CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. YALE S HISTORY OF ONLINE EDUCATION III. EXTERNAL LANDSCAPE IV. SUGGESTIONS FOR YALE S STRATEGIC PATHWAYS AHEAD

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2 CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. YALE S HISTORY OF ONLINE EDUCATION A. AllLearn B. Open Yale Courses C. Yale College Online Courses for Credit D. Yale Center for Language Study: Consortium Initiative E. Online Certificate by F&ES F. Online Degree: Doctor of Nursing Practice G. Innovations from Distance Courses or Online Platforms Applied to On-Campus Courses H. Summarizing the Projects in the Past Five Years The Pyramid III. EXTERNAL LANDSCAPE A. MOOCs B. Credit and Degree Initiatives C. Licensing of Courses among Universities IV. SUGGESTIONS FOR YALE S STRATEGIC PATHWAYS AHEAD A. Overarching Goals B. Pathways C. Likely Objectives for the Next Three Years V. NEXT STEPS AND PROJECTS FOR YALE A. MOOCs B. Yale Courses for Credit C. Executive Education Certificate Programs D. Online Degree Programs E. Network Initiatives F. Licensing of Yale Courses G. Learning Assessments H. Teaching Emphasis at Yale VI. STRUCTURE AT YALE A. Support B. Financing Online Education Projects 1

3 I. INTRODUCTION Last semester, the new University-wide Committee on Online Education spent time discussing how Yale s online educational initiatives can develop in the next few years. 1 As the committee became better acquainted with the growing number of online educational initiatives already under way at Yale, it was increasingly apparent that Yale is pursuing an particular pathway that emphasizes pedagogical innovation for the benefit of Yale s own students even as it builds on previous initiatives to continue to share great teaching beyond the campus. This memorandum outlines a pathway for the next phase of Yale s online educational efforts. It also reviews the broad array of online education programs at Yale, since a number of faculty and several schools have already launched online academic programs that we believe can inform future projects here. The committee believes that the two overarching goals for online educational initiatives are to: 1. experiment with new pedagogy that can improve teaching and learning for students at Yale as well as new students who will be admitted to online educational programs; and 2. continue to amplify the impact of great Yale teaching beyond the campus. Online education connects with one of the University s primary missions: the dissemination of knowledge. The online landscape provides unprecedented avenues for faculty to imagine new ways to transmit their teaching and share it with the world. The Open Yale Courses initiative was an early example. OYC has been accessed more than 100 million times from nearly 200 nations, including some expected ones, such as China and Brazil, as well as some unexpected ones, such as the Maldives and Togo. This academic year, students from more than 15 business schools around the world have been taught by SOM faculty who have been welcomed into a virtual classroom with Yale students. We do not see one model for Yale. Online initiatives in the years ahead will vary markedly from school to school at Yale depending on the interests of the faculty, but the general trajectory can reflect the full range of the University s educational programs (from the humanities to the sciences and from the arts to the other professional schools), especially as some other universities are concentrating their online efforts particularly on quantitative and vocational topics. We believe that the constellation of online educational initiatives that develops should conscientiously keep teaching and learning at Yale at the center of the discussion. As you will read in Section II, several Yale faculty who created online courses for dissemination have already 1 Committee membership includes faculty members from seven professional schools, five faculty members from Yale College, the University Librarian, two undergraduate students, and two graduate students, with administrative support. 2

4 incorporated elements of those courses back into their classroom teaching at Yale. Also, as the professional schools initiatives show, online projects are expanding the very definition of teaching and learning at Yale, with the matriculation of Nursing students who take their Yale courses from Israel and California, or those earning an F&ES certificate from Panama or Brazil. Teaching and learning is the touchstone for the development of online initiatives. Some projects will benefit the general public in much the same way as Open Yale Courses; this broad dissemination extends the public service tradition of the University. In the Internet era it has powerful potential of contributing Yale s educational treasury to the world. The distinctive contributions from Yale will likely be projects that are not massive, but rather smaller educational programs that grow organically from the educational aspirations of a school or faculty member, that engage students more intensively, and that involve credit or a certificate; this has already been the shape of the initiatives of Yale College and of the Schools of Nursing, Forestry & Environmental Studies, and Management that will be discussed below. Faculty and schools in the coming years will undoubtedly develop projects that will add to those identified below. 3

