Chapter 31 Chemical Bonding. After the bond is formed. Before the bond is formed

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 31 Chemical Bonding. After the bond is formed. Before the bond is formed"

Transcription

1 Chapter 31 Chemical Bonding There are over 100 naturally occurring elements but these elements can combine chemically to form a huge variety of compounds by a process of chemical bonding. After the bond is formed Chemical bonding A chemical bond is formed when the outer electrons of two atoms are shared [ covalent bond] or completely transferred [ionic bond] between the atoms. Na+ Cl- Ionic bonding We shall now look at how ionic bonds are formed between atoms. Example 1; Describe the ionic bond in Sodium Chloride, NaCl. Answer; Sodium has 11 electrons and chlorine has 17 electrons. Sodium transfers its only outer electron to Chlorine. Before the bond is formed Because it gained an electron Cl is now a negatively charged Cl - ion. Sodium has lost an electron so it will be a positively charged Na +. The positive Sodium and the negative Chloride ion are attracted to each other and form a very strong bond. This is an ionic bond. Both sodium and chlorine now have a full outer-shell and are stable. An Ionic bond is the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound. An ion is a charged atom or group of atoms. N a Electron transfer Sodium now has a full outer shell as its next shell has 8 electrons in it. Chlorine now has eight electrons in its outer shell. C When atoms join together to form a chemical bond they do so according to the octet rule. ctet rule When an atom forms a chemical bond it will attempt to gain eight electrons in its outer shell (or at least a full outer shell). This will make the atom stable.

2 Example 2; Describe the ionic bond between magnesium and oxygen in magnesium oxide, Mg. Answer; Magnesium has 12 electrons, 2 in the first shell, 8 in the second shell and 2 in the third. xygen has 8 electrons, 2 in the first shell and 6 in the second. Junior Certificate Chemistry The oxygen has gained two electrons and now has eight electrons in the outer shell, which makes it stable. It has gained two electrons and has a -2 charge. It is now called an oxide ion. After electron transfer Before electrons transferred Mg +2 Magnesium ion -2 xygen ion Magnesium atom xygen atom If magnesium loses its two outer electrons the third shell doesn t exist anymore. The second shell is now the outer shell and this has eight electrons, which is very stable. Because the magnesium atom has lost two electrons it now has a +2 charge. It is now called an ion (charged atom). 2 G. Nugent

3 Covalent Bonds Covalent bond In a covalent bond the electrons are shared between the atoms involved, but the same rule applies, the atoms will try to gain eight electrons in their outer shells (octet rule). C Example 1; The formation of covalent bonds in a molecule of methane, C 4. Example 2; Draw a molecule of water, 2. Carbon atom ydrogen atoms The Carbon atom has 4 electrons in the outer shell. It will share 1 electron with each of the hydrogen atoms, therefore obtaining 8 electrons in the outer shell, at least part of the time. ydrogen will have 2 electrons in the outer shell, which is all it needs as the first shell holds only 2 electrons anyway. Therefore, carbon forms four covalent bonds with the hydrogen atoms. The methane molecule can be represented as shown above using circles and dots or by the structure shown below. From the diagram we can see that the oxygen atom has six electrons on the outer shell. It shares two electrons, one from each hydrogen, and obtains eight electrons on its outer shell. This makes the oxygen atom stable and the hydrogen atoms are also stable because each has two electrons in their first shell, which is all they need. The water molecule can also be drawn as,

