Chapter 31 Chemical Bonding. After the bond is formed. Before the bond is formed

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 31 Chemical Bonding. After the bond is formed. Before the bond is formed"

Transcription

1 Chapter 31 Chemical Bonding There are over 100 naturally occurring elements but these elements can combine chemically to form a huge variety of compounds by a process of chemical bonding. After the bond is formed Chemical bonding A chemical bond is formed when the outer electrons of two atoms are shared [ covalent bond] or completely transferred [ionic bond] between the atoms. Na+ Cl- Ionic bonding We shall now look at how ionic bonds are formed between atoms. Example 1; Describe the ionic bond in Sodium Chloride, NaCl. Answer; Sodium has 11 electrons and chlorine has 17 electrons. Sodium transfers its only outer electron to Chlorine. Before the bond is formed Because it gained an electron Cl is now a negatively charged Cl - ion. Sodium has lost an electron so it will be a positively charged Na +. The positive Sodium and the negative Chloride ion are attracted to each other and form a very strong bond. This is an ionic bond. Both sodium and chlorine now have a full outer-shell and are stable. An Ionic bond is the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound. An ion is a charged atom or group of atoms. N a Electron transfer Sodium now has a full outer shell as its next shell has 8 electrons in it. Chlorine now has eight electrons in its outer shell. C When atoms join together to form a chemical bond they do so according to the octet rule. ctet rule When an atom forms a chemical bond it will attempt to gain eight electrons in its outer shell (or at least a full outer shell). This will make the atom stable.

2 Example 2; Describe the ionic bond between magnesium and oxygen in magnesium oxide, Mg. Answer; Magnesium has 12 electrons, 2 in the first shell, 8 in the second shell and 2 in the third. xygen has 8 electrons, 2 in the first shell and 6 in the second. Junior Certificate Chemistry The oxygen has gained two electrons and now has eight electrons in the outer shell, which makes it stable. It has gained two electrons and has a -2 charge. It is now called an oxide ion. After electron transfer Before electrons transferred Mg +2 Magnesium ion -2 xygen ion Magnesium atom xygen atom If magnesium loses its two outer electrons the third shell doesn t exist anymore. The second shell is now the outer shell and this has eight electrons, which is very stable. Because the magnesium atom has lost two electrons it now has a +2 charge. It is now called an ion (charged atom). 2 G. Nugent

3 Covalent Bonds Covalent bond In a covalent bond the electrons are shared between the atoms involved, but the same rule applies, the atoms will try to gain eight electrons in their outer shells (octet rule). C Example 1; The formation of covalent bonds in a molecule of methane, C 4. Example 2; Draw a molecule of water, 2. Carbon atom ydrogen atoms The Carbon atom has 4 electrons in the outer shell. It will share 1 electron with each of the hydrogen atoms, therefore obtaining 8 electrons in the outer shell, at least part of the time. ydrogen will have 2 electrons in the outer shell, which is all it needs as the first shell holds only 2 electrons anyway. Therefore, carbon forms four covalent bonds with the hydrogen atoms. The methane molecule can be represented as shown above using circles and dots or by the structure shown below. From the diagram we can see that the oxygen atom has six electrons on the outer shell. It shares two electrons, one from each hydrogen, and obtains eight electrons on its outer shell. This makes the oxygen atom stable and the hydrogen atoms are also stable because each has two electrons in their first shell, which is all they need. The water molecule can also be drawn as,

