Chapter 31 Chemical Bonding. After the bond is formed. Before the bond is formed

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1 Chapter 31 Chemical Bonding There are over 100 naturally occurring elements but these elements can combine chemically to form a huge variety of compounds by a process of chemical bonding. After the bond is formed Chemical bonding A chemical bond is formed when the outer electrons of two atoms are shared [ covalent bond] or completely transferred [ionic bond] between the atoms. Na+ Cl- Ionic bonding We shall now look at how ionic bonds are formed between atoms. Example 1; Describe the ionic bond in Sodium Chloride, NaCl. Answer; Sodium has 11 electrons and chlorine has 17 electrons. Sodium transfers its only outer electron to Chlorine. Before the bond is formed Because it gained an electron Cl is now a negatively charged Cl - ion. Sodium has lost an electron so it will be a positively charged Na +. The positive Sodium and the negative Chloride ion are attracted to each other and form a very strong bond. This is an ionic bond. Both sodium and chlorine now have a full outer-shell and are stable. An Ionic bond is the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound. An ion is a charged atom or group of atoms. N a Electron transfer Sodium now has a full outer shell as its next shell has 8 electrons in it. Chlorine now has eight electrons in its outer shell. C When atoms join together to form a chemical bond they do so according to the octet rule. ctet rule When an atom forms a chemical bond it will attempt to gain eight electrons in its outer shell (or at least a full outer shell). This will make the atom stable.

2 Example 2; Describe the ionic bond between magnesium and oxygen in magnesium oxide, Mg. Answer; Magnesium has 12 electrons, 2 in the first shell, 8 in the second shell and 2 in the third. xygen has 8 electrons, 2 in the first shell and 6 in the second. Junior Certificate Chemistry The oxygen has gained two electrons and now has eight electrons in the outer shell, which makes it stable. It has gained two electrons and has a -2 charge. It is now called an oxide ion. After electron transfer Before electrons transferred Mg +2 Magnesium ion -2 xygen ion Magnesium atom xygen atom If magnesium loses its two outer electrons the third shell doesn t exist anymore. The second shell is now the outer shell and this has eight electrons, which is very stable. Because the magnesium atom has lost two electrons it now has a +2 charge. It is now called an ion (charged atom). 2 G. Nugent

3 Covalent Bonds Covalent bond In a covalent bond the electrons are shared between the atoms involved, but the same rule applies, the atoms will try to gain eight electrons in their outer shells (octet rule). C Example 1; The formation of covalent bonds in a molecule of methane, C 4. Example 2; Draw a molecule of water, 2. Carbon atom ydrogen atoms The Carbon atom has 4 electrons in the outer shell. It will share 1 electron with each of the hydrogen atoms, therefore obtaining 8 electrons in the outer shell, at least part of the time. ydrogen will have 2 electrons in the outer shell, which is all it needs as the first shell holds only 2 electrons anyway. Therefore, carbon forms four covalent bonds with the hydrogen atoms. The methane molecule can be represented as shown above using circles and dots or by the structure shown below. From the diagram we can see that the oxygen atom has six electrons on the outer shell. It shares two electrons, one from each hydrogen, and obtains eight electrons on its outer shell. This makes the oxygen atom stable and the hydrogen atoms are also stable because each has two electrons in their first shell, which is all they need. The water molecule can also be drawn as,

4 Double covalent bonds If two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms then a double covalent bond is said to be formed between them. Example 3; Draw a molecule of oxygen. Each oxygen atom has six electrons on its outer shell. By sharing two electrons with the other oxygen atom each will obtain eight electrons on the outer shell, making them stable. This type of bond is a double bond because two pairs of electrons are shared between the two atoms. It may also be represented as, Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Ionic compounds The particles which make up an ionic compound are positive and negative ions. Each positive ion is attracted to many negative ions around it. This means that the strength of the ionic bond is felt over a wide area. The ions in an ionic bond are held together very strongly. Because of this ionic compounds have the following properties. 1. They consist of giant crystals. 2. They are solids because of the great attraction between the ions. 3. They have high melting points and boiling points because a lot of energy is needed to separate the ions from each other. 4. They are soluble in water. The water molecules are attracted to the ions and pull them out of the crystals and into solution. 5. They conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water because the ions are free to move around and carry electric charge. Covalent compounds The unit particles which make up covalent compounds are molecules. The covalent bonds within a molecule, between the atoms, are strong but each individual molecule has no attraction, or very little, for the other molecules around it. Therefore, the molecules of a covalent compound are only loosely held together. For this reason, covalent compounds have the following properties. 1. They consist of separate molecules. 2. They are usually liquids or gases. 3. They have low melting points and boiling points because not much energy is needed to separate the molecules from each other. 4. They are insoluble in water.

5 5. They do not conduct electricity. Experiment; To investigate the ability of ionic and covalent compounds to conduct electricity. 1. Set up the apparatus as shown below. 2. Place a variety of liquids in the beaker and record whether or not the bulb lights. 3. If samples of distilled water, paraffin oil, methylated spirits are placed in the beaker, the bulb will not light because they are covalent compounds and do not conduct electricity. 4. If you place solutions of salt, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, or copper sulphate dissolved in water in the beaker the bulb will light, because they are ionic compounds. battery bulb electrodes

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