4 Double covalent bonds If two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms then a double covalent bond is said to be formed between them. Example 3; Draw a molecule of oxygen. Each oxygen atom has six electrons on its outer shell. By sharing two electrons with the other oxygen atom each will obtain eight electrons on the outer shell, making them stable. This type of bond is a double bond because two pairs of electrons are shared between the two atoms. It may also be represented as, Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Ionic compounds The particles which make up an ionic compound are positive and negative ions. Each positive ion is attracted to many negative ions around it. This means that the strength of the ionic bond is felt over a wide area. The ions in an ionic bond are held together very strongly. Because of this ionic compounds have the following properties. 1. They consist of giant crystals. 2. They are solids because of the great attraction between the ions. 3. They have high melting points and boiling points because a lot of energy is needed to separate the ions from each other. 4. They are soluble in water. The water molecules are attracted to the ions and pull them out of the crystals and into solution. 5. They conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water because the ions are free to move around and carry electric charge. Covalent compounds The unit particles which make up covalent compounds are molecules. The covalent bonds within a molecule, between the atoms, are strong but each individual molecule has no attraction, or very little, for the other molecules around it. Therefore, the molecules of a covalent compound are only loosely held together. For this reason, covalent compounds have the following properties. 1. They consist of separate molecules. 2. They are usually liquids or gases. 3. They have low melting points and boiling points because not much energy is needed to separate the molecules from each other. 4. They are insoluble in water.

5 5. They do not conduct electricity. Experiment; To investigate the ability of ionic and covalent compounds to conduct electricity. 1. Set up the apparatus as shown below. 2. Place a variety of liquids in the beaker and record whether or not the bulb lights. 3. If samples of distilled water, paraffin oil, methylated spirits are placed in the beaker, the bulb will not light because they are covalent compounds and do not conduct electricity. 4. If you place solutions of salt, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, or copper sulphate dissolved in water in the beaker the bulb will light, because they are ionic compounds. battery bulb electrodes

OC42 Recall that ionic bonding is an attraction between positive and negative ions; describe the bonding in NaCl and MgO as examples

OC42 Recall that ionic bonding is an attraction between positive and negative ions; describe the bonding in NaCl and MgO as examples Chemistry: 7. Ionic and Covalent Bonding Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC41 Understand how atoms of elements combine

More information

Unit 5 Lesson 4 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 5 Lesson 4 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Opposites Attract What is an ion? An atom has a neutral charge because it has an equal number of electrons and protons. An ion is a particle with a positive or negative charge. An ion forms when an atom

More information

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2).

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). Q. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). (a) The diagrams represent molecules of hydrogen and chlorine. Draw a similar diagram to represent a molecule

More information

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances LI 1 Covalent Bonds Most atoms do not exist as single atoms. They are mainly found combined with other atoms in

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

Properties of ionic compounds. Instructions and answers for teachers

Properties of ionic compounds. Instructions and answers for teachers Properties of ionic compounds Instructions and answers for teachers These instructions should accompany the OCR resource Properties of ionic compounds activity which supports OCR GCSE (9 1) Twenty First

More information

Chenistry C2 question booklet part 1

Chenistry C2 question booklet part 1 Chenistry C2 question booklet part 94 minutes 94 marks Page of 34 Q. The diagram represents a carbon atom. (a) Use words from the box to answer the questions. electron neutron nucleus proton (i) What is

More information

UNIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry)

UNIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry) UIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry) 1. Which would be the best definition of an ionic bond? a. The attraction between the partial positive region of one molecule and the partial negative region

More information

Introduction to Ionic Bonds

Introduction to Ionic Bonds Introduction to Ionic Bonds The forces that hold matter together are called chemical bonds. There are four major types of bonds. We need to learn in detail about these bonds and how they influence the

More information

Chemical bonds hold molecules together. A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons

Chemical bonds hold molecules together. A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons Chemical bonds hold molecules together A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons Chemical formulas indicate the numbers of atoms of each element that are

More information

Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding

Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding Practise questions (Basic) are designed to ensure that students are aware of the basic concepts of the topic. This should be the first

More information

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot notation is a way of describing the outer shell (also called the valence shell) of an

More information

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? 12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

More information

1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds

1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds CHAPTER 3 1 Ionic and Covalent Compounds SECTION Chemical Compounds BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are ionic compounds? What are covalent

More information

file:///biology Exploring Life/BiologyExploringLife04/

file:///biology Exploring Life/BiologyExploringLife04/ Objectives Compare and contrast ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Describe various ways to represent molecules. Summarize what happens in a chemical reaction. Key Terms ionic bond ion covalent bond molecule

More information

Goals Pearson Education, Inc.