5 II. YALE S HISTORY OF ONLINE EDUCATION As is often cited, the University s three core missions are the creation, preservation, and dissemination of knowledge. In the past dozen years, Yale has undertaken important online education projects that have disseminated the best of Yale teaching beyond our classrooms in New Haven. A. AllLearn Yale embarked on a serious distance learning initiative with Stanford and Oxford to create, in 2001, the Alliance for Lifelong Learning (AllLearn). The goal was for the faculty at those three universities to create online, noncredit courses of high quality initially for their combined alumni. Professor Diana Kleiner, then Deputy Provost, was the Yale faculty Director for AllLearn. Tuition (ranging from $195 for alumni and $250 for the general public) was charged for each course, with additional materials fees of up to $ Over time, the tuition was raised and varied by course, with intensive creative writing courses costing above $800. Students worldwide took the courses synchronously with the online instructor an Online Instructor (OI) who was an expert in the field and often selected by the faculty sponsor. This was a highly interactive course model with frequent asynchronous threaded discussions overseen by the TF and weekly scheduled chat room conversations, which were often joined by the faculty member. AllLearn s financial model assumed that alumni and others would pay fees of approximately $600 for continuing education that offered no credit, certificate, or other badge; this proved not to be the case. AllLearn closed in 2006, but it yielded important lessons: Yale learned (1) the hard work required for faculty to create high-quality online materials, (2) the technical support needed to produce polished courses, and (3) the extent of marketing needed to distribute the materials. The AllLearn courses had the advantages of allowing the faculty to experiment with significant social interaction, a short lecture format, and assessment of work. All of these are features of the recently introduced, massive open online courses (MOOCs). B. Open Yale Courses Also under the leadership of Professor Kleiner, Yale launched Open Yale Courses (OYC) in December 2007 for the purpose of sharing outstanding Yale College courses for free for use by the general public or by teachers in their own classrooms. The initiative provides free and open access to forty-two courses taught by Yale faculty, with the courses spanning the full range of liberal arts disciplines. 4

6 For those unfamiliar with OYC, a quick tour of the website (http://oyc.yale.edu) reveals the quality of the classroom lecture videos and the unusual feature of providing both problem sets and solutions. Unlike AllLearn and the MOOC projects in the news lately (e.g., Coursera and edx), OYC did not provide opportunities for students to engage with one another in chat rooms or through social media. Having learned the hard way from AllLearn about the limitations of exclusive distribution channels, the University worked to achieve the widest distribution possible. For example, the OYC lectures were made available on a special Yale website and also on two commercial platforms: YouTube and itunes U. The reach of several of the courses has been amplified by translation: for example, Professor Shelly Kagan s OYC has been subtitled in Mandarin, and the popularity of the course in China has made him among the most recognizable American professors in China, according to an article in the Chronicle of Higher Education (October 5, 2012, p. B16). OYC are posted online under a Creative Commons license, which allows anyone to use the materials for noncommercial purposes. A number of universities around the world have already used with Yale s encouragement OYC for their own curricula, further increasing the reach of these Yale courses. The project was supported by grants totaling $3.8 million over six years from the Hewlett Foundation. Although those grants ended last year, there are grant funds remaining to maintain the forty-two existing courses. OYC taught us to anticipate the opportunities to repurpose high-quality online materials again and again. For example, faculty have used parts of their OYC materials for their own regular classes and to create subsequent Yale College online courses for credit. Two FAS faculty are using their OYC materials for parts of new MOOCs being launched this semester. C. Yale College Online Courses for Credit In 2011 Yale College introduced its first online courses for credit as part of Yale College Summer Session. Like every course in Yale College, each online course is approved by the faculty Course of Study Committee. Two online courses for credit were offered in 2011, eight in 2012, and fourteen last summer. Credit was awarded for successful completion of online Summer Session courses in the same way as for Summer Session courses held in New Haven. The tuition for taking the online course has been identical to the fee for taking the course in New Haven ($3,300 last summer). All online courses run for five weeks, just like the regular Summer Session courses. In total,144 students were enrolled in last summer s online courses, of which 95% were Yale College students. In an effort to understand whether the online courses might have the ability to attract a larger number of 5

