Atomic Number. Protons Neutrons Electrons. Mass. The Model of the Atom

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1 The Model of the Atom Purpose The purpose of this lab is to gather information about atoms and create a model of the atom from the information. Materials Atom cards Procedure Collect the data from the cards. Answer the questions from the data Data Element Atomic Number Atomic Mass Protons Neutrons Electrons Analysis 1. What is the charge of a proton? From the cards how do you know?

2 2. What is the charge of an electron? From the cards, how do you know? 3. What is the charge of a neutron? From the cards, how do you know? 4. What part(s) of the atom does the atomic number represent? What evidence did you use to come to that determination? 5. What part(s) of the atom does the atomic mass represent? What evidence did you use to come to that determination? 6. Use your periodic table to complete the table below. Assume they are all neutrally charged atoms (charge 0). Element Protons Neutrons Electrons Cobalt (Co) Lead (Pb) Krypton (Kr) Tungsten (W) Silver (Ag)

3 Atomic Structure Worksheet Name of Atomic Atomic Atomic # of # of # of Element Symbol Number Mass Protons Neutrons Electrons Potassium K Lithium Li Na Si Be Br

4 Drawing Atoms Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to become familiar with the make-up of an atom. You will become efficient at arranging the parts of the atom in the appropriate places within the atom model. Materials: Sheet of paper Bag of protons, neutrons, and electrons Periodic table p + 6 n 0 6 Procedure: 1. Place the green paper on your desk with the rings facing up. The center portion is the nucleus of you atom. The outer rings are the energy levels for the electrons. 2. For each element on the sheet, create the atom from the information on your periodic table. 3. Draw the element in the space provided by each element. Data: Hydrogen p + = n 0 = e - = Beryllium p + = n 0 = e - =

5 Nitrogen-15 p + = n 0 = e - = Neon p + = n 0 = e - = Analysis: 1. How do you determine how many protons are in the nucleus? 2. How do you determine how many electrons an atom has? 3. How do you determine the number of neutrons in an atom? 4. If the atom had a different number of neutrons, but was the same atom, what is it called?

6 Nova Elements Complete the following statements and build the atom on the site. Helium ( ) Used in and. He 2+ is known as an Carbon( ) One of six elements essential for Oxygen( ) The northern lights result from oxygen being by Chlorine( ) Chlorine gas is, but when bound with sodium, it makes Calcium( ) Calcium is used in compound form for Iron( ) Iron in your blood allows for the transport of through your body. Magnesium( ) In compound form, it is used in metal alloys and Silicon( ) Pure silicon is used in and Nitrogen( ) Nitrogen makes up of the Earth s atmosphere

7 Aluminum( ) Due to high, low, low and resistance to aluminum is a valuable metal. Copper( ) Copper is used in and Gold( ) Gold is the most element on the periodic table.

8 The Mass of Money Purpose: Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. In this lab you will investigate the different masses of pennies and show how that relates to isotopes. Material: Dial-o-gram scale 20 pennies Procedure: 1. Measure the mass of all the pennies combined. Record your answer. 2. Determine the average mass of a single penny. 3. Measure the mass of a penny to the nearest 0.1 grams. Place the date of the penny and the mass in the table. 4. Repeat this procedure for the other 19 pennies. Data Mass of all pennies Average mass of a penny Date Mass Date Mass Date Mass

9 Questions: 1. The mass of the pennies can be divided into two main groups. What are they? 2. Which group did most of the pennies fit into? 3. What percentage of the pennies fit into each group? 4. Which group is the average mass of a penny closest to? 5. What caused the change in mass of the pennies? (Hint: It is not dirt and grime) 6. If we were using atoms instead of pennies, what would be causing the change in mass of the atom? 7. If these were atoms, and the number of protons changed, what would happen to the element?

10 Covalent Molecules Purpose To demonstrate how atoms are covalently bonded. Material Cardboard Element circles Tacks Procedure Place the circles needed on the cardboard. Place a tack into the circle for each valence electron the atom has Move the tacks to covalently bond the atoms (Remember that it is a pair that share) Example CH 4 H H C H H NH 3 CF 2 H 2 CCl 4 SiH 4 CO 2 NH 2 F F 2 N 2

11 Ionic Bonding Lab Materials Piece of cardboard Thumbtacks Paper disks of elements Procedures 1. Select stated elements and lay side-by-side on the cardboard. 2. Place one tack in disk for each valence electron, spacing the tacks evenly around the perimeter. 3. Transfer tacks from the metallic atom to the non-metal until elements reach stable state. Add more atoms if needed. 4. Write the element symbol and charge on paper below. 5. Write the formula for the compound below. Results Lithium and Sulfur Ions Magnesium and Oxygen Ions Formula Formula Calcium and Nitrogen Ions Aluminum and Iodine Ions Formula Formula

Lithium Atomic number: 3 Atomic weight: 7 State of matter: solid Protons: 3 Neutrons (usually): 4 Electrons: 3 Number of electron shells:

Lithium Atomic number: 3 Atomic weight: 7 State of matter: solid Protons: 3 Neutrons (usually): 4 Electrons: 3 Number of electron shells: Hydrogen Atomic number: 1 Atomic weight: 1 Protons: 1 Neutrons (usually): 0 Electrons: 1 H Helium Atomic number: 2 Atomic weight: 4 Protons: 2 Neutrons (usually): 2 Electrons: 2 He Lithium Atomic number:

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