Goals Pearson Education, Inc. Goals 1. What is an ion, what is an ionic bond, and what are the general characteristics of ionic compounds? Be able to describe ions and ionic bonds, and give the general properties of compounds that

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Chemistry 105 Atoms, Ions and an Introduction to Lewis Dot Structures

Chemistry 105 Atoms, Ions and an Introduction to Lewis Dot Structures hemistry 105 Atoms, Ions and an Introduction to Lewis Dot Structures Valence Electrons Valence electrons are located in the valence or outer energy shell these are sometimes referred to as the outer electrons

More information

Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons.

Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons. Molecular Compounds and Covalent Bonds Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons. Atoms that are held

More information

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Intermolecular Forces Physical Properties & Bond Types Physical properties of substances are affected by the attractive forces between particles Greater attraction

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the

More information

Exampro GCSE Chemistry

Exampro GCSE Chemistry Exampro GCSE Chemistry C Chapter higher Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 56 Marks: 56 Comments: Page of 8 Q. The hip joint sometimes has to be replaced. Early replacement hip joints were made from stainless

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 4 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 4. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG.

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Ms. Rabenda Name: Period: 1 Lewis Dot Diagram Notes Illustrates the number of valence electrons. Valence electrons = Placed around the symbol of the element Helps

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen.

How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen. Q1. (a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. Label the diagram. (3) (b) Ammonia has the formula NH 3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (c) The

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Covalent Bonding. How Covalent Bonds Form

Covalent Bonding. How Covalent Bonds Form Covalent Bonding 1 Covalent Bonding How Covalent Bonds Form Just as you and your friend can work together by sharing your talents, atoms can become more stable by sharing electrons. The chemical bond formed

More information

CHEMISTRY. Ionic Bonding

CHEMISTRY. Ionic Bonding CHEMISTRY Ionic Bonding 1 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonds: Give and take! Ions and Ionic Bonds Atoms with five, six, or seven valence electrons usually become more stable when this number increases to eight.

More information

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS 1. The 3 types of chemical bonds are IONIC, COVALENT, and METALLIC bonds. 2. When atoms have 8 valence electrons they are most stable. (exception 2 for

More information

National 4/5 Chemistry. Unit 1c - Chemical Changes and Structure

National 4/5 Chemistry. Unit 1c - Chemical Changes and Structure National 4/5 Chemistry Unit 1c - Chemical Changes and Structure Kirkcaldy High School 2013/2014 Contents Formation of ions (N4*)...1 Formation of ions (N4*)...3 Ionic bonding (N4*)...4 Writing formulae

More information

Q1. In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate.

Q1. In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Q. In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Explain why chlorine (Cl 2 ) is a gas at room temperature, but

More information

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia.

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. Chemistry C2 Foundation and Higher Questions Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place

More information

London Examinations IGCSE

London Examinations IGCSE Centre No. Paper Reference Surname Initial(s) Candidate No. 4 3 3 5 2 Signature Paper Reference(s) 4335/2 London Examinations IGCSE Chemistry Paper 2 igher Tier Monday 10 November 2008 Afternoon Time:

More information

Learn Chemistry. Starter for Ten 3. Bonding. Registered Charity Number

Learn Chemistry. Starter for Ten 3. Bonding.  Registered Charity Number Learn Chemistry Starter for Ten 3. Bonding Developed by Dr Kristy Turner, RSC School Teacher Fellow 2011-2012 at the University of Manchester, and Dr Catherine Smith, RSC School Teacher Fellow 2011-2012

More information

Lewis Dot Structures of Atoms and Ions

Lewis Dot Structures of Atoms and Ions Why? The chemical properties of an element are based on the number of electrons in the outer shell of its atoms. We use Lewis dot structures to map these valence electrons in order to identify stable electron

More information

Danyal Education. Unit 6 Chemical Bonds. B oxygen and hydrogen D neon and oxygen. A sulfur and oxygen C chlorine and sulfur

Danyal Education. Unit 6 Chemical Bonds. B oxygen and hydrogen D neon and oxygen. A sulfur and oxygen C chlorine and sulfur Unit 6 Chemical Bonds ti l: \ Multiple-Choice Qrestions 1. The diagram shows the electronic structure (outer shell electrons only) of a molecule of compound XY, What could elements X and Y be? A sulfur

More information

Name Date Class. Atoms and Bonding Section Summary. Ionic Bonds

Name Date Class. Atoms and Bonding Section Summary. Ionic Bonds Name Date Class Atoms and Bonding Section Summary Ionic Bonds Guide for Reading What are ions, and how do they form bonds? How are the formulas and names of ionic compounds written? What are the properties

More information

How are atoms joined together to make compounds with different structures?

