# Name: 5: THE MOONS OF JUPITER Section:

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Name: 5: THE MOONS OF JUPITER Section: I. Objective In this lab, you will simulate actual measurements of the period and semi-major axis of at least one of the moons of Jupiter. You will then use these values, in addition to Newton s modified version of Kepler s third law, to calculate the mass of Jupiter. II. Galileo s Discovery Back in the early 1600 s, Galileo Galilee heard of the recent invention of the telescope and decided to build one himself. In 1609, he started making observations of a number of celestial objects in the sky using his telescope. He made fascinating discoveries which helped change our view of the solar system at the time (as well as create controversy with the Church at the time) by strengthening the Copernican model which suggests a heliocentric, rather than geocentric, based solar system. One of his discoveries was the fact that, when he observed the planet Jupiter, he noticed that it had a number of moons which orbited around it, such as our own Moon orbits around the Earth (a sample of Galileo s observations are shown on the right). Clearly, if moons could orbit around another planet such as Jupiter, then the Ptolemaic model which suggested that all objects orbit Earth could not be correct. In this lab you will be recreating observations made by Galileo back in the 1600 s, except, instead of using a telescope to actually observe the Moons of Jupiter you will be using a computer to simulate the data. The program will show four moons of Jupiter (collectively known as the Galilean moons based on Galileo s discovery) as they orbit around Jupiter. In order of distance from Jupiter, they are: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. In this lab you will be plotting the apparent position of at least one of these moons over time relative to Jupiter. III. Newton s Modification of Kepler s Third Law Around the same time, another scientist named Johann Kepler was analyzing detailed observational data of the planets obtained by his predecessor, Tycho Brahe, and determined that planets orbit around the Sun in well defined patterns. His three laws of planetary motion still hold true even to this day. His third law suggests a relation between the average distance of a planet from the Sun (or its semi-major axis), and the amount of time it takes to orbit around the Sun once (or its period). 43

3 Now you are ready to start taking observations. For this exercise, we will be observing a number of moons (your TA will specify exactly which ones). You will see Jupiter located in the center of the screen, and four dots which roughly line up horizontally across the screen (this is the plane in which the moons orbit). Find the colored dot corresponding to the moon you are studying and click on it. In the lower, right corner of the screen, you should receive confirmation that you are indeed looking at the correct moon (if not, click on another moon until you find the correct one), as well as a set of coordinates. The important number is the bottom one, which looks like: X = (Jup. Diam.) This tells you how far away the moon is from Jupiter in terms of Jovian diameters (since by eye you cannot tell how large Jupiter s diameter is, nor how far away the moon is in astronomical units). Included with the number will be the letter E or W. This indicates whether the moon is on the East or West side of Jupiter. NOTE: This is very important to record! If you find it difficult to find one of the moons, you may zoom in on Jupiter by clicking on one of the four zoom buttons (100X - 400X). As you progress through the lab, if you can t see a particular moon, it may lie outside of your field of view, and you may need to zoom out (lower zoom). Once you have found each moon, click on Record Measurements and record the distances of the moons from Jupiter in the appropriate box (do not forget to include E or W!). Also include your measurement in the chart on the last page. After you have done this for each moon indicated by your TA, you may continue on to the next night by clicking Next. You should take 20 days worth of observations. This does not mean observe for 20 days, because just as in real life, you will have a few cloudy days during which you cannot observe Jupiter or the moons. You should record each moon s position 20 times. Once you have gathered 20 days of observations, click on File, Data, and Analyze, to analyze your data. A new window will open and will ask you to select a moon for analysis. Click on Select and then choose one of the moons from the list of moons for which you gathered data. You will see the data you gathered plotted on a graph. The x-axis represents the days over which you observed (plotted in terms of Julian days - a measurement of days) and the y-axis represents the distance of the moon from Jupiter (in Jovian diameters). At this point it is important to understand what exactly you are looking at. The graph represents the change in the moon s distance from Jupiter over time, as viewed from Earth. In reality, each moon remains the same distance from Jupiter at all times, but from Earth it appears to move from one side of Jupiter to the other, then back again. 45