4 Double covalent bonds If two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms then a double covalent bond is said to be formed between them. Example 3; Draw a molecule of oxygen. Each oxygen atom has six electrons on its outer shell. By sharing two electrons with the other oxygen atom each will obtain eight electrons on the outer shell, making them stable. This type of bond is a double bond because two pairs of electrons are shared between the two atoms. It may also be represented as, Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Ionic compounds The particles which make up an ionic compound are positive and negative ions. Each positive ion is attracted to many negative ions around it. This means that the strength of the ionic bond is felt over a wide area. The ions in an ionic bond are held together very strongly. Because of this ionic compounds have the following properties. 1. They consist of giant crystals. 2. They are solids because of the great attraction between the ions. 3. They have high melting points and boiling points because a lot of energy is needed to separate the ions from each other. 4. They are soluble in water. The water molecules are attracted to the ions and pull them out of the crystals and into solution. 5. They conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water because the ions are free to move around and carry electric charge. Covalent compounds The unit particles which make up covalent compounds are molecules. The covalent bonds within a molecule, between the atoms, are strong but each individual molecule has no attraction, or very little, for the other molecules around it. Therefore, the molecules of a covalent compound are only loosely held together. For this reason, covalent compounds have the following properties. 1. They consist of separate molecules. 2. They are usually liquids or gases. 3. They have low melting points and boiling points because not much energy is needed to separate the molecules from each other. 4. They are insoluble in water.

5 5. They do not conduct electricity. Experiment; To investigate the ability of ionic and covalent compounds to conduct electricity. 1. Set up the apparatus as shown below. 2. Place a variety of liquids in the beaker and record whether or not the bulb lights. 3. If samples of distilled water, paraffin oil, methylated spirits are placed in the beaker, the bulb will not light because they are covalent compounds and do not conduct electricity. 4. If you place solutions of salt, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, or copper sulphate dissolved in water in the beaker the bulb will light, because they are ionic compounds. battery bulb electrodes

OC42 Recall that ionic bonding is an attraction between positive and negative ions; describe the bonding in NaCl and MgO as examples

OC42 Recall that ionic bonding is an attraction between positive and negative ions; describe the bonding in NaCl and MgO as examples Chemistry: 7. Ionic and Covalent Bonding Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC41 Understand how atoms of elements combine

More information

*Hence, these elements react in order to achieve the noble gas configurations. This is made possible by any one of the three ways given below.

*Hence, these elements react in order to achieve the noble gas configurations. This is made possible by any one of the three ways given below. Chemical Bonding Noble gas configuration *Helium (He), neon (Ne) and argon (Ar) are some examples of the noble gases. They are found in Group 0 of the Periodic Table. *Noble gases exist as individual and

More information

Unit 5 Lesson 4 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 5 Lesson 4 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Opposites Attract What is an ion? An atom has a neutral charge because it has an equal number of electrons and protons. An ion is a particle with a positive or negative charge. An ion forms when an atom

More information

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2).

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). Q. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). (a) The diagrams represent molecules of hydrogen and chlorine. Draw a similar diagram to represent a molecule

More information

When electrons are transferred from one atom to another it is called ionic bonding.

When electrons are transferred from one atom to another it is called ionic bonding. Ionic bonding The nature of the ionic bond When electrons are transferred from one atom to another it is called ionic bonding. Electronegativity is a property of an atom, describing how strongly it attracts

More information

Name: Date: Period: Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 1

Name: Date: Period: Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 1 Name: Date: Period: Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 1 Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds A is the force that holds two atoms together. Chemical bonds form by the attraction between the positive nucleus

More information

Q1. The picture shows sodium reacting with chlorine. The reaction forms sodium chloride. mixture. (i) sodium... (ii) sodium chloride?...

Q1. The picture shows sodium reacting with chlorine. The reaction forms sodium chloride. mixture. (i) sodium... (ii) sodium chloride?... Q. The picture shows sodium reacting with chlorine. The reaction forms sodium chloride. (a) Use words from the box to answer the questions. compoun d element hydrocarbo n mixture Which word best describes:

More information

Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds

Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together. Chemical bonds form by the attraction between the positive nucleus of one atom and the negative electrons

More information

With this in mind, you are going to learn about how atoms combine to form new substances, and how the bonds between the atoms come about.