How are atoms joined together to make compounds with different structures? Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding 8.1 8.2 The Nature of Covalent Bonding 8.3 Bonding Theories 8.4 Polar Bonds and Molecules 1 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. CHEMISTRY

More information

bonding The formulas and the boiling points at standard pressure for ethane, methane, methanol, and water are shown in the table below.

bonding The formulas and the boiling points at standard pressure for ethane, methane, methanol, and water are shown in the table below. 1) Draw an electron-dot diagram for each of the following substances: a CaO(an ionic compound) b HBr c N2 Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on the information below and on your knowledge of chemistry.

More information

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure There are three types of strong bonds: Ionic Covalent Metallic Some substances contain both covalent and ionic bonding or an intermediate. 4.1 Ionic bonding Ionic

More information

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry (Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry An atom consists of a central portion, the NUCLEUS (made up of Protons and Neutrons) and Electrons which are found outside the nucleus. An uncharged atom has an

More information

Electrolysis This is when an electric current passes through an electrolyte.

Electrolysis This is when an electric current passes through an electrolyte. Conductors Metals and graphite are the only solids which conduct electricity, but no chemical change is involved. Liquid (melted) metals also conduct, but again there is no chemical change. Electrolytes

More information

c) If a sample of each were stirred into a beaker of water, which beaker would conduct electricity?

c) If a sample of each were stirred into a beaker of water, which beaker would conduct electricity? Chapter 8: Bond Review Characteristics of ionic compounds: (a) have high melting and boiling points (b) exist as crystals and are therefore brittle and will cleave when struck (c) many are soluble in water

More information

Test 8: Review Questions

Test 8: Review Questions Name: Thursday, February 14, 2008 Test 8: Review Questions 1. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? 1. CH OH 3. CaCl 3 2 2. C H 4. CCl 6 14 4 2. Which compound contains ionic

More information

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons.

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons. Chapter 6, Section 2 Key Concept: Chemical bonds hold compounds together. BEFORE, you learned Elements combine to form compounds Electrons are located in a cloud around the nucleus Atoms can lose or gain

More information

Chemistry Definitions Mr. C - JCS

Chemistry Definitions Mr. C - JCS A Acid rain: Rainwater with a ph of less than 5.7 is acid rain. It is caused by the gases NO2 (from car exhaust fumes) and SO2 (from the burning of fossil fuels) dissolving in rain. Acid rain kills fish,

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information

19.1 Bonding and Molecules

19.1 Bonding and Molecules Most of the matter around you and inside of you is in the form of compounds. For example, your body is about 80 percent water. You learned in the last unit that water, H 2 O, is made up of hydrogen and

More information

Chemical Bonding. Why Do Atoms Stick Together? Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds

Chemical Bonding. Why Do Atoms Stick Together? Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds Chemical Bonding Why Do Atoms Stick Together? Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost occupied shell of an atom ydrogen: 1s 1 elium: 1s 2 Carbon: 1s 2

More information

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.

More information

Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry

Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry Name Student # Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry 1. Which element reacts with oxygen to form ionic bonds? 1) calcium 2) hydrogen 3) chlorine 4) nitrogen 2. Element X reacts with chlorine

More information

Double Award Science: Chemistry Unit C1 Higher Tier

Double Award Science: Chemistry Unit C1 Higher Tier New Specification Centre Number 71 Candidate Number General Certificate of Secondary Education 2011 2012 Double Award Science: Chemistry Unit C1 Higher Tier GSD22 [GSD22] MONDAY 21 MAY 2012, MORNING TIME

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Ionic Compounds Section 8.1 Forming Chemical Bonds In your textbook, read about chemical bonds and formation of ions. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. chemical bond electrons