4 If you plot a moon s projected distance from Jupiter over time, the resultant curve looks just like a sinusoidal (or sine) curve. Sine curves have a few basic properties: They are repetitive. Their pattern repeats over time. The maximum and minimum values of a sine curve is the same every time (i.e., the peak value is the same for every peak, which is also equal to the trough value). For the moons, this value is equal to its distance from Jupiter. The distance between successive peaks is equal to the period of the sine wave. This is the length (of time, in this case) over which the pattern repeats. For the moons, this is equal to the amount of time it takes for them to orbit once around Jupiter. This is illustrated in the figure below: R θ R apparent To Earth = R sin θ Therefore, from this plot it is possible to determine two properties of the moon: (1) How long it takes to orbit once around Jupiter (its period - P) (2) How far away it is from Jupiter (its semi-major axis - a) Given these two values, we can use Newton s modified version of Kepler s third law to determine the mass of Jupiter. 46

5 V. Determining P and a from your data If you look at your data points, you should be able to visualize a sine curve passing through them. To plot a sine curve through your points, click on Plot, Fit Sine Curve, Set Initial Parameters. You will be asked to supply an initial guess for a number of parameters, which will be used to plot a fit to the data. The three values are: T-Zero - the date during which the sine curve crosses the horizontal axis. Period - the distance between successive peaks, in terms of days. Amplitude - the maximum (or minimum) observed distance from Jupiter (in Jovian diameters). To estimate T-Zero, look at your data points and estimate the date at which your points move from negative (east) to positive (west). To estimate the period, determine the number of days between peak values. To estimate the amplitude, look at the maximum and minimum plotted values and use the largest one. If you click on the screen, it will tell you the position of your cursor. Once you click OK, the program will plot a sine curve based on your initial estimates. The curve may not pass through all the points, but that s okay. You will see three slide bars at the lower left edge of the screen. Use these to adjust the three values so the curve provides a better fit. An RMS Residual is listed above these bars. This number tells you how well your curve fits the data. The goal is to make this number as small as possible (note that the RMS Residual is given in scientific notation, and that 1.00E-1 is larger than 9.99E-2). 47

6 Adjust the bars one at a time until you get this number as small as you can. If you find that you need to adjust the value of one of your parameters more than the bar will let you, you may need to change your initial guess. Just follow the above instructions to do so. Once you get the curve to fit the data as best as possible, click Print Current Display under Print (do this once for each member of your group). VI. Calculating the Mass of Jupiter Now that you have determined the period and semi-major axis of each moon, you can determine the mass of Jupiter. First, though, we need to convert these values into the appropriate units. There are days in a year, and 1050 Jovian Diameters in one AU. See page 3 in Lab 0 for an example on converting units. b. What is the period of each moon, in units of years? (Show your work) P Europa = P Ganymede = P Callisto = c. What is the semi-major axis of each moon, in units of AU? (Show your work) a Europa = a Ganymede = a Callisto = d. Using Newton s modified version of Kepler s third law, what is the mass of Jupiter, as determined by the period and semi-major axis of each moon? (Don t forget to show your work and include the correct units). Europa: M J = Ganymede: M J = Callisto: M J = Average: M J = 48

7 Additional Questions e. There are moons beyond the orbit of Callisto. Will they have larger or smaller periods than Callisto? Why? f. Which do you think would cause a larger error in the mass of Jupiter, a ten percent error in P or a ten percent error in a? Why? g. The orbit of Earth s moon has a period of 27.3 days and a radius (semi-major axis) of A.U. (= km). What is the mass of Earth? (Show your work and include the correct units.) h. We did not choose to plot data for Io in order to determine Jupiter s mass for a reason. Why? (Hint: How do the graphs for the different moons compare? How do you think Io s would look?) 49