With this in mind, you are going to learn about how atoms combine to form new substances, and how the bonds between the atoms come about. 8.1-8.3 Introduction to Chemical Bonding In the unit on electron structure, it was clearly seen how the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of the atom of an element can be deduced from the specific

More information

IPS Unit 9 Chemical Bonding and Formulas. Section 2

IPS Unit 9 Chemical Bonding and Formulas. Section 2 IPS Unit 9 Chemical Bonding and Formulas Section 2 Making Atoms Stable How does hydrogen, or any other element, become stable? They do this by combining with other atoms so that by gaining, losing, or

More information

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances LI 1 Covalent Bonds Most atoms do not exist as single atoms. They are mainly found combined with other atoms in

More information

Atomic Theory. Chemical Bonding

Atomic Theory. Chemical Bonding Atomic Theory Chemical Bonding Forming Compounds Forming Compounds A compound is a pure substance composed of two or more atoms combined in a specific way. Only one type of molecule is present in a compound.

More information

Ionic compounds and analysis. C2 Topic 2

Ionic compounds and analysis. C2 Topic 2 Ionic compounds and analysis C2 Topic 2 Why do atoms form bonds? Atoms of different elements can combine to form compounds by the formation of new chemical bonds Bonds involve the electrons in the outer

More information

Chemical Bonds. Types of Bonds. Before You Read. Read to Learn

Chemical Bonds. Types of Bonds. Before You Read. Read to Learn chapter 18 Chemical Bonds section 2 Types of Bonds What You ll Learn what ionic bonds and covalent bonds are what particles are produced by ionic and covalent bonding about polar and nonpolar covalent

More information

Year 10 Chemistry Exam June 2012

Year 10 Chemistry Exam June 2012 Year 10 Chemistry Exam June 2012 Answer the multiple choice questions on the multiple choice sheet provided 1. The table below shows details of several particles. Atomic number Mass number Number of Number

More information

Section 1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Section 1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds Section 1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds Key Concept The properties of ionic compounds are different from the properties of covalent compounds. What You Will Learn The physical properties of a compound are

More information

Wk 20&21 Ionic & Covalent Bonding.notebook. January 29, 2016

Wk 20&21 Ionic & Covalent Bonding.notebook. January 29, 2016 1/19 or 1/20/16 Wk 20 Bonding Objectives: SWBAT 7.1: Describe how oppositely charged particles attract to form neutral ionic compounds. IN: New Seating Chart & Notebook Requirements OUT: Be sure your notebook

More information

Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds

Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds Sec. 5.1 Simple Ions 1. Relate the electron configuration of an atom to its chemical reactivity. 2. Determine an atom s number of valence electrons, and use the

More information

Properties of ionic compounds. Instructions and answers for teachers

Properties of ionic compounds. Instructions and answers for teachers Properties of ionic compounds Instructions and answers for teachers These instructions should accompany the OCR resource Properties of ionic compounds activity which supports OCR GCSE (9 1) Twenty First

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

Ch. 4 Atoms and Bonding Outline

Ch. 4 Atoms and Bonding Outline Ch. 4 Atoms and Bonding Outline Lesson 1 A. Atoms bond to form compounds. This happens due to the behavior of the electrons of the atoms. 1. Electrons are found on different energy levels outside of an

More information

Section 2 Ionic Bonds

Section 2 Ionic Bonds Section 2 Ionic Bonds Key Concept Ionic bonds form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom. What You Will Learn Ions of different elements can combine by forming ionic bonds. Positive

More information

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons)

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atomic Number equal to the number of protons Mass Number protons + neutrons Charge when # of electrons # of protons Negatively Charged Ion

More information

Chenistry C2 question booklet part 1

Chenistry C2 question booklet part 1 Chenistry C2 question booklet part 94 minutes 94 marks Page of 34 Q. The diagram represents a carbon atom. (a) Use words from the box to answer the questions. electron neutron nucleus proton (i) What is

More information

Question Bank Chemical Bonding

Question Bank Chemical Bonding Question Bank Chemical Bonding 1. Give one word/words for the statements given below : (a) Arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom. [1] (b) A compound formed by the actual exchange of electrons

More information

UNIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry)

UNIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry) UIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry) 1. Which would be the best definition of an ionic bond? a. The attraction between the partial positive region of one molecule and the partial negative region

More information

3s 2 3p 4. 2s 2 2p 1. Ionic Compounds. Chemical bonds. Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols

3s 2 3p 4. 2s 2 2p 1. Ionic Compounds. Chemical bonds. Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols Chemical bonds Chemical bond -- a strong attractive force between atoms that binds them together to form chemical compounds There are three classes of chemical bonds: Ionic bonds -- electrostatic forces

More information

Chapter 7 Chemical Bonds

Chapter 7 Chemical Bonds Chapter 7 Chemical Bonds (A) Basic Concepts of Bonding 1. Define bonding. Bonding is a process in which an atom transfers electrons to, or shares electrons with, another atom in order to obtain the Octet

More information

Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding

Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding Practise questions (Basic) are designed to ensure that students are aware of the basic concepts of the topic. This should be the first

More information

Introduction to Ionic Bonds

Introduction to Ionic Bonds Introduction to Ionic Bonds The forces that hold matter together are called chemical bonds. There are four major types of bonds. We need to learn in detail about these bonds and how they influence the

More information

Chemistry C2 Section Course Notes. decomposing into their elements. Electrolysis - ionic compounds

Chemistry C2 Section Course Notes. decomposing into their elements. Electrolysis - ionic compounds Course Notes Chemistry C2 Section 6 2013 Electrolysis - ionic compounds decomposing into their elements What is electrolysis all about? Electrolysis is a red-ox and a decomposition reaction. It is responsible

More information

CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6. Ionic and Metallic Bonding Covalent Bonding

CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6. Ionic and Metallic Bonding Covalent Bonding CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 6 Ionic and Metallic Bonding Covalent Bonding CHEMICAL BONDS A Chemical bond is a force that holds two or more atoms together. Chemical bonds involve (use) the valence electrons in the

More information

The topics in this unit are:

The topics in this unit are: The topics in this unit are: 1 Spheres of the earth 2 The atmosphere 3 The atmosphere (molecules) 4 The atmosphere (bonding) 5 The hydrosphere 6 The hydrosphere (the sea) 7 The lithosphere (elements) 8

More information

Ionic Compounds & Metals! Ion Formation!

Ionic Compounds & Metals! Ion Formation! Ionic Compounds & Metals! Ion Formation! Valence Electrons & Chemical Bonds! Main Idea: are formed when atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve a electron configuration.! Atoms gain or lose electrons to

More information

Ionic Bonding and Metallic Bonding

Ionic Bonding and Metallic Bonding Ionic Bonding and Metallic Bonding Keeping Track of Electrons The electrons responsible for the chemical properties of atoms are those in the outer energy level. Valence electrons - The s and p electrons

More information

1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds

1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds CHAPTER 3 1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds SECTION Chemical Compounds BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are ionic compounds? What are covalent

More information

Q4 Fill in the blanks

Q4 Fill in the blanks Q1 Draw the electronic structure of the ions in Sodium chloride Q2 Draw the electronic structure of the ions in Magnesium oxide Q3 Draw the electronic structure of the ions in Calcium chloride Q4 Fill

More information

Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding

Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding Chapter 9 ALABAMA 8TH GiAD SCINC STANDARDS COVRD IN THIS CHAPTR INCLUD: 5 Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds Illustrating the transfer or sharing of electrons using electron dot diagrams BONDING

More information

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? 12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

More information

2 Combinations of Atoms

2 Combinations of Atoms CHAPTER 4 2 Combinations of Atoms SECTION Earth Chemistry KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are compounds and molecules? What are chemical formulas? What are two types

More information

Outcome: Students will classify elements in the periodic table and model the formation of ionic bonds.