7 qualified non-yale students, Yale Summer Session plans to increase marketing efforts in 2014 and allow qualified high school students to enroll in select online courses. The goal from the outset for Yale Summer Session was to create a program of online courses that were similar to the Yale College seminar. Thus, a key element of Yale College s online courses for credit has been that all students, wherever they are in the world, come to class at the same hour and see and engage with one another and the instructor in real time. The technology platform enables twenty simultaneous live streams thus allowing a seminar or multiple sections, each with up to twenty students. Already last summer, two faculty members introduced the next step of having multiple online sections, and both were pleased with the results. Assessments of the Yale College online courses have been conducted from both the faculty members and the students perspectives. All faculty members surveyed reported that their online course was worthy of Yale credit. The 2013 survey results added to these insights. All of the faculty responding thought their online students had as much as much (or more) contact time with the course as a student taking a course in residence, and all thought their students acquired at least an equivalent amount of course content. The students survey showed that 98% thought that the online environment allowed them to analyze and think as critically about course content as a traditional Yale course. Yale Summer Session has provided an excellent laboratory for online development, in part because the program could closely monitor the academic structure and quality of each course. We believe that Yale Summer Session will continue to be an exceptional laboratory for pedagogical innovation and that experimentation through the summer will provide new insights not only for the College but for the Professional Schools as well. D. Yale Center for Language Study: Consortium Initiative Yale has a long tradition of extensive language instruction and has recently been offering its students more than fifty languages to study. However, enrollments are so small in some languages that it is difficult to support a teaching program (e.g., Dutch, Zulu, Romanian). To address this, Yale s Center for Language Study (CLS) entered into a partnership with Cornell and Columbia in which students at the three universities constitute one virtual synchronous class and are taught by an instructor at one of the institutions. The program is now in its third year, and eight languages are taught in this collective way, with Yale supplying two of the instructors, Cornell two, and Columbia four. Like Yale Summer Session Online, the language consortium model exemplifies a mode of digital education called a SPOC (small private online course). The language courses are taught live by an instructor at the sending institution. Students at the receiving institution are expected to attend a regular class in a designated classroom that is outfitted with the videoconferencing technology necessary to see and interact with the teacher and other students in the class. Students receive credit from their own institution. 6

8 The format is instructive, for it encourages us to contemplate consortia for other courses with very small enrollments. Online class discussion for Yale students in such classes might be improved if students from peer institutions were included in online seminars. (Last year, there were 546 courses in Yale College and the Graduate School that had enrollments of between one and five students.) Also there may be courses not taught at Yale (either regularly, or when faculty go on sabbatical) that could be offered in a consortial model. Other consortia for online teaching involving Yale faculty and students are in the process of being developed and are outlined in Section V below. They range from Laura Wexler s Distributed Open Collaborative Course (DOCC), titled Gender and Sexuality in Media and Popular Culture, to the School of Management s (SOM s) online courses with its global network of business schools. E. Online Certificate by F&ES For many years, the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (F&ES) has offered short certificate programs for executives; for example, Chinese mayors and city administrators have come to campus for two-week summer sessions. For the past three years, one of the F&ES executive certificate programs focused on mid-level environmental managers to help them address the importance of tropical forest conservation; these courses were offered in Central America and in Asia. Last spring, F&ES conducted the program entirely online and offered it in Spanish. More than 400 people applied for the twentyfive places in the pilot course. Senior managers in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama, and Peru participated in the online course. The online certificate course was divided into six week-long thematic modules. The learning experience was largely asynchronous, allowing participants to complete the assignments at their own pace as they continued their professional responsibilities. The teaching tools consisted of interactive presentations, prerecorded guest lectures (produced by Yale), reading assignments, case studies, short answer assignments, discussion forums, and a final project. There were also two optional synchronous sessions that gave the students the opportunity to interact directly with one of the F&ES course instructors. F. Online Degree: Doctor of Nursing Practice In 2011 the Yale School of Nursing created a Doctor of Nursing Practice (D.N.P.) degree. This is the University s first hybrid degree program: the curriculum features a blend of on-campus and online education. It serves those nursing professionals who want to be leaders in clinical settings. The program is designed for part-time study; course work is completed over a two-year period, with a Capstone project year to follow. 7

