongdoing. Replay Attack: - In replay attack the attacker records control messages of other nodes and resend them later in the network. This attack usually targets the freshness of routes, but can also be used to undermine badly designed security solutions. This attack results in other nodes to record their routing table with stale routes. These replay attacks are later misused to disturb the routing operation in a MANET. Resource Consumption Attack: - In resource consumption attack, a compromised node can attempt to consume battery life by requesting excessive route discovery, or by forwarding unnecessary packets to the victim. Rushing Attack: - Rushing attacks are mainly against the on-demand routing protocols. These types of attacks subvert the route discovery process. On-demand routing protocols that use duplicate suppression during the route discovery process are vulnerable to this attack when compromised node receives a route request packet from the source node, it floods the packet quickly throughout the network before other nodes, which also receive the same route request packet can react[10]. Transport Layer Transport Layer is the fourth layer of OSI model. Transport layer is responsible for establishing connection between the end-to end nodes and also responsible for sequencing and flow control. It provides reliable and unreliable data delivery. Transport layer Performs error correction before retransmission of data.this layer is affected by following attacks: Session Hijacking: - In session hijacking once a session is setup, attacker spoofs the victim node s IP address and finds the current sequence number expected by target. After this attacker launches DoS attack on victim node and continue session with target. In this attack, the malicious node tries to collect secure data (passwords, secret keys, login names etc.) and other information from nodes. SYN Flooding Attack: -The SYN flooding attacks are the type of DoS attacks, in which attacker creates a large number of half opened TCP connection with victim node. These half opened connections are never completes the handshake to fully open the connection. Application Layer It is an abstraction layer reserved for communication protocols. It was designed for process to process communications. This layer is responsible for displaying the information like

9 A Study of Severe Attacks on Mobile Ad-hoc Network 9 image and videos to the user which can be recognised by human, and to interface with the presentation layer.application layer protocols are also vulnerable to many threats. Some of them are as follows: Malicious Code Attacks: -Malicious code attacks include, Viruses, Worms, Spywares, and Trojan horses, can attack both operating system and user application. Repudiation Attacks: - The main aim of this attack is to denial of participation in the communication. V. CONCLUSION As discussed in this survey work, we have introduced many types of network attacks according to the particular layer of OSI model. In this work we have described the different ways to attack on the network. Due to badly design the security system and vulnerabilities of network, malicious nodes or attacker can attack on the network system and disrupts the routing functionality and drop or modify the data transmitted in the network. The next scope is to study and evaluate the performance on these attacks the different routing protocols in MANET. REFERENCES [1] ShimaMohseni et.al Comparative Review Study of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols in MANET 4th IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies pp IEEE [2] QianFeng et.al A Performance Comparison of the Ad Hoc Network Protocols International Workshop on Computer Science and Engineering pp IEEE [3] Pradip M. Jawandhiyaet. al. A Survey of Mobile Ad-hoc Network Attacks, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(9), , [4] Hrituparna Paul et. al. A study and comparison of OLSR, AODV and ZRP routing protocols in ad hoc networks pp Vol. 02 Issue: 08, ISSN Aug [5] Marianne Azeret. al. A Full Image of the Wormhole Attacks Towards Introducing Complex Wormhole Attacksin wireless Ad Hoc Networks IJCSIS Vol. 1, No. 1, pp May [6] H.S. Chiu et. al. Wormhole detection mechanism for ad-hoc wireless networks 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing, pp. 6 11, January [7] P.Yau et al, Malicious attacks on ad-hoc network routing protocols [8] Jain M. et. al. A Survey on Complex Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks in International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies, [9] Y.C. Hu et. al. Packet Leashes: A Defence against Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks In IEEE INFOCOM, Vol.3, pp , Apr.2003.

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