Outcome: Students will classify elements in the periodic table and model the formation of ionic bonds. Outcome: Students will classify elements in the periodic table and model the formation of ionic bonds. Warm-up: 1. Why do atoms form bonds? 2. How are ions formed? 3. Write the symbol and charge of the

More information

Matter. Mixtures. Pure Substances. Metals. Ionic. Non-metals. Covalent. Metalloids. Non-polar (Pure) Covalent. Polar Covalent

Matter. Mixtures. Pure Substances. Metals. Ionic. Non-metals. Covalent. Metalloids. Non-polar (Pure) Covalent. Polar Covalent Review for Unit Test #2: hemical Bonding: Answers Multiple hoice Questions: 1. a 8. c 15. c 22. c 29. b 36. a 2. a 9. a 16. b 23. d 30. a 37. d 3. d 10. c 17. a 24. b 31. c 38. b 4. c 11. b 18. a 25. a

More information

Chapter 22, Section 2 The three models of chemical bonding :

Chapter 22, Section 2 The three models of chemical bonding : Chapter 22, Section 2 The three models of chemical bonding : Two of these three types of bonds are the result of a chemical reaction (Note, we will not study metallic bonding in this chapter). Ionic atoms

More information

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Electrons and Energy Levels Lesson 2 Compounds, Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds Lesson 3 Ionic and Metallic Bonds

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Electrons and Energy Levels Lesson 2 Compounds, Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds Lesson 3 Ionic and Metallic Bonds Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Electrons and Energy Levels Lesson 2 Compounds, Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds Lesson 3 Ionic and Metallic Bonds Chapter Wrap-Up The Periodic Table Elements on the

More information

Goals Pearson Education, Inc.

Goals Pearson Education, Inc. Goals 1. What is an ion, what is an ionic bond, and what are the general characteristics of ionic compounds? Be able to describe ions and ionic bonds, and give the general properties of compounds that

More information

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG.

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Ms. Rabenda Name: Period: 1 Lewis Dot Diagram Notes Illustrates the number of valence electrons. Valence electrons = Placed around the symbol of the element Helps

More information

Chemical bonds hold molecules together. A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons

Chemical bonds hold molecules together. A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons Chemical bonds hold molecules together A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons Chemical formulas indicate the numbers of atoms of each element that are

More information

2.3. Comparing the Properties of Ionic and Molecular Compounds. Melting Points and Boiling Points of Compounds SECTION. Key Terms

2.3. Comparing the Properties of Ionic and Molecular Compounds. Melting Points and Boiling Points of Compounds SECTION. Key Terms SECTION 2.3 Comparing the Properties of Ionic and Molecular Compounds Key Terms melting point boiling point dipole dipole-dipole force intermolecular forces electrical conductivity melting point the temperature

More information

Exampro GCSE Chemistry

Exampro GCSE Chemistry Exampro GCSE Chemistry C Chapter higher Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 56 Marks: 56 Comments: Page of 8 Q. The hip joint sometimes has to be replaced. Early replacement hip joints were made from stainless

More information

NAME DATE CLASS TEST DATE:

NAME DATE CLASS TEST DATE: NAME DATE CLASS 1 TEST DATE: NAME DATE CLASS 2 Vocabulary Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds Binary compound Chemical bond Chemical formula Chemically stable Corrosive Covalent bond Hydrate Ion Ionic bond Nonpolar

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO Ionic. Bonding

AN INTRODUCTION TO Ionic. Bonding AN INTRODUCTION TO Ionic Bonding STRUCTURE AND BONDING The physical properties of a substance depend on its structure and type of bonding present. Bonding determines the type of structure. Basic theory

More information

Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons.

Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons. Molecular Compounds and Covalent Bonds Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons. Atoms that are held

More information

Exampro GCSE Chemistry

Exampro GCSE Chemistry Exampro GCSE Chemistry C Chapter Higher Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 8 Marks: 8 Comments: Page of 0 Q. The Sun produces helium atoms from hydrogen atoms by nuclear fusion reactions. Hydrogen Helium

More information

C5 Chemicals of the natural environment. C5 Chemicals of the natural environment

C5 Chemicals of the natural environment. C5 Chemicals of the natural environment Q1 Name a gas in dry air that is a compound. Give the formula of this gas. Carbon dioxide CO 2 Q2 Explain why most molecular substances are gases. The forces of attraction between molecules are weak. It

More information

Matter. Anything that occupies space and has mass. Examples: 1. rock 2. wood 3. metal 4. air

Matter. Anything that occupies space and has mass. Examples: 1. rock 2. wood 3. metal 4. air CHEMISTRY Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass. Examples: 1. rock 2. wood 3. metal 4. air Chemical Element Matter is composed of chemical elements. Examples: gold, copper, carbon, oxygen 92