9 There are fourteen and fifteen students, respectively, in the first two cohorts, and the program allows the School to extend its reach: one student is enrolled from Israel, with the other students drawn primarily from around the United States. All are pursuing their studies without having to interrupt their careers. The School plans to admit eighteen students next year, bringing the enrollment across the years to forty-seven. Tuition is $22,216 per year. The School does not offer financial aid to these midcareer executives. G. Innovations from Distance Courses or Online Platforms Applied to On-Campus Courses The distance education programs and platforms (such as that offered by Palo Alto-based Coursera) have already engendered innovations for teaching at Yale, as illustrated in the following examples. To help one section of his Yale students absorb the calculus concepts in Math 115, Jim Rolf used the Coursera platform last fall to deliver online video tutorials that the students were required to watch before attending classes. He also used the platform to have his students complete quizzes on the material before they came to class so that he could assess what topics had proven difficult for them to grasp; he then organized his classroom time to focus on those problems. June Gruber, in her Human Emotion course last fall, required students to watch before class the lecture videos she created at the Yale Broadcast Studio for her Yale Summer Session online course. This allowed more class time for discussion about the lecture material. Yale School of Medicine is introducing a new curriculum next summer. Similar to the calculus example, Associate Dean Michael Schwartz is creating a set of online modules for the medical students to watch, and be assessed, in advance of class so that class time can be used most effectively for the students. Some of the modules may be posted online as a public service. Economics professor Don Brown offers an example of importing an experimental teaching technique from his Yale Summer Session online course. During that course, each student had access to the interactive whiteboard in the synchronous learning platform to work through problem sets in real time, in full view of his or her classmates, with Professor Brown offering immediate feedback. In addition, each session was recorded and posted online so that students could review problems that may have stumped them. In his regular residential course last fall, Professor Brown introduced the same design: his students used ipads to draw graphs and write equations that were displayed in the front of the classroom. The written content as well as the audio discussion from class was made available immediately to the students, who could discuss the archived materials in chat rooms with other students or simply review the materials when preparing problem sets or studying for the exams. H. Summarizing the Projects in the Past Five Years The Pyramid 8

10 The simple diagram below offers a framework for viewing the online projects that were developed in the past five years. The illustration was suggested in 2008 by a group of Yale alumni/ae leaders in technology who were serving on a University Council Committee on Digital Education. The apex of the educational pyramid was reserved for on-campus traditional education. The base of the pyramid was to represent instructional materials provided free of charge, on a noncredit basis, to those around the world (for example, Open Yale Courses), with the educational experiences being more intensive at the upper tiers of the pyramid. The projects to the right of the arrows show how each tier of the pyramid has been filled in during the past five years. What has also become clear is that the tiers of the pyramid are porous and the apex of teaching at Yale can be informed and advanced by various online initiatives. Projects originally conceived for one part of the pyramid can be used and reused for other teaching objectives. The new scheme of a solar system with teaching and learning at the center (as depicted in the Introduction) seems preferable for the years ahead. 9

11 III. EXTERNAL LANDSCAPE Online educational initiatives have been increasing at every level of education, in every sector, and in countries around the world. Florida, Virginia, Alabama, Michigan, and Idaho now require students to take at least one online course in order to earn a high school diploma. Many city school boards for example, Memphis have done the same. Public universities are increasingly turning to online education. The 2012 annual survey supported by the Sloan Consortium revealed that 71% of public institutions now offer complete online degrees. 2 For example, Penn State offers ninety online undergraduate and graduate degrees and mounts 1,730 courses online. Undergraduates taking twelve or more credits online per semester pay a flat tuition rate of less than $7,000. The reputations of some of the fully online universities have appropriately suffered with disclosures that they may have exploited federal dollars. However, not all online universities should be written off. Forty thousand students are enrolled in Western Governors University, a nonprofit, fully online university. WGU s low tuition (around $6,000 per year for most programs) and impressive retention rates (79% of students return to school after their first year, which is higher than the average U.S. public colleges and universities) make it appealing to many working adults, especially for vocational education. Overseas universities are accelerating their online efforts, too. Shanghai Jiao Tong has a school of online education, and Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico) taught 213,000 students in its Virtual University in 2011, including training more than 18,000 public school teachers throughout Mexico. The online environment at U.S. research universities has been as dynamic as in the other education sectors. 3 Several online projects involving U.S. research universities and/or their faculties are described below. 2 3 I. Elaine Allen and Jeff Seaman, Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States (Babson Survey Research Group and Quahog Research Group, LLC, January 2013); online at Articles from the Harvard and Stanford alumni magazines offer good sketches of the changing digital landscape in higher education: and 10