8 i. Summarize your findings. Your summary should include, but not be limited to, a discussion of Newton s modification of Kepler s third law, the quantities involved, and how they relate to each other. You should also discuss how this formula can be used to determine the mass of objects. 50

9 Data Sheet for the Moons of Jupiter Lab Date Europa Ganymede Callisto

### The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual

The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual A Manual to Accompany Software for the Introductory Astronomy Lab Exercise Document SM 1: Circ.Version 1.1.1 Department of Physics Gettysburg College

### If you looked at Jupiter through a small telescope, you might see the following: Figure 1 JUPITER AND MOONS THROUGH A SMALL TELESCOPE

Determining the period of a Jovian satellite(an excerpt from CLEA s Moons of Jupiter exercise) to use in CLEA s Roemer s Measurement of the Speed of light. Introduction We will observe one or more moons

### Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium OBJECTIVE The July / August observing notes for 010 state that Jupiter rises at dusk. The great planet is now starting its grand showing for

### The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System

The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System Hypothesis: The Sun is the center of the solar system. Only Moon orbits around Earth; Planets orbit around Sun. Aristarchus of Samos was the first to propose

### PHYS-1000 Chapter 3 Homework Solutions Due: September 9, 2012

1. In the Greek geocentric model, the retrograde motion of a planet occurs when A. Earth is about to pass the planet in its orbit around the Sun. B. the planet actually goes backward in its orbit around

### Lab 7: Gravity and Jupiter's Moons

Lab 7: Gravity and Jupiter's Moons Image of Galileo Spacecraft Gravity is the force that binds all astronomical structures. Clusters of galaxies are gravitationally bound into the largest structures in

### Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler. Tycho Brahe ( ) Johannes Kepler

Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler Johannes Kepler (1600) was employed by Tycho to develop a mathematical theory to explain the observations made by Tycho Kepler was a pure theorist; Tycho a pure observer Issac

### Today. Galileo. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws

Today Galileo Planetary Motion Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws 1 Galileo c. 1564-1642 First telescopic astronomical observations 2 First use of telescope for astronomy in 1609 400 years ago! 3

### Astro 1 Lab Exercise

Summer 2014 Astro 1 Lab Exercise Lab #4: ExoPlanet Detection Wednesday Aug 7,8 and 11 Room 200 in Wilder Lab reports are due by 5 pm on Friday August 15, 2013 Put it in the large ASTRO 1 Lab Box just inside

### Today. The Copernican Revolution. Galileo. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws

Today The Copernican Revolution Galileo Planetary Motion Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws Galileo c. 1564-1640 First telescopic astronomical observations Galileo s observations of phases of Venus

### The Main Point. The Scientific Method. Laws of Planetary Motion. Lecture #3: Orbits and Gravity. Laws of Planetary Motion:

Lecture #3: Orbits and Gravity Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler's Laws. Newton's Laws. Gravity. Planetary Orbits. Spacecraft Orbits. The Main Point Motions of planets, moons, and asteroids can be very

### Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

### Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18)

GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick.

### 1 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion

1 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion 1.1 Introduction Johannes Kepler published three laws of planetary motion, the first two in 1609 and the third in 1619. The laws were made possible by planetary data

### Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe

Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Big Idea This is a perspective Chapter How did we get to the point where we can address the question of extra-terrestrial life in a scientific way? And

### Universal Law of Gravitation Honors Physics

Universal Law of Gravitation Honors Physics Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The greatest moments in science are when two phenomena that were considered completely separate suddenly are seen as just

### Exploration of the Solar System

Exploration of the Solar System I. Phases of the Moon all about perspective. In this section you will use WWT to explore how the moon appears to change phases from our vantage point on Earth over the course

Reminders! Website: http://starsarestellar.blogspot.com/ Lectures 1-5 are available for download as study aids. Reading: You should have Chapters 1-4 read, Chapter 5 by the end of today, and Chapters 6

