Basic English Grammar. Sia must che have to esprimono necessità e obbligo.

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1 Lesson must - have to must Sia must che have to esprimono necessità e obbligo. 1. Must esprime un obbligo imposto da chi parla, o sentito personalmente come un dovere. > I must exercise more and eat less, I m getting fat. > Tomorrow is my girlfriend s birthday, I must buy her a present. > I must go now, otherwise I will miss the bus to return home. 2. Must si usa pure per esprimere una deduzione logica o una supposizione basata su dati di fatto. > Sit down and rest, you must be very tired after such a long journey. > It must be nice to spend the whole winter in Florida. > You must be starving, you haven t eating the whole day. 3. Per dare direttive o istruzioni > Before the plane takes off, passengers must turn off all cell phones and other electronic devices. 4. Per mettere in evidenza l autorità di chi parla > Father speaking to his son: - You can go out, but you must be home before Per esprimere una forte raccomandazione > When you go to Rome, you must visit the Fontana di Trevi.

2 Lesson have to 1. Si usa have to quando qualcun altro ha imposto la decisione. > I have to buy some flowers for my mother-in-law s birthday. (Non è la mia decisione, me lo ha chiesto mia moglie.) > My doctor says that I have to stop drinking alcohol, to prevent liver disease. (Non è la mia decisione, io avrei voluto continuare a bere.) 2. Con gli avverbi di frequenza come: always, often, sometimes, never, etc., normalmente si usa have to invece di must. > I sometimes have to work on weekends. Nota > My doctor says that I have to stop drinking alcohol. Nota oppure My doctor says that I have got to stop drinking alcohol. Have got to è usato in discorso informale. Have to è leggermente più formale. Nella forma negativa, must not e don t have to hanno significati differenti. > You mustn t tell Barbra about the party. (Non devi dirglielo...) You don t have to tell Barbra about the party. (Non c è bisogno che glielo dica... già gliel ho detto io.)

3 Lesson Present Simple = presente semplice I must = io devo you must = tu devi he must = egli deve we must you must they must Forma Interrogativa Forma Negativa Forma Contratta must I? I must not I mustn t must you? you must not you mustn t must he? he must not he mustn t must we? we must not we mustn t must you? you must not you mustn t must they? they must not they mustn t Osserva 1. La 3 a persona del singolare non prende la s. I must study more. 2. Nella forma interrogativa must precede il soggetto. Must I study more? 3. Nella forma negativa si aggiunge not. You must not work so much. 4. Must va seguito da un infinito senza to. You must get up earlier. (You must to get up ) Errore!

4 Lesson must 1. Must ha solamente il Present Simple. > I must eat less, I am getting fat. (Devo mangiare meno, sto ingrassando.) 2. Il Past Simple è had to. > Yesterday I had to work from 8am to 9pm. eccezione (Ieri dovetti/ho dovuto lavorare dalle 8 di mattina alle 9 di sera.) Quando esprimiamo una opinione personale al passato, usiamo must have invece di had to. > Spending a holiday in Acapulco must have been a nice experience. (Passare una vacanza ad Acapulco deve essere stata una piacevole esperienza.) 3. Il Conditional è should oppure ought to. > If you want to pass your exam, you should/ought to study more. (Se vuoi passare il tuo esame, dovresti studiare di più.) 4. Il Future è generalmente will have to. > If you want to pass your exam, you will have to study more. (Se vuoi passare il tuo esame, dovrai studiare di più.)

5 Lesson must - have to > We have to get petrol tomorrow morning. We must get petrol tomorrow morning. Come si può vedere dalle due frasi precedenti, di solito non usiamo la forma futura di must/have to per riferirci a qualcosa che dobbiamo fare nel futuro perché l obbligo di farla esiste nel presente. > I will have to get petrol tomorrow morning if we want to go to Boston. (Dovrò fare benzina domani mattina se vogliamo andare a Boston.) > I would have to/should get petrol tomorrow morning if we want to go to Boston. (Dovrei fare benzina domani mattina se vogliamo andare a Boston.) osserva In queste due frasi, will have to e would have to/should sono usati perché l obbligo di fare benzina non esiste ora. L obbligo dipende dalla decisione di andare a Boston.

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