12 A. MOOCs Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have been prominent in the public conversation for the past two years. A MOOC is a model of educational delivery that is, to varying degrees, massive, with theoretically no limit to enrollment; open, allowing anyone to participate, usually at no cost; online, with learning activities typically taking place over the web; and a course, structured around a set of learning goals in a defined area of study. 4 Open Yale Courses were MOOCs 1.0 in that they were massive, open, online courses. However, the new MOOCs differ from Open Yale Courses in significant respects: (1) MOOCs require all learners to register for the site and enroll in courses; (2) MOOCs are interactive, and assessment is at the heart of the MOOC experience; (3) MOOCs provide student assessment through machine-graded quizzes and peer-reviewed writing assignments; (4) although some longer lectures are posted (as in OYC), the typical MOOC takes the subject matter covered in a fiftyminute lecture and breaks it into shorter units, and the platforms allow the instructor to insert quiz questions at any point in the video segment; and (5) all students start the course online at the same time and have weekly homework and assignments that must be posted by certain deadlines. The galvanizing event for MOOCs occurred in the fall of 2011 when Stanford launched three courses, each of which had an enrollment of about 100,000. Almost immediately, two of the Stanford professors created for-profit companies: Coursera (which Yale has joined) and Udacity. Subsequently, Harvard and MIT joined forces to create the nonprofit entity edx. These three entities have dominated the development of MOOCs. Coursera has signed agreements with approximately 100 universities (including five of the Ivy League institutions). Until last spring, edx was a small, elite consortium of half a dozen universities, but it has altered its mission to create a larger consortium of thirty universities, including Cornell, Georgetown, Davidson, and the University of Texas System. Recently edx reversed an earlier requirement that partners disseminate the courses they create exclusively on the edx platform; it now allows institutions that are associated with Coursera or Udacity to join its consortium. CalTech, Rice, and Peking University are three institutions that publish courses on both platforms. Although the initial MOOCs were heavily devoted to quantitative courses, there has been serious interest in the humanities. For example, Harvard professor Gregory Nagy had 27,000 students registered for his edx Greek Poetry course. Both Coursera and edx have made significant announcements in the past year. Coursera added translation partners to deliver content in other languages (e.g., Russian, Portuguese, Turkish, Japanese, Chinese, and Arabic) and partnered with eight organizations, including the U.S. Department of State, to establish physical spaces called Coursera Learning Hubs that will offer people around the world free access to the Internet to take a Coursera course while learning 4 7 things you should know about MOOCs II, EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (June 2013). 11

13 alongside peers in an interactive, facilitated setting. edx has been busy developing an open source platform in concert with Stanford s Office of the Vice Provost for Online Learning. Coursera and edx have given universities the option to allow students to pursue a course in different ways. All courses are accessible in a free format. A second option allows the student to have his or her identify verified and the course work confirmed (for example, to a prospective employer). The typical fee for a verified certificate on the Coursera platform falls between $39 and $69. edx takes a different approach. Each course sets a minimum price the user can pay, but asks users to contribute more if they would like. The minimum price usually starts at $50 (e.g., Rice: Electricity and Magnetism) or $100 (MIT: Flight Vehicle Aerodynamics), and suggested donations go as high as $400. In the case of Yale courses on Coursera, both the University and the individual faculty member must be willing to provide verified certificates for the course, and the faculty member decides the requirements for completing a course. Roughly half of the institutions publishing courses on Coursera offer the verified certificate, referred to as the Signature Track on Coursera, since the data to date shows stronger persistence by those enrolled in this track to complete the course. The average completion rate for a basic Coursera course is ~4.5% (in other words, 4.5% of all students enrolled in the average course will go on to complete that course). However, the completion rate for those enrolled in Signature Track is, on average, around twenty times that number (~85%). Other universities are starting to use their MOOC platform to create courses for credit, for their own students or others. As mentioned above, the Coursera platform was used last semester for Yale s Math 115, and Georgia Tech announced its intention to use the Udacity MOOC platform for a new online master s degree in computer science, for which tuition will be $7,000 a year versus the $45,000 tuition charged for the same residential master s program. B. Credit and Degree Initiatives A growing number of universities are using digital initiatives to increase, sometimes dramatically, the impact of their educational programs. For example, USC decided to use digital dissemination to expand the reach of its Rossier School of Education. It has now enrolled more than 2,000 students in its online master s program. The school s ranking has risen from 38 to 14 since launching the online program, and the school attributes this increase in part to the online degree program. Stanford has had master s programs delivered entirely online for more than a decade in its engineering school. UNC s business school, Duke s environment school, and Washington University s law school have initiated online master s degree programs in the past several years. 12