More information

Chemical Bonding:PART 2 Ionic Bonding

Chemical Bonding:PART 2 Ionic Bonding Chemical Bonding:PART 2 Ionic Bonding As you work through the following keynote, make sure you take notes in your workbook. By the end of the keynote, you should be able to define ionic bonding, and identify

More information

Energy Levels. Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Metallic Bonds

Energy Levels. Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Metallic Bonds Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Chapter Wrap-Up Electrons and Energy Levels Compounds, Chemical Formulas, and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Metallic Bonds How do elements join together to form

More information

a. Draw a diagram to show the formation of a magnesium ion from an atom: [3]

a. Draw a diagram to show the formation of a magnesium ion from an atom: [3] 1. Ionic compounds are formed between metals and non-metals. a. Draw a diagram to show the formation of a magnesium ion from an atom: [3] b. Explain, using abbreviated electronic configurations (e.g. 2:8:1),

More information

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Intermolecular Forces Physical Properties & Bond Types Physical properties of substances are affected by the attractive forces between particles Greater attraction

More information

IONIC BONDS: OBSERVING CHARGED OBJECTS

IONIC BONDS: OBSERVING CHARGED OBJECTS IONIC BONDS: OBSERVING CHARGED OBJECTS Get 2 balloons & rub both of them on your hair. Let go of the balloons & walk away from them. 1. What happens to the balloons? The balloons move apart, or repel each

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Chapter 7: Ionic Compounds Section 7.1 and 7.2

Chapter 7: Ionic Compounds Section 7.1 and 7.2 Chemistry Packet Name: Chapter 7: Ionic Compounds Section 7.1 and 7.2 CLASSWORK 1. 2. HOMEWORK 1. 2. You are responsible for your packet. If your packet is lost or misplaced, you are responsible for obtaining

More information

7.2 Valence Electrons and Bonding Patterns

7.2 Valence Electrons and Bonding Patterns 7.2 Valence Electrons and Bonding Patterns Only valence electrons form bonds When a chemical bond forms some valence electrons are either shared or transferred between atoms. Only the unpaired valence

More information

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the

More information

Key Stage 3 Science ( Chemistry) Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

Key Stage 3 Science ( Chemistry) Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Key Stage 3 Science ( Chemistry) Elements, Compounds and Mixtures This Section is about elements, compounds and mixtures. It has these parts in it: Atoms and elements Chemical symbols / the periodic table

More information

file:///biology Exploring Life/BiologyExploringLife04/

file:///biology Exploring Life/BiologyExploringLife04/ Objectives Compare and contrast ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Describe various ways to represent molecules. Summarize what happens in a chemical reaction. Key Terms ionic bond ion covalent bond molecule

More information

3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds

3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds CHAPTER 1 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are covalent bonds? What are molecules?

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Big Idea: The atomic structure of an element determines how elements interacts with each other

Big Idea: The atomic structure of an element determines how elements interacts with each other Big Idea: The atomic structure of an element determines how elements interacts with each other Unit 3 Lesson 3 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Essential Question: How do atoms interact with each other?

More information

SESSION 7: CHEMICAL BONDING

SESSION 7: CHEMICAL BONDING SESSION 7: CHEMICAL BONDING KEY CONCEPTS: particles substances are made of types of chemical bonds models of chemical bonds identifying chemical bonds TERMINOLOGY Element A substance that cannot be broken

More information

GCSE Additional Science

GCSE Additional Science GCSE Additional Science Module C5 Chemicals of the Natural Environment: What you should know Name: Science Group: Teacher: each of the statements to help focus your revision: R = Red: I don t know this

More information

PS-4.2 Explain how the process of covalent bonding provides chemical stability through the sharing of electrons.

PS-4.2 Explain how the process of covalent bonding provides chemical stability through the sharing of electrons. PS-4.1 Explain the role of bonding in achieving chemical stability. All of the noble gases are chemically stable A noble gas electron configuration (an outside energy level with 2 or 8 electrons) is chemically

More information

Nanotunes! Carbon can be made into nano-thin, strong sheets called graphene. Graphene conducts electricity and is used in loudspeakers.

