General Chemistry (Chem110) Dr. Rima Alharthy

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1 General Chemistry (Chem110) Dr. Rima Alharthy Assistant professor in Medicinal and organic synthesis University of Nottingham, UK Building 4 room 204 Office hours (Mondays and Wednesdays 8:00-9:30 a.m.) Chapter 2 (p1-p31)

2 Chapter 2: Atoms, molecules and ions 2.1-The Atomic theory 2.3-Atomic number, mass number and isotopes 2.4-The periodic table 2.5-Molecules and ions 2.6-Chemical formulas 2.7-Naming compounds

3 Chapter 2: Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. Examples: Na, Cl, Ca and H 2 All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements.

4 Chapter 2: Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. Examples: H 2 O, NaCl and CaCO 3 Chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not result in their creation or destruction.

5 Chapter 2: The structure of the atom Proton + Neutron ± Electron - Protons and electrons are the only particles that have a charge. Protons and neutrons have essentially the same mass. The mass of an electron is so small we ignore it.

6 Chapter 2: Atomic number and mass number Atomic number (Z) Number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = Number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons Atomic number Mass number Na Sodium Element symbol Element name

7 Example 2.1 Give the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in each of the following species: Element Mass Number Atomic Number Number of electrons Number of protons Number of neutrons Na Na O C

8 Chapter 2: isotopes Isotopes Atoms that have the same atomic number (i.e protons and electrons) but different mass numbers (i.e. neutrons) Examples Active, used in nuclear weapons U U Not active

9 Chapter 2: isotopes Some applications of isotopes Nuclear reactors and weapons. Radiation oncology. Spectroscopy. Chemical labelling technique. Properties of isotopes The chemical properties of an element are determined primarily by the protons and electrons. Neutrons do not take a part in chemical changes under normal conditions.

10 Chapter 2: Periodic table Alkaline Metal Group 1A Alkaline Earth Metal Group 2A Main group elements 1A-7A Group Halides 7A Noble Gases 8A Transition metals 1-8B Period Lanthanides Actanides

11 Chapter 2: molecules Molecule An aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces (bonds). Diatomic molecule polyatomic molecule contains only two atoms contains more than two atoms H 2, N 2, O 2, Br 2, HCl, CO O 3, H 2 O, NH 3, CH 4

12 Ion Chapter 2: ions is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive or negative charge. Cation Anion Na - 1 electron + 1 electron Na + Cl Cl - 11 electrons 10 electrons 17 electrons 18 electrons If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation has a positive charge If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion. Anion has a negative charge

13 Chapter 2: ions Cation Monoatomic cation Na +, K +, Mg 2+ Polyatomic cation NH 4 + Anion Monoatomic anion Cl -, Br -,S 2 - Polyatomic anion OH -

14 Chapter 2: Chemical formulas Molecular formula Shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance Empirical formula Shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance Molecular H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 empirical H 2 O CH 2 O O 3 O N 2 H 4 NH 2

15 Chapter 2 Formula of ionic compounds Ionic compounds Consist of a combination of cations (metal) and anions (non metal) The sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero The ionic compound NaCl

16 Chapter 2: Ionic formula Example 2.4 Write the formula of a) magnesium nitride containing Mg 2+ and N 3- ions. b) Chromium sulfate containing Cr 3+ and SO 2-4 ions. c) Titanium oxide containing Ti 4+ and O 2- ions.

17

18 Chapter 2 Naming compounds Chemical nomenclature of inorganic compounds 1- Ionic compounds 2- molecular compounds 3- acids and bases 4- hydrates

19 Chapter 2: Naming ionic compounds Ionic Compounds Formed of metal + nonmetal Rules of naming ionic compounds Starts with the cation (metal) original name. End with anion (nonmetal), add -ide to element name Examples Mg(OH) 2 KNO 3 magnesium hydroxide potassium nitrate BaCl 2 K 2 O barium chloride potassium oxide

20 Chapter 2: Naming ionic compounds

21 Cation Anion Aluminium Al 3+ Bromide Br - Ammonium NH + 4 Carbonate (CO 3 ) 2- Barium Ba 2+ Chlorate (ClO 3 ) - Cadmium Cd 2+ Chloride Cl - Calcium Ca 2+ Chromate (CrO 4 ) 2- Cesium Cs + Cyanide CN - Chromium(III)Cr 3+ Dichromate (Cr 2 O 7 ) 2- Cobalt (II) Co 2+ Dihydrogen phosphate (H 2 PO 4 ) - Copper (I) Cu + Fluoride F - Copper (II) Cu 2+ Hydride H - Hydrogen H + (Proton) Hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) - Iron (II) Fe 2+ Hydrogen phosphate (HPO 4 ) 2- Iron (III) Fe 3+ Hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate (HSO 4 ) - Lead(II) Pb 2+ Hydroxide OH - Lithium Li + Iodide I - Magnesium Mg 2+ Nitrate (NO 3 ) - Manganese (II) Mn 2+ Nitride N - *Mercury (I) Hg 2+ 2 Nitrite (NO 2 ) - Mercury (II) Hg 2+ Oxide O 2- Potassium K + Permenganate (MnO 4 ) - Rubidium Rb + Peroxide O 2-2 Silver Ag + Phosphate (PO 4 ) 3- Sodium Na + Sulfate (SO 4 ) 2- Strontium Sr 2+ Sulfide S 2- Tin (II) Sn 2+ Sulfite (SO 3 ) 2- Tin (IV) Sn 4+ Thiocyanate (SCN) - Zinc Zn 2+

22 Chapter 2: Naming ionic compounds Transition metal ionic compounds can form more than one cation. Therefore, old Roman nomenclature system (Stock system) applies. Examples FeCl 2 Iron (II) chloride FeCl 3 Iron (III) chloride Cr 2 S 3 Chromium (III) sulfide

23 Chapter 2: Example 2.5 Name the following compounds: a) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 b) KH 2 PO 4 c) NH 4 ClO 3 d) PbO e) Li 2 SO 3

24 Chapter 2: Example 2.6 Write chemical formulas for the following compounds a) Mercury (I) nitrite b) Cesium sulfide c) Calcium phosphate d) Rubidium sulfate e) Barium hydride

25 Chapter 2: naming molecular compounds Molecular binary compounds Formed of nonmetal + nonmetal or nonmetals + metalloids Examples H 2 O, NH 3 and CH 4 Rules of naming molecular compounds Starts with element nonmetal End with ide for nonmetal Omit prefix (eg. mono for first element. For oxides omit the ending a and o in the prefix.

26 Chapter 2: naming molecular compounds Examples HI hydrogen iodide SO 2 sulfur dioxide N 2 Cl 4 dinitrogen tetrachloride NO 2 nitrogen dioxide N 2 O dinitrogen monoxide

27 Chapter 2: Example 2.7 Name the following molecular compounds: a) SiCl 4 b) P 4 O 10 c) NF 3 d) Cl 2 O 7

28 Chapter 2: Example 2.8 Write chemical formulas for the following compounds a) Carbon disulfide b) Disilicon hexabromide c) Sulfur tetraflouride d) Dinitrogen pentoxide

29 Chapter 2: naming acids and bases Acid a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water. Example HCl Pure substance Dissolved in water hydrogen chloride hydrochloric acid

30 Chapter 2: naming acids and bases Rules of naming acids Starts with Hydro Ends with element + ic + acid

31 Chapter 2: Naming bases Base a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH - ) when dissolved in water. Rules of naming basse Starts with element Ends with hydroxide Examples NaOH KOH Ba(OH) 2 Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Barium hydroxide

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