14 C. Licensing of Courses among Universities There are already examples of the new generation of MOOCs being formally shared from one university to another. Vanderbilt has used Stanford s Machine Learning course as the basis for its own campus course. (The course was led by a regular member of the Vanderbilt faculty, but he relied on the Stanford MOOC for lecture content.) Also, an online statistics course from Carnegie Mellon was subsequently used by six public universities, which reported that their students did better and learned more in the CMU online course than in those universities traditional courses. The ongoing discussion relates to how one university would license its courses to other institutions and what the licensing arrangements and fees might be. The discussion also has raised concerns and controversy concerns voiced by some faculty at Yale as well that focus primarily on the question of whether course licensing will lead to the elimination of faculty positions elsewhere. The issue came to a head in early 2013 after the administration at San José State University asked the Philosophy department to pilot a course using content from Harvard professor Michael Sandel s well-known JusticeX course. The department declined, citing concerns about the possibility of the elimination of faculty positions, a diminution of the role of the faculty member within his/her classroom, and the approach to the subject matter. Consideration of whether this experience might lead to better or worse learning outcomes for the students seemed not to be a primary concern. 13

15 IV. SUGGESTIONS FOR YALE S STRATEGIC PATHWAYS AHEAD A. Overarching Goals The two overarching goals for Yale in the coming years should be to use online initiatives to : improve the teaching and learning experiences for Yale faculty and students in ways that reimagine the contours of innovative teaching ; and amplify the impact of the great teaching at Yale beyond the campus. Yale should give priority to those digital dissemination projects that: propose pedagogical innovation and experimentation that can benefit teaching and learning at Yale; advance a school s, center s, or department s educational objectives; and/or extend the reach of Yale s great teachers around the world. The matter of setting priorities will be increasingly critical as the interest in online education projects grows. Until now, Yale could effectively support any faculty member who was interested in the digital dissemination of his or her teaching. We want to continue to encourage experimentation, but currently we do not have the resources to let a thousand flowers bloom. B. Pathways The Committee believes that there is a particular pathway ahead for Yale to pursue: We can simultaneously accentuate a renewed emphasis on improving teaching at Yale and also advance Yale s mission of disseminating outstanding education further around the world. 1. The University should continue to pursue the very broadest dissemination of great teaching through MOOCs or whatever successors to Open Yale Courses emerge. In addition, distinctive work by Yale will likely be with SPOCs Small Private Online Courses/Communities. Strategically targeted SPOCs can have large positive impacts on Yale s educational programs, reputation, and revenue, and they resonate with the tradition of Yale with intimate and intense learning experiences. As described below, Yale will continue to provide some of its outstanding educational materials for free through MOOCs. However, there will likely be emphasis on SPOCs, which capture the essence of each of the recent online initiatives already reviewed (Yale College s online courses; F&ES certificate; and the School of Nursing D.N.P. program). Each is private insofar as the instruction is limited to fee-paying students, and all have had very small enrollments. SPOCs may result in richer programs at lower cost, allowing limited University resources to be allocated to other educational needs. 14

