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1 Chapter 15: Reconstruction, The Big Question: What were the Reconstruction goals of Republicans, ex-confederates, and freed people? To what extent did each group succeed?

2 Chapter 15: Reconstruction, The Struggle for National Reconstruction A. Presidential Approaches: From Lincoln to Johnson B. Congress Versus the President C. Radical Reconstruction D. Women Suffrage Denied 2. The Meaning of Freedom A. The Quest for Land B. Republican Governments in the South C. Building Black Communities 3. The Undoing of Reconstruction A. The Republicans Unravel B. Counterrevolution in the South C. Reconstruction Rolled Back D. The Political Crisis of 1877 E. Lasting Legacies

3 Part 1: The Struggle for National Reconstruction 1A: Presidential Approaches: Lincoln to Johnson Lincoln s 10% Plan was much more lenient than Wade-Davis bill Johnson talked tough but wanted a quick, non-radical reconstruction Black codes, racial violence and election of ex-confederates demonstrated Southern resistance and Johnson s indifference

4 Part 1: The Struggle for National Reconstruction 1B: Congress vs. The President Congress established the Freedmen s Bureau and passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which Johnson vetoed due to his racism Congress passed 14 th amendment granting citizenship and due process Johnson s attempt to campaign against reconstruction backfired in 1866 elections Johnson s Swing around the circle 1866

5 Part 1: The Struggle for National Reconstruction 1C: Radical Reconstruction 1867 Reconstruction Act put South under military rule and Union military oversaw voter registration and constitutional conventions Johnson was impeached for firing Stanton (Tenure of Office Act violation) and hindering reconstruction but not removed from office Grant elected in 1868 with Republican super-majority 15 th amendment gave black men the right to vote

6 Part 1: The Struggle for National Reconstruction 1D: Woman Suffrage Denied Abolitionists split over the issue of woman suffrage with some not wanting to risk black suffrage while others saw it as a betrayal Women s rights movement split into two wings over the issue Wyoming gave women full voting rights in 1869

7 Part 2: The Meaning of Freedom 2A: The Quest for Land Freed people s hope for land redistribution was dashed by Johnson s Reconstruction plans and northern Republicans Sharecropping became the main labor system in the South even though it hindered industrialization and economic growth

8 Part 2: Radical Reconstruction 2C: Building Black Communities Independent churches became the backbone of black communities serving as schools, social centers and meeting halls Civil Rights Act of 1875 required full access to jury service, public accommodations and transportation

9 Part 3: The Undoing of Reconstruction 3A: The Republicans Unravel Causes of Reconstruction s ending: scandal, resistance, liberal reform efforts, propaganda, fatigue, depression Depression of 1873 devastated the North, cut funding for Reconstruction and led to failure of Freedmen s Saving and Trust Liberal Republican ideals undermined belief in gov. power Credit Mobilier and Whiskey Ring scandals hurt Grant s support

10 Part 3: The Undoing of Reconstruction 3B: Counterrevolution in the South Redeemers used patriotism, politics (Democratic Party), and force/terror (KKK and other groups) to undo radical reconstruction Enforcement Laws (1871) temporarily stopped the success of KKK

11 Part 3: The Undoing of Reconstruction 3C: Reconstruction Rolled Back Democratic victories in 1874 mid-terms and Supreme Court rulings signaled the winding down of Reconstruction FL, LA and GA submitted two sets of electoral returns in 1876 election creating a constitutional crisis lasting for months Compromise of 1877?: ended military reconstruction in the South in return for Hayes election to presidency

12 Part 3: The Undoing of Reconstruction 3D: Lasting Legacies Freed blacks were better off than slaves had been in the South Constitutional amendments set the stage for Civil Rights movement

13

14 Four Basic Questions 1. Who was in charge of Reconstruction? 2. Had southern states really left the Union? 3. What do southern states need to do to regain their status in the Union? 4. What about former slaves?

15 Part 1: Presidential Reconstruction 1A: Presidential Approaches: Lincoln to Johnson Lincoln s and Johnson s reconstruction plans were more lenient than Congress Wade-Davis Bill Southern states passed Black Codes, elected ex-confederates, and used violence against blacks Congress established the Freedmen s Bureau and passed a civil rights bill for blacks

16 Part 1: Presidential Reconstruction 1C: Congress Versus the President Radical Republicans began to override vetoes 14th amendment gave blacks citizenship, due process Johnson s opposition to the 14 th amendment helped the Republicans sweep the 1866 election (3:1) South s opposition radicalized moderate Republicans

17 Part 1: Presidential Reconstruction 1B: Acting on Freedom Johnson allowed Confederates to recover seized land Wage labor seen as dependency not freedom in South Blacks and plantation owners argued over labor terms

18 Part 2: Radical Reconstruction 2B: Woman Suffrage Denied 15 th amendment gave blacks the right to vote, but did allow barriers to voting (e.g. poll taxes, literacy tests) Failure of 15 th amendment to grant women suffrage, split the women s rights movement

19 Tenancy and the Crop Lien System Furnishing Merchant Tenant Farmer Landowner Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop. Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest. Merchant holds lien {mortgage} on part of tenant s future crops as repayment of debt. Plants crop, harvests in autumn. Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent. Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt. Rents land to tenant in exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmer s future crop.

20 Part 3: The Undoing of Reconstruction 3B: The Acquiescent North Propaganda and the Liberal Republican focus on civil-service reform undercut northern support for freemen Panic of 1873 and corruption in Grant s administration also weakened northern resolve to remake the South

21 Part 2: The Meaning of Freedom 2B: Republican Governments in the South Freedpeople s hope for land redistribution was dashed by Johnson s Reconstruction plans and northern Republicans Sharecropping became the main labor system in the South Sharecropping hindered industrialization and economic growth

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