### An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science Why study Astronomy 1 A fascinating subject in its own right. The origin and Evolution of the universe The Big Bang formation

### Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity

Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter Goal: To use Newton s theory of gravity to understand the motion of satellites and planets. Slide 13-2 Chapter 13 Preview Slide 13-3 Chapter 13 Preview Slide

### Gravitation. Gravitation

1 Gravitation Newton s observations A constant center seeking force is required to keep an object moving along a circular path. You know that the moon orbits the earth and hence there should be a force

### What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular

Solar Eclipses The Sun disappears behind the Moon The Moon is always in the New phase during a solar eclipse Can only be seen from certain places on Earth These events are even more rare than lunar eclipses

### Lenses and Telescopes

Notes for teachers on Module 3 Lenses and Telescopes Lenses are a basic optical component. However, understanding how they work is non-trivial! They have a wide variety of applications. One such use is

### Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Objectives: Compare & Contrast geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar sytem. Describe the orbits of planets explain how gravity and inertia keep the planets

### Kepler, Newton and Gravitation

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravity 1 Using the unit of distance 1 AU = Earth-Sun distance PLANETS COPERNICUS MODERN Mercury 0.38 0.387 Venus 0.72 0.723 Earth 1.00 1.00 Mars 1.52

### From Aristotle to Newton

From Aristotle to Newton The history of the Solar System (and the universe to some extent) from ancient Greek times through to the beginnings of modern physics. The Geocentric Model Ancient Greek astronomers

### Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around

### Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide

Name: Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide Background Material Answer the following questions after reviewing the Kepler's Laws and Planetary Motion and Newton and Planetary Motion background pages.

### Astron 100 Sample Exam 1 1. Solar eclipses occur only at (A) New moon (B) 1 st quarter moon (C) Full moon (D) 3 rd quarter moon (E) The equinoxes 2.

Astron 100 Sample Exam 1 1. Solar eclipses occur only at (A) New moon (B) 1 st quarter moon (C) Full moon (D) 3 rd quarter moon (E) The equinoxes 2. If the Moon is at first quarter tonight in Amherst,

### B.2 Rotation of Mercury

CHAPTER B. COMPUTER LABORATORIES (CLEA) 71 Name: Section: Date: B.2 Rotation of Mercury I. Introduction Because Mercury is a relatively small planet with very few large surface features and since it is

### QUESTION BANK UNIT-6 CHAPTER-8 GRAVITATION

QUESTION BANK UNIT-6 CHAPTER-8 GRAVITATION I. One mark Questions: 1. State Kepler s law of orbits. 2. State Kepler s law of areas. 3. State Kepler s law of periods. 4. Which physical quantity is conserved

### SURFACE ACTIVITY LESSON

SURFACE ACTIVITY LESSON Ronald Wilhelm & Jennifer Wilhelm, University of Kentucky 2007 Surface Activity on Planets and Moons The Earth and the Moon: Investigations of the Earth and the Moon show that both

### 4. Discuss the information as a class (transparency key)

Teacher: Sherry Tipps-Holder Grade: 8 Subject: World History/ Lesson designed for inclusion in unit on Scientific Revolution Essential Question: What were the major contributions/innovations of the who

### The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

### Astronomy 6 Lab Manual

Astronomy 6 Lab Manual Spring 2007 Jason Ybarra California State University, Sacramento 2 1 Using the Starmaps Activity from the previous CSUS Astronomy 6 lab manual 1. Determine the R.A. of the side borders

### Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

### Newton s Law of Gravity

Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

### 1 Newton s Laws of Motion

Exam 1 Ast 4 - Chapter 2 - Newton s Laws Exam 1 is scheduled for the week of Feb 19th Bring Pencil Scantron 882-E (available in the Bookstore) A scientific calculator (you will not be allowed to use you