16 To elaborate, Yale is known for its small educational communities. Virtually all of Yale s schools are among the smallest of their peer group, and each prizes the intimacy of its community with the accent on student engagement. It seems obvious that serious online education programs that have huge enrollments for credit are unlikely to be part of the Yale equation going forward. For example, the University-wide Online Education Committee thinks there will not be an interest in pursuing an initiative like Georgia Tech s goal of registering 10,000 students in an online master s degree program. However, the committee believes there is much headroom at Yale to grow online credit-bearing courses, as well as certificate and degree programs in ways consistent with Yale s tradition of intense engagement with students and the University s emphasis on high standards of instruction. 2. New networks and consortia can provide powerful pathways for advancing a school s mission and/or enhancing learning at Yale and/or cutting costs. The recent SOM initiative offers a great example of the potential for online networks. Last fall, SOM inaugurated two online courses in which its students join with students from the business schools in SOM s twenty-five-member Global Network for Advanced Management. Both courses (Analysis of Competition Law and Enforcement across Countries, and Mobile Banking Opportunities across Countries) have regional nuances, so the perspectives of the students participating from Asia, Europe, and South America contribute to SOM students understanding. Also, the courses are organized with project teams, each with students from the various schools. For the pilot courses, SOM is shouldering the teaching responsibilities. But SOM is offering this semester a Network course taught by a Technion faculty member from Israel. There may be many other opportunities for Yale Schools and Centers to use their existing networks to sponsor online educational courses. 3. Public dissemination of free, online materials will remain a pathway for Yale. The newest initiative for MOOCs on the Coursera platform is described in Section V below, but the University will also remain alert to other emerging technology platforms that serve specific faculty interests. For example, we have had discussions with Stanford about OpenEdX, the open source platform they are helping to develop. Although initially conceived as a MOOC platform, there may be some specific advantages OpenEdX offers over Coursera, such as increased flexibility of course structure. We are prepared to experiment with OpenEdX should it serve as the best solution to support a particular faculty members vision of online dissemination. We will also continue to leverage the existing platforms that have served us well for many years, including Apple s itunes U. For faculty members who are excited about massive content dissemination without assessment or interaction, itunes remains a viable solution. 15

17 C. Likely Objectives for the Next Three Years Yale s objectives and the means for implementing them will most likely include the following: 1. For Yale College. A Yale College faculty committee in the fall of 2012 emphasized that there was no interest in pursing online degrees for the College at this time. Their excitement was about: increasing Yale College online courses for credit, both in terms of the numbers of courses and the numbers of students taking each through multiple sections; pursuing ways to use the online efforts to improve teaching at Yale and to foster pedagogical innovation; and continuing Yale s recent efforts in Open Yale Courses to disseminate some of our great teaching to the world for free. 2. For the Graduate School. The same objectives are pertinent for the Graduate School, given the shared FAS faculty. However, the Graduate School has not had a committee studying online education in the same way Yale College did last year. We hope that the new dean of the Graduate School will give serious consideration to creating a group to advise him or her about how the Graduate School can take advantage of online education and particularly how graduate students can learn more about online pedagogical innovation that can help them in their future careers. Graduate students on the Online Education Committee have been articulate advocates for Yale devoting more time and attention to helping Ph.D. candidates learn how to teach effectively in the online environment. A scan of the advertisements in the Chronicle of Higher Education, Inside Higher Ed, and Academic Jobs Wiki revealed that 47% of the faculty positions advertised over the past three years anticipated some online teaching experience. The figure rises to 60% when the focus is put on junior faculty positions. The student committee members pointed out that the adoption of more sections of online courses could provide teaching experience for them. In any case, some combination of the Yale Teaching Center and the Office of Digital Dissemination should expand the workshops and opportunities for graduate students to learn more about online pedagogy. Also, based upon the initial workshops conducted by the Committee, we believe there is a growing number of faculty who would be interested in more formal orientation about how to incorporate technology enhancement for their own teaching and who are curious about online educational opportunities more generally. 3. For the Professional Schools and Centers. Each of the professional schools can reflect on how or whether online educational initiatives would advance its school. Some may wish to pursue the example of F&ES and offer some of their certificate programs online. One or more may conclude, as did Nursing, that offering a new online or hybrid degree is a way to advance the school s mission. Such certificate or degree programs could contribute to the school s/center s mission by: 16

18 increasing the numbers of professionals benefiting from Yale faculty members knowledge; extending the school s impact around the globe by increasing the number of those benefiting from its educational programs; generating income that can fund other programs of the school, including financial aid; allowing residential students more flexibility in course completion by offering courses not synchronous with the usual start-stop dates of the fall and spring terms. 17