More information

Review of bond types. Sharing Electrons to Form Covalent Bonds. What is the covalent bond? Patterns in nonmetal - nonmetal chemical reactions:

Review of bond types. Sharing Electrons to Form Covalent Bonds. What is the covalent bond? Patterns in nonmetal - nonmetal chemical reactions: Review of bond types To find truth you have to try and you have to persist in trying. Sometimes it s fun. Sometimes it s hard or boring. But it s always worth it.... The Creator of the universe has implanted

More information

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic compounds. Chemical bonds are electrostatic forces; they

More information

BTEC Level 3 Subsidiary Diploma in Forensic Science

BTEC Level 3 Subsidiary Diploma in Forensic Science BTEC Level 3 Subsidiary Diploma in Forensic Science Pre-Enrolment Induction Task Summer 2016 In order to get you fully prepared for your BTEC Forensic Science Course, we have set you the following tasks.

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

Lewis dot symbols are representations of the elements which give a dot (. ) for each valence electron on the atom.

Lewis dot symbols are representations of the elements which give a dot (. ) for each valence electron on the atom. Worksheet 12 - Chemical Bonding The concept of electron configurations allowed chemists to explain why chemical molecules are formed from the elements. In 1916 the American chemist Gilbert Lewis proposed

More information

Compounds vs mixtures. Physics and Chemistry IES Jaume Salvador i Pedrol February 2009

Compounds vs mixtures. Physics and Chemistry IES Jaume Salvador i Pedrol February 2009 Compounds vs mixtures Physics and Chemistry IES Jaume Salvador i Pedrol February 2009 Compounds Remember that a compound is a substance made up from two or more elements, chemically joined together. This

More information

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song:  (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs) Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron

More information

2.1. The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Clues in Naturally Occurring Compounds SECTION. Key Terms

2.1. The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Clues in Naturally Occurring Compounds SECTION. Key Terms SETI 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and ovalent Bonds Key Terms octet rule ionic bond ionic compound covalent bond molecular compound single bond double bond triple bond bonding pair lone pair Lewis structure

More information

Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding

Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding Page 1 of 26 No. Learning Outcome Understanding? 1 2 The bonding types of the first twenty elements; metallic

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

Reading Preview. Key Terms covalent bond molecule double bond triple bond molecular compound polar bond nonpolar bond

Reading Preview. Key Terms covalent bond molecule double bond triple bond molecular compound polar bond nonpolar bond Section 4 4 bjectives After this lesson, students will be able to L.1.4.1 State what holds covalently bonded s together. L.1.4.2 Identify the properties of molecular compounds. L.1.4.3 Explain how unequal

More information

Unit 1 Building Blocks

Unit 1 Building Blocks Unit 1 Building Blocks a) Substances (i) Elements Everything in the world is made from about 100 elements. Each element has a name and a symbol. Elements are classified in different ways, including naturallyoccurring/made

More information

Basic chemistry for A level Biology

Basic chemistry for A level Biology Basic chemistry for A level Biology Make a list of the missing words from the text please. Chose from this list; MISSING WORDS Neutrons, arrangement, carbon-14, charge, weak, alkaline, covalently, number,

More information

The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions. Elements & Compounds

The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions. Elements & Compounds The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions Elements & Compounds Elements are the simplest type of substance. Compounds are made of 2 or more elements joined together. Substances are made up of atoms. Atoms

More information

Periodic Table & Atomic Structure

Periodic Table & Atomic Structure St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Periodic Table & Atomic Structure N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

Instructions Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked.