### 8.5: Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets pg. 320

8.5: Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets pg. 320 Key Concepts: 1. Careful observation of the night sky can offer clues about the motion of celestial objects. 2. Celestial objects in the Solar System

### Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

### SURFACE ACTIVITY LESSON

SURFACE ACTIVITY LESSON Ronald Wilhelm & Jennifer Wilhelm, University of Kentucky 2007 Surface Activity on Planets and Moons The Earth and the Moon: Investigations of the Earth and the Moon show that both

### where G is the universal gravitational constant (approximately 6.67 10 11 Nm 2 /kg 2 ) and M is the sun s mass (approximately 2 10 24 kg).

Kepler s Third Law ID: 8515 By Michele Impedovo Time required 2 hours Activity Overview Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is remembered for laying firm mathematical foundations for modern astronomy through his

### Motion and Gravity in Space

Motion and Gravity in Space Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of a body, such a planet, on its axis is called rotation. The orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another

### AST1100 Lecture Notes

AST1100 Lecture Notes 3 Extrasolar planets 1 Detecting extrasolar planets Most models of star formation tell us that the formation of planets is a common process. We expect most stars to have planets orbiting

### Names of Group Members:

Names of Group Members: Using telescopes and spacecraft, astronomers can collect information from objects too big or too far away to test and study in a lab. This is fortunate, because it turns out that

### Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Days of the week were named for Sun, Moon, and visible planets. What did ancient civilizations achieve in astronomy? Daily timekeeping Tracking the seasons and calendar

### Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion

Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve

### Introduction: Benefits: Included in this Library: Function Planet Position

Planetary 2 Library P L A N E T A R Y L I B R A R Y Introduction: The Planetary Library is a collection of functions that are ready to use for planetary motion comparisons to market moves. The functions

### Lecture 4: Announcements

1 Lecture 4: Announcements Homework: If you do not have access to M.A. then talk to me or send me an email ASAP! My office hours: Today 2:00-3:30 pm, starting at ISB 201 (my office), check if there is

### Name Class Date. How did Earth s moon probably form? How does the moon s appearance change with time? What moons revolve around other planets?

CHAPTER 4 A Family of Planets SECTION 4 Moons BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How did Earth s moon probably form? How does the moon s appearance

### Scientific Revolution

Scientific Revolution Learning Objective Students will be able to: * define the Scientific Revolution * identify the historical roots of modern science. (a historical root is the start of something) The

### Astronomy 210 Fall 2016: Quiz 2 Flashcard Questions 1

Astronomy 210 Fall 2016: Quiz 2 Flashcard Questions 1 1. The moon is in its phase during a lunar eclipse. solar (A) new. (B) first quarter. (C) full. (D) third quarter. (E) (Depends on the time of day.)

### 13 Universal Gravitation. Everything pulls on everything else.

Everything pulls on everything else. Gravity was not discovered by Isaac Newton. What Newton discovered, prompted by a falling apple, was that gravity is a universal force that it is not unique to Earth,

### Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion

Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion !! " The only history in this course:!!!geocentric vs. heliocentric model (sec. 2.2-2.4)" The important historical progression is the following:!! Ptolemy (~140 AD) Copernicus

### Summary: The Universe in 1650

Celestial Mechanics: The Why of Planetary Motions Attempts to Describe How Celestial Objects Move Aristotle, Hipparchus, and Ptolemy: The Ptolemaic System Aristarchus, Copernicus, and Kepler: The Copernican

### PHYS-1000 Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2012

This study guide is for the final exam of the course, covering chapters 1 through 5 and 7 through 13. You are responsible for all material in these chapters referenced from this guide as well as the corresponding

### Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System

Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in Universe Galaxy Solar system Planet Moon Comet Asteroid Meteor(ite) Heliocentric Geocentric Satellite Terrestrial planets Jovian (gas) planets Gravity our Solar

### Q: What is meant by the retrograde motion of Mars, and how did Ptolemy try to explain it? Q: What is the geocentric model of the Solar System?