19 V. NEXT STEPS AND PROJECTS FOR YALE Online education will not revolutionize education at Yale, but it will change it in significant ways. Online outreach programs such as OYC and the newer Coursera courses will be an important part of the online initiative. But to resident Yale students, the greater issue will be how we harness technological innovation in the service of improved teaching and learning on campus and for those registered in Yale courses around the world. The online engagement can, and should, add value to what has been historically the essence of the Yale educational experience intense personal engagement and deep critical thinking. Yale s online educational projects have benefited from individual faculty members creativity and innovation. Many of the newest online projects within the Summer Session program, Coursera courses, and digital humanities, for example have been envisaged from the bottom up, rather than from the top down, as has often been the case at other institutions. Faculty members with ideas for teaching at Yale are given an opportunity to realize them according to their visions. This somewhat distinctive faculty-initiative-percolating-up approach has yielded great variety in the online projects being pursued. Sections II C-G above, have listed some of the accomplishments at Yale thus far, and Sections V A-E below suggest further direction where things might be headed with faculty leadership and innovation will remain at the forefront. As the future unfolds, it will be even more important to establish ways in which the many units of the universities departments, programs, and schools work with one another so as to learn what is possible and what constitutes best practices. The work of the new University-wide Committee is an example as are the open workshops it is conducting. But more needs to be done. For example, the Yale School of Medicine has instituted several programs to support faculty in the use of technologies to develop online web and video resources with the goal of facilitating inclass learning activities. An overarching principle of these initiatives is to enable faculty to develop curricular resources independently and to receive support in instituting classroom pedagogies that take advantage of online resources. To foster faculty engagement in these initiatives, it has been important that there be central support and training in the use of easily accessible studio resources, support in the effective design of online materials and guidance for faculty in establishing appropriate classroom pedagogies to ensure connectivity between online curricular materials and the learner s classroom engagement and experiences. Learning from the example of the School of Medicine, the faculty of FAS and the other schools should be given the same opportunities to embrace digital teaching and learning as their medical colleagues enjoy. Needed is (1) equipment, such as a video capture and broadcast center, on the central campus, and (2) training in its use, so as to boost the faculty comfort level with technology and promote pedagogical innovation. In a like manner, graduate students should be given training in online teaching as well as increased opportunities for applying these methods of instruction, specifically, through more teaching assistantships in online courses. This is just one example of how synergies can be created on campus, east to west. 18

20 In sum, as the name universitas suggests, teachers and students throughout Yale should be empowered and equipped to use digital technology, all learning from one another. The challenge to Yale s administrators is to empower the faculty with resources that require a low threshold for use and to provide mechanisms for engagement and assessment that are informed by the faculty s continuing creativity and innovation. The faculty's role is to identify and refine how these pedagogies can be used to enhance their teaching so as to allow the learner to have greater engagement with the faculty in the classroom and online, and thereby enhance the learner s ability to master ideas and content. Listed below are a few of the initiatives that will play a role in this cooperative exchange of innovative ideas. A. MOOCs We launched the first MOOCs for the general public in January 2014 and will work to have a growing library of free courses. The University should encourage those faculty who are already mounting an online credit or certificate course to offer some part of it as a free MOOC, thereby expanding the reach of Yale s online education and reducing the production costs for a MOOC. We will also encourage faculty members to follow their own vision for what an online course might be so that Yale can learn from their creativity. The Fall 2012 Yale College Committee on Online Education, co-chaired by Professors Craig Wright and Paul Bloom, recommended that Yale adopt one of the MOOC platforms. Members of the Yale College faculty committee who tested both the edx and Coursera platforms believed that the student experience through Coursera was superior at the time. They were also impressed by Coursera s efforts to share effective teaching practices, foster faculty conversation across institutions, and encourage collaboration among the partner institutions. After conversations with both edx and Coursera, Yale announced an agreement with Coursera in May Yale does not pay a fee to Coursera to have its courses published or supported by Coursera. Note that Yale remains committed to non-exclusivity with platform providers; as with Open Yale Courses, we think it preferable to maximize the number of distribution channels for educational materials. The first four Yale MOOCs on Coursera include the Law School s first online course as well as courses from three FAS veterans of Yale s earlier online efforts: Akhil Amar, Sterling Professor of Law: Constitutional Law Paul Bloom, Brooks and Suzanne Ragen Professor of Psychology: Moralities of Everyday Life 19

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