Nanotunes! Carbon can be made into nano-thin, strong sheets called graphene. Graphene conducts electricity and is used in loudspeakers. Q. The article gives some information about graphene. Nanotunes! Carbon can be made into nano-thin, strong sheets called graphene. A graphene sheet is a single layer of graphite. Graphene conducts electricity

More information

CHEMISTRY. Ionic Bonding

CHEMISTRY. Ionic Bonding CHEMISTRY Ionic Bonding 1 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonds: Give and take! Ions and Ionic Bonds Atoms with five, six, or seven valence electrons usually become more stable when this number increases to eight.

More information

Molecules and Molecular Compounds. What information does a molecular formula provide?

Molecules and Molecular Compounds. What information does a molecular formula provide? Molecules and Molecular Compounds Molecules and Molecular Compounds What information does a molecular formula provide? Molecular Compounds In nature, only the noble gas elements, such as helium and neon,

More information

7.3: How Atoms Combine pg. 263

7.3: How Atoms Combine pg. 263 Unit C: Atoms, elements, and Compounds 7.3: How Atoms Combine pg. 263 Key Concepts: 1. Elements can combine to form compounds. 2. Metals and non-metals combine to form ionic compounds. Non-metals combine

More information

Chemistry 105 Atoms, Ions and an Introduction to Lewis Dot Structures

Chemistry 105 Atoms, Ions and an Introduction to Lewis Dot Structures hemistry 105 Atoms, Ions and an Introduction to Lewis Dot Structures Valence Electrons Valence electrons are located in the valence or outer energy shell these are sometimes referred to as the outer electrons

More information

1. Pictures of Atoms. Rutherford s Model

1. Pictures of Atoms. Rutherford s Model 1. Pictures of Atoms By the end of today s lesson you will be able to describe Dalton s and Rutherford s models of atomic structure. Rutherford s Model In 1800 John Dalton described atoms as small, solid,

More information

THE FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS: IONIC & MOLECULAR

THE FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS: IONIC & MOLECULAR TE FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS: IONIC & MOLECULAR As previously discussed, only one group of atoms are stable in nature, the. Atomically speaking, this means that they have a. Most other atoms cannot be found

More information

... LED Li. Be. B. C . N : Name lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon. ... LED Na. Mg. Al. Si

... LED Li. Be. B. C . N : Name lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon. ... LED Na. Mg. Al. Si Chapter 5: Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table Valence electrons and bonding Valence electrons electrons in the highest energy level (outermost electron shell) and are held most loosely The number of

More information

Bonding. By: Mahmoud Taha Special thanks to Ms Williams and Ms Matrella for their constant support and inspiration

Bonding. By: Mahmoud Taha Special thanks to Ms Williams and Ms Matrella for their constant support and inspiration By: Mahmoud Taha Special thanks to Ms Williams and Ms Matrella for their constant support and inspiration Please note that these guides are a collation of my personal notes, teachers' notes, chemistry

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Review for Unit Test #2: Chemical Bonding

Review for Unit Test #2: Chemical Bonding Practice Multiple hoice Questions: Review for Unit Test #2: hemical Bonding 1. Atoms form chemical bonds to: a) attain a stable octet electron configuration c) increase their energy b) neutralize their

More information

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen.

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen. Q1. (a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. Label the diagram. (3) (b) Ammonia has the formula NH 3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (c) The

More information

M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 7

M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 7 M. Prakash Academy Weekly workout 7 Covalent Bonding Q1. The valency of sulphur in sulphuric acid is (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8 Q2. The number of electrons involved in the bond formation of molecule are (a)

More information

BF 3. Giant Ionic Lattice. Simple molecular: With intermolecular forces (van der Waals, permanent dipoles, hydrogen bonds) between molecules

BF 3. Giant Ionic Lattice. Simple molecular: With intermolecular forces (van der Waals, permanent dipoles, hydrogen bonds) between molecules Bonding An Ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions formed by electron transfer. Metal atoms lose electrons to form +ve ions. Non-metal atoms gain electrons to