Instructions Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. GCSE CHEMISTRY Higher Tier Chemistry 1H H Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 45 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator the periodic table (enclosed). Instructions Answer all

More information

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

More information

Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY. Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK

Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY. Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK Name May 2012 HOMEWORK SHEET 1: States of Matter There are three states of matter: solid liquid gas Heat a solid to its melting point and it will

More information

Covalent Bonding Notes

Covalent Bonding Notes Covalent Bonding Notes Ionic vs Covalent Bonding Ionic: electron(s) leave one atom & gained by another atom to satisfy both atoms octets, this results in the formation of ions. The resulting opposite charges

More information

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0 hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version.0 Copyright 20 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells Chapter 2 Introduction: Who Tends This Garden? Chemicals are the stuff that make up our bodies and those of other organisms They make up the physical environment as well The ordering

More information

Unit 4 Bonding Exam. 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl

Unit 4 Bonding Exam. 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl Unit 4 Bonding Exam Name Multiple Choice 2 pts. each 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl 2) Generally, how many valence electrons

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Element: A substance that cannot be chemically converted into simpler substances;

More information

What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element

What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element Date: Science 10 4.1 Atomic Theory & Bonding What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element An atom = proton(s) + electron(s) + neutron(s) (PEN) Fun Fact:

More information

comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM

comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM 1 Oct 14 10:07 PM Oct 14 10:07 PM 2 Oct 14 10:10 PM Oct 14 10:11 PM 3 comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Hardness Ionic

More information

The Periodic Table of Elements

The Periodic Table of Elements The Periodic Table of Elements The periodic table of elements exhibits many types of symmetry which we will try to understand better through careful consideration of examples. First, a word about the structure

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

Chapter 4, Lesson 6: Represent Bonding with Lewis Dot Diagrams

Chapter 4, Lesson 6: Represent Bonding with Lewis Dot Diagrams Chapter 4, Lesson 6: Represent Bonding with Lewis Dot Diagrams If you are required to teach Lewis dot structures, this short lesson can help you extend what students have learned about modeling covalent

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 0620/03 Paper 3 Theory (Core) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1 hour

More information

Q1. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes. The number of carbon atoms in the molecules ranges from 1 to over 100.

Q1. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes. The number of carbon atoms in the molecules ranges from 1 to over 100. Q. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes. The number of carbon atoms in the molecules ranges from to over 00. (a) How does the boiling point change as the number of carbon atoms

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 5 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 5 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 5. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

Worksheet 14 - Lewis structures. 1. Complete the Lewis dot symbols for the oxygen atoms below

Worksheet 14 - Lewis structures. 1. Complete the Lewis dot symbols for the oxygen atoms below Worksheet 14 - Lewis structures Determine the Lewis structure of 2 oxygen gas. 1. omplete the Lewis dot symbols for the oxygen atoms below 2. Determine the number of valence electrons available in the

More information

1. A mixture that contains more than one type of matter and is the same throughout is a mixture.

1. A mixture that contains more than one type of matter and is the same throughout is a mixture. 2nd Semester Benchmark Review Completion Complete each statement. 1. A mixture that contains more than one type of matter and is the same throughout is a mixture. 2. A mixture in which different samples

More information

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties:

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons

More information

Chemistry AS/A Level Bridging Unit

Chemistry AS/A Level Bridging Unit Chemistry AS/A Level Bridging Unit Welcome to Chemistry! This bridging unit is designed to help you bridge the gap between your GCSE Science studies and the AS/A Level Chemistry course It includes a list

More information

No Brain Too Small. Credits: Four

No Brain Too Small. Credits: Four No Brain Too Small Level 1 Science 2015 90944 Demonstrate understanding of aspects of acids and bases Credits: Four Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence Demonstrate understanding

More information

Lewis Dot Representation. Compounds and chemical bonding. University Chemistry

Lewis Dot Representation. Compounds and chemical bonding. University Chemistry Compounds and chemical bonding Elements combine to form chemical compounds through the formation of chemical bonds. The Octet Rule: in forming chemical bonds, atoms usually gain, lose or share electrons

More information

Bonding and Lewis Structures

Bonding and Lewis Structures Bonding and Lewis Structures 1 There are two types of chemical bonds: ionic and covalent. owever, some bonds are frequently in between. A. Ionic Bonds In an ionic bond, at least one electron is completely

More information

? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more

? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more 1 I am confident that I understand this and I can apply this to problems? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more I don t know this or I need help because I don t understand it National

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons When metals bond with nonmetals, electrons are from the metal to the nonmetal The becomes a cation and the becomes an anion. The between the cation

More information