Q: What is the geocentric model of the Solar System? Q: What is meant by the retrograde motion of Mars, and how did Ptolemy try to explain it? Q: Who proposed the heliocentric model of the Solar System?

### Volcanoes on Other Planets

Teacher Instructions Overview: Active and dormant volcanoes occur on many planets and moons other than. In this activity, students learn about differences in planet size and orbit, and relate surface temperature

### Astro 101 F15 Test 2. Name: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Astro 101 Test 2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The Moon undergoes synchronous rotation, and as a consequence the: a. Moon does

### Introduction to Gravity and Orbits. Isaac Newton. Newton s Laws of Motion

Introduction to Gravity and Orbits Isaac Newton Born in England in 1642 Invented calculus in early twenties Finally published work in gravity in 1687 The Principia Newton s Laws of Motion 1: An object

### 7.2 Calculate force of gravity at a given distance given the force of gravity at another distance (making use of the inverse square relationship).

Chapter 7 Circular Motion and Gravitation 7.1 Calculate force of gravity using Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation. 5. What is the gravitational force between the Earth and the Sun? (Mass of Earth: 5.98

### PHYSICS AND MATH LAB ON GRAVITY NAME

RIVERDALE HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS AND MATH LAB ON GRAVITY NAME Purpose: To investigate two of the levels of gravity experienced by Florida teachers during their recent ZeroG flight. Background: NASA supplied

### astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

### Student Exploration: Gravitational Force

5. Drag STUDENT PACKET # 7 Name: Date: Student Exploration: Gravitational Force Big Idea 13: Forces and Changes in Motion Benchmark: SC.6.P.13.1 Investigate and describe types of forces including contact

### An Introduction to AST 111 Our Solar System and Others

An Introduction to AST 111 Our Solar System and Others What is Astronomy? 50 years ago, astronomy was the study of everything outside Earth s atmosphere: the planets, the Sun, stars, galaxies, the Universe,

### 2-1. True of False: All planets undergo retrograde motion as seen from Earth.

Discovering the Essential Universe Chapter 2, quiz. 2-1. True of False: All planets undergo retrograde motion as seen from Earth. a.) True b.) False X 2-2. The occasional westward (left to right) motion

### EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

### The Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion

The Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion Announcements The results of Quiz 1 are posted in OWL Looking ahead: Homework 1 is on-going, and is due on Thu, Sept. 29 th ; Homework 2 will

### The University of Texas at Austin. Gravity and Orbits

UTeach Outreach The University of Texas at Austin Gravity and Orbits Time of Lesson: 60-75 minutes Content Standards Addressed in Lesson: TEKS6.11B understand that gravity is the force that governs the

### NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook. Solar System Math. Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook Solar System Math Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density What interval of values

### UCM-Gravity. 2. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7 kilograms, placed 2 meters apart.

1. A space probe is launched into space from Earth s surface. Which graph represents the relationship between the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted on Earth by the space probe and the distance

### Planets in the Sky ASTR 103 9/28/2016

Planets in the Sky ASTR 103 9/28/2016 1 Planets in the Sky 2014 Mars Saturn paths of Mars and Saturn among stars (2016) Unlike stars which have fixed positions in the sky (celestial sphere), planets seem

### Shenandoah Community School District Astronomy Grade - 11

Shenandoah Community School District Astronomy Grade - 11 11.1 (SCSD) Earth and Space Astronomy 11.1.1 (SCSD) Understand and explain the tools used by astronomers to study electromagnetic radiation to

### Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

### 1 Astronomical Coordinate Systems... Continued

General Astronomy (29:61) Fall 2012 Lecture 4 Notes, August 27, 2012 1 Astronomical Coordinate Systems... Continued 1.1 The Equatorial Coordinate System The most basic astronomical observation is that

### LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

### 2016 Arizona State University Page 1 of 15

NAME: MATH REFRESHER ANSWER SHEET (Note: Write all answers on this sheet and the following graph page.) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

### Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 1. Newton s Laws 2. Conservation Laws Energy Angular momentum 3. Gravity Review from last time Ancient Greeks: Ptolemy; the geocentric

### Penn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1

ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 PURPOSE The purpose of this laboratory project is to calculate, verify and then simulate various satellite orbit scenarios for an artificial satellite orbiting the earth. First, there

### 4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion Our goals for learning:! How do we describe motion?! How is mass different from weight? How do we

### Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy

Periods of Western Astronomy Chapter 1 History of Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric (before 500 B.C.) Cyclical motions of Sun, Moon and stars observed Keeping time and determining

### Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum

Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely

### Building Planetary Orbits (the Feynman way)

Building Planetary Orbits (the Feynman way) Using a method of computing known as finite differences we can quickly calculate the geometry of any planetary orbit. All we need are a starting position and

### Entering data and doing repetitive calculations with Excel

Entering data and doing repetitive calculations with Excel Start by entering preliminary data in columns. Label each column. If you need to do repetitive calculations on your data before you make a graph,

### Discovering Planet X

Discovering Planet X Overview: An activity exploring parallax and then simulating the discovery of Pluto with a Blink Comparator via an online interactive. Target Grade Level: 3-5 Estimated Duration: 1

### Chapter 5. Determining Masses of Astronomical Objects

Chapter 5. Determining Masses of Astronomical Objects One of the most fundamental and important properties of an object is its mass. On Earth we can easily weigh objects, essentially measuring how much

### Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Science of Astronomy Pearson Education, Inc.

Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Science of Astronomy 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science In what ways do all humans use scientific thinking? How is modern science rooted in

### The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Chapter 4 Lecture

Chapter 4 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

### 1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances?

CHAPTER 4 1 The Nine Planets SECTION A Family of Planets BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of our solar system? When were the

### AP Environmental Science Graph Prep

AP Environmental Science Graph Prep Practice Interpreting Data: The following questions are to help you practice reading information shown on a graph. Answer each question on the separate answer sheet.

### Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The greatest moments in science are when two phenomena that were considered completely separate suddenly are seen as just two different versions of the same thing.

### 8.1: Touring the Night Sky pg. 305

Unit D: The Study of the Universe 8.1: Touring the Night Sky pg. 305 Key Concepts: 1. Careful observation of the night sky can offer clues about the motion of celestial objects. 2. Celestial objects in

### Modeling the sky with the Farquhar Globe

Modeling the sky with the Farquhar Globe Learning Goals: Learn to use a model to visualize motions in the sky and understand relative apparent positions of Sun and stars. Evaluate the usefulness of the

### Name. 1. Most of the stars found in our galaxy are in multiple star systems. a) True b) False

Name Physical Science 113 - Astronomy Exam I Indicate the most correct answer on your scantron sheet. This is only one correct answer for each question. 1. Most of the stars found in our galaxy are in

### Experiment P19: Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor)

PASCO scientific Physics Lab Manual: P19-1 Science Workshop S. H. M. Mass on a Spring Experiment P19: Simple Harmonic Motion - Mass on a Spring (Force Sensor, Motion Sensor) Concept Time SW Interface Macintosh

### Barycenter of Solar System Earth-Moon barycenter? Moon orbits what?

Barycenter of Solar System Earth-Moon barycenter? Moon orbits what? Dr. Scott Schneider Friday Feb 24 th, 2006 Sponsored by the Society of Physics Students (SPS) Webpage : http://qbx6.ltu.edu/s_schneider/astro/astroweek_2006.shtml

### Exercise 5.0 LUNAR MOTION, ELONGATION, AND PHASES

Exercise 5.0 LUNAR MOTION, ELONGATION, AND PHASES I. Introduction The Moon's revolution in orbit around the center of gravity (barycenter) of the Earth- Moon System results in an apparent motion of the