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 6

CHM1 Review for Exam 6 The following are topics and sample questions for the first exam. Topics 1. Types of Bonding a. Covalent Sharing electrons between nonmetal atoms i. Nonpolar covalent ii. Polar covalent b. Ionic Cations

More information

Ionic Structures. The structure of a typical ionic solid - sodium chloride

Ionic Structures. The structure of a typical ionic solid - sodium chloride Ionic Structures. The structure of a typical ionic solid - sodium chloride Sodium chloride is taken as a typical ionic compound. Compounds like this consist of a giant (endlessly repeating) lattice of

More information

So, which part of one atom is attracted to which part of another atom?

So, which part of one atom is attracted to which part of another atom? Evan P. Silberstein, 2007 A chemical bond is the force of attraction between the atoms of a compound. but what causes the attraction? Consider the charges of the subatomic particles: o Electrons? o Protons?

More information

Environmental Science

Environmental Science Environmental Science Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space Solid, liquid, gas Energy Does not take up space, no mass Definition: Ability to do work Light Heat Electricity Element Pure substance

More information

Atoms, Elements, Compounds, and the Periodic Table

Atoms, Elements, Compounds, and the Periodic Table Atoms, Elements, Compounds, and the Periodic Table Atoms and Elements 1. All matter is made of particles, which are constantly in motion. 2. The smallest indivisible particle is called the ATOM. An atom

More information

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot notation is a way of describing the outer shell (also called the valence shell) of an

More information

Common Chemical Formula List

Common Chemical Formula List CHEMISTRY CLASS 9 CLASS WORK Chemical formulae and equations Derivation of formulae (key points) Chemical Formula Definition: An expression which states the number and type of atoms present in a molecule

More information

CHAPTER 6. Chemical Bonds

CHAPTER 6. Chemical Bonds CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonds Valence Electrons 1. Electrons farthest away from the nucleus. The electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an atom of that element. 2. They play a key role in chemical

More information

Q1. In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate.

Q1. In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Q. In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Explain why chlorine (Cl 2 ) is a gas at room temperature, but

More information

(d) PCl 3(s) S (g) (e) H 2. (f) SiO 2(s) (d) NF 3(g) H 2(g) (e) N 2. H 4(g) (f) P 2

(d) PCl 3(s) S (g) (e) H 2. (f) SiO 2(s) (d) NF 3(g) H 2(g) (e) N 2. H 4(g) (f) P 2 2.3 COVALENT BONDING (Page 77) 1. (a) F 2(g) (d) PCl 3(s) (b) H 2 O (l) (e) H 2 S (g) (c) CH 4(g) (f) SiO 2(s) (Page 79) 2. (a) H 2(g) (d) NF 3(g) (b) O 3(g) (e) N 2 H 2(g) (c) OF 2(g) (f) P 2 H 4(g) 34

More information

1/13/2015. BONDING Notes

1/13/2015. BONDING Notes BONDING Notes Mr. Buchanan Introduction to Bonding Atoms are generally found in nature in combination held together by chemical bonds. A chemical bond is a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Section 7.1 Ion Formation

Section 7.1 Ion Formation Section 7.1 Ion Formation Define a chemical bond. Describe the formation of positive and negative ions. Relate ion formation to electron configuration. octet rule: atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons

More information

Matter. Mixtures. Pure Substances. Metals. Ionic. Non-metals. Covalent. Metalloids. Non-polar (Pure) Covalent. Polar Covalent

Matter. Mixtures. Pure Substances. Metals. Ionic. Non-metals. Covalent. Metalloids. Non-polar (Pure) Covalent. Polar Covalent Review for Unit Test #2: hemical Bonding: Answers Multiple hoice Questions: 1. a 8. c 15. c 22. c 29. b 36. a 2. a 9. a 16. b 23. d 30. a 37. d 3. d 10. c 17. a 24. b 31. c 38. b 4. c 11. b 18. a 25. a

More information