# Driving multiple LEDS

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1 Driving multiple LEDS (always on) Voltage (V) must be greater than the number of LEDS (n) times their characteristic voltage (about 1.5V each) Resistor should set current to about 20mA Calculate resistor value: R = (V-n*1.5)/0.02 In this example: R = (12-6*1.5)/0.02 = 150Ω On line calculator:

2 Controlling multiple LEDS Voltage (V) must be greater than the number of LEDS (n) times their characteristic voltage (about 1.5V each) Resistor should set current to about 20mA Calculate resistor value: R = (V-n*1.5)/0.02 In this example: R = (12-5*1.5)/0.02 = 225Ω On line calculator:

3 Serial Communications Practical way to connect to peripheral devices Gather sensor data Control transducers or output devices Information is sent over one wire Simplifies interconnections Total wires to device < 4 (power, GND, data in, data out) Can be synchronous or asynchronous Common protocols: RS232 (asynchronous, 1 transmitter 1 receiver) I2C (synchronous, 1 transmitter multiple receivers) SPI (synchronous, 1 transmitter 1 receiver)

4 RS232 The common PC serial port Important parameters: Levels (15V or TTL)? Inverted? Baud? Total bits, stop bits, parity? Connectors 25 or 9 pin?

5 +/-15V or TTL (5V) RS232 Voltage Levels The standard serial port uses +/-15V Do not connect a standard port directly to a microcontroller! Arduino pins 0 (receive) and 1 (transmit) are used for serial communications Information can be sent to or received from PC Information can be sent to peripheral devices: - LCD displays - Voice synthesizers - Video text overlay

6 Speech Text (LCD display) Video overlay Multiple servo motor control RS232 Example Serial Modules

7 RS232 Important Parameters These parameters will be specified for any RS232 module: Baud (connection speed) Inverted signal (yes for TTL, no for standard RS232) Total bits per symbol (usually 8) Number of stop bits (usually 1) Parity (error checking, usually not used) Most common: 9600 baud 8N1

8 Bidirectional Serial Example /* continuously streams sensor data to PC */ /* monitors serial port for 'a' or 'b' bytes to control LED */ void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); pinmode(13,output); } void loop() { // read the analog input into a variable: int analogvalue = analogread(0); // Send the result to the PC: Serial.println(analogValue); // Read a character from the PC byte inbyte = Serial.read(); if (inbyte == 'a') digitalwrite(13,high); // if the letter a is sent turn on the LED if (inbyte == 'b') digitalwrite(13,low); // if the letter b is sent turn off the LED // note the use of the single quote above delay(100); }

9 Regret Box Poetron Coin op

10 RS232 Important Parameters These parameters will be specified for any RS232 module: AnalogInSerial Connect speaking board Inverted signal (yes for TTL, no for standard RS232) Total bits per symbol (usually 8) Number of stop bits (usually 1) Parity (error checking, usually not used) Most common: 9600 baud 8N1

11 Ping Distance Sensor 5V DC power (Vdd) goes to 5V GND (Vss) connects to GND Signal pin connects to microcontroller I/O pin

12 Ping Sensor Code // The PING))) is triggered by a HIGH pulse of 2 or more microseconds. // Give a short LOW pulse beforehand to ensure a clean HIGH pulse: pinmode(pingpin, OUTPUT); // pin acts as an output in this part digitalwrite(pingpin, LOW); delaymicroseconds(2); digitalwrite(pingpin, HIGH); delaymicroseconds(5); digitalwrite(pingpin, LOW); // The same pin is used to read the signal from the PING))): a HIGH // pulse whose duration is the time (in microseconds) from the sending // of the ping to the reception of its echo off of an object. pinmode(pingpin, INPUT); // pin does double duty switch to input here distance = pulsein(pingpin, HIGH); // pulsein measures pulse duration

13 Sharp IR Distance Sensor 5V DC power (Vdd) goes to 5V GND (Vss) connects to GND Signal pin connects to any Arduino analog input pin To read distance: Just use the analogread(pin) command IR distance sensor w/cable (10cm-80cm) - GP2Y0A21YK0F

14 IR Distance Sensor Code void loop() { long distance; distance = analogread(1); // sensor on pin 1 } // make a sound, frequency based on distance delaymicroseconds(distance); digitalwrite(3,low); delaymicroseconds(distance); digitalwrite(3,high);

15 Interfaceable Sound Modules Wave Shield Cheaper solutions: Sound toys Sound greeting cards Talking picture frames Digital voice recorders MP3 players

16 Circuit bending Sound Modules RC Activation Switches RC circuit sets playback speed Modify R (or C) to change sound Microcontroller I/O pins can connect to switches to trigger sounds

17 Controlling Sound Modules (hacked toys, talking picture frames, etc ) Active-low Sound Module Active-high or low Sound Module

18 Distance Sensing Drum Machine Code /* PingDrummer */ const int pingpin = 7; //ping sensor void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // hacked toy drum machine connections pinmode(13,output); //drum sound #1 pinmode(12,output); //drum sound #2 pinmode(11,output); //drum sound #3 } void loop() { long duration; // The PING))) is triggered by a HIGH pulse of 2 or more microseconds. // Give a short LOW pulse beforehand to ensure a clean HIGH pulse: pinmode(pingpin, OUTPUT); digitalwrite(pingpin, LOW); delay(2); digitalwrite(pingpin, HIGH); delaymicroseconds(5); digitalwrite(pingpin, LOW); void drum1(void) { digitalwrite(13, HIGH); delay(40); // 40ms high pulse triggers drum digitalwrite(13, LOW); delay(200); // wait for sound to finish } void drum2(void) { digitalwrite(12, HIGH); delay(40); digitalwrite(12, LOW); delay(200); } void drum3(void) { digitalwrite(11, HIGH); delay(40); digitalwrite(11, LOW); delay(200); } // The same pin is used to read the signal from the PING))): a HIGH // pulse whose duration is the time (in microseconds) from the sending // of the ping to the reception of its echo off of an object. pinmode(pingpin, INPUT); duration = pulsein(pingpin, HIGH); if (duration<1500) Serial.println(duration); if (duration<1500) drum1(); // close object detected if (duration>1500 and duration<3000) drum2(); // intermediate range object detected if (duration>3000 and duration<4500) drum3(); // farther object detected }

19 Window to the Past A 3 minute audio delay line situated in a public restroom. At any given time the viewer is hearing whatever happened in the room 3 minutes prior. By its nature, the portal can also be used to leave a message for the next person in (the bathroom) line. Window to the Past addresses issues of privacy, surveillance, and the supposed neutrality of technological devices. The device is based on two off-the-shelf digital audio recorders controlled by a BasicStamp.

20 Remote Wireless doorbell Relays mounted in circuit breaker box Pressing the button on the small jewelry box causes the lights in the gallery to begin flashing in an elaborate pattern. The system is based on an offthe-shelf wireless doorbell and a BasