Handbook of Literary Terms (You need a definition and an example. (example can be a movie, story, book, comic, etc. - in sentence form or a drawing)

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1 Handbook of Literary Terms (You need a definition and an example. (example can be a movie, story, book, comic, etc. - in sentence form or a drawing) Drama Terms: 1. allusion 2. aside 3. blank verse (You also need to know iambic pentameter, a word from earlier this semester.) 4. dialogue 5. drama 6. foil 7. soliloquy 8. tragedy - a play depicting serious and... (p. 1204) 9. tragic flaw - the possible cause of a character's downfall, which may be caused by an error in judgment or a character's weakness 10.tragic hero - the main character who may suffer defeat, possibly even death, but also wins some self-knowledge or wisdom by the end. The tragic hero is usually dignified and courageous, and often high ranking.

2 Julius Caesar: (c BC) - powerful general & member of the Roman Senate - rose to power & formed a triumvirate (three-man government) with Pompey and Crassus - after Crassus died (and Pompey's wife, who was Caesar's daughter died) a civil war broke out between Caesar & Pompey - Caesar's power grew! - declared himself sole dictator, which ticked off the Senate! Writing Prompt for the end of the play: Shakespeare s play The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is about power, fidelity, and loyalty. In the play Caesar states, "If you must break the law, do it to seize power; in all other cases, observe it. Brutus, Antony, and Octavius all do just this. Write a persuasive essay agreeing or disagreeing with Caesar s statement. Provide specific examples from literature or history to support your position.

3 Marullus says to the commoners: Didn't you used to say the same thing about Pompey? Now you're all about Caesar!. We learn the people are FICKLE! They're not really that loyal, or rather, their loyalties change easily. We also learn that Marullus & Flavius are not Caesar fans. FYI: We also know by the end of Scene 1 that M. & F. are about to go pull down all of the decorations on all of the statues of Caesar. This action will come back around later in Act I.

4 Lupercal fertility festival -all the strong, young men RACE -Antony is in the race -Caesar tells wife to stand in Antony's way -legend said being touched by the runners would make a barren woman fertile We find out about two things: Roman superstition & Caesar has no heir (no son)

5 1. Why is Act 1, Scene 1 so important? This is where the main political conflict is established. The politics in this play will cause the main conflict for this tragedy. Anything else? 2. In Scene I, what do Flavius and Marcellus want the commoners to do? They want the commoners to break up and move along; they don't want them to celebrate Caesar's triumphs.

6 3. What is a Soothsayer? a fortune-teller (This play is full of superstition!) 4. What is the Soothsayer's advice to Caesar? The Soothsayer told Caesar to "Beware the Ides of March. (FORESHADOWING! He is warning him something will happen on March 15.)

7 5. Explain the difference between the views of Caesar held by Cassius and Brutus. Cassius openly wants Caesar out of power. He is jealous and wants better for himself. He points out how Caesar is not a god or anymore deserving than the other Senators. Brutus has been thinking about Caesar and the state of his countrymen, and at this point is ready to listen to Cassius. Although Brutus loves Caesar, he recognizes Caesar's flaws. 6. Caesar clearly gives his thoughts about Cassius. What does he say? Caesar says that Cassius "has a lean and hungry look. He thinks too much and such men are dangerous." In other words, he is saying Cassius WANTS MORE. He is not the kind of man who is happy with his position when someone else is in charge. an important note, here: Caesar's tragic flaw is revealed in this conversation about Cassius. He knows Cassius is dangerous, but this character flaw does not allow him to admit he himself is in danger in order to act on his concerns. What is this character flaw? PRIDE -- He's too proud to admit he is vulnerable to anyone or anything!

8 7. Summarize Casca's explanation of why Caesar looked "so sad" (I.ii.217). Antony offered Caesar a crown in front of the people. When he refused it, the crowd cheered. So, although Caesar really wanted the crown, he at that point could not publicly accept it. (He's playing politics!) Then he had a seizure. 8. At the end of Scene II in lines , Cassius makes plans. What plans does he make? Why? He is going to forge notes to Brutus that appear to be from different citizens. The letters will appeal to Brutus's sense of honor (how the people think Brutus truly has Rome's best interest at heart). They will also hint at Caesar's dangerous rule and ambition. This is all to help sway Brutus against Caesar. 9. What is Cassius s motivation in Scene 2? Cassius is motivated by his jealousy of someone he sees as an equal having more power and more support than he does. He is motivated to get Brutus to join the conspiracy against Caesar.

9 10. Why does Cassius want Brutus to join the conspiracy? Brutus is a favorite of the people. He is honorable and wellthought-of. If the people would see that Brutus supported the conspiracy, the conspirators would be in better favor with the people following the assassination. He could make it look legit. 11. Reread Scene 2, lines (You may want to record these to better remember.) What can we infer Cassius is telling Brutus? He is saying that their lives are not left to fate; he thinks that it is up to them to change what they do not like about their situation. (These lines express the essence of tragic drama: The hero has a tragic flaw that causes his actions to end in tragedy.) 11. (OOPS!) Casca says, "For I believe they are portentous things/unto the climate that they point upon" (I.iii.31-32). What does he mean? He is pointed out some unnatural phenomena in the weather. This is yet another example of how superstitious the Romans (as well as the Renaissance people) were. It is also more foreshadowing and a restatement of the political instability.

10 12. Cicero says, this disturbed sky / Is not to walk in (I.iii.39-40). Besides the actual weather what is he saying about himself and the conspiracy. He is saying he wants no part in the conspiracy against Caesar. (The assassination plot would be a metaphor for the disturbed sky.) 13. In Act I, how is Cassius a foil to Brutus? Cassius is practical, realistic, manipulative, and cunning. Brutus is idealistic, naive (about others' motives), and noble. 14. How would you describe what Act I shows us about the political mood and behavior of Rome? The political behavior is rather fickle, meaning the people change their minds easily and are not loyal to one mode of thinking. This is a very unstable mood that underlies the entire play.

11 15. When we first see Brutus, what is his frame of mind? Brutus says he is "with himself at war" (I.ii.46). To say you are at war with yourself means you are struggling inwardly with a problem of conscience. Basically, he says he has a problem he's trying to sort out. INTERNAL CONFLICT 16. Who are the two factions for and against Caesar? naming only the leading individuals: Cassius & Brutus versus Antony The people are the most loyal supporters of Caesar in Act I. 17. Why does Antony offer the crown three times to Caesar? He wants to judge the crowds' reaction to the idea of Caesar being crowned king. (Side note: Antony was no dummy! He understood the power of the people's support was very important to gaining power over people. If they liked the idea of Caesar as king, then he'd support Caesar's kingship, too. In that way, he could be in good with the people and with Caesar.)

12 18. What is revealed about Caesar after the third time? Immediately after the third refusal of the crown, Caesar faints and begins to have a seizure. We learn that he has a physical ailment (which was already described by Cassius). 19. What is Caesar s tragic flaw as revealed in the following line, I rather tell the what is to be feared / than what I fear; for always I am Caesar? This shows us he is proud. Pride is his tragic flaw. 20. In Act I, the soothsayer, the weather omens, the ideas about the angry gods, and the belief that if Calphurnia touches Antony in the race she will no longer be barren are some of the things that tell us the Roman people were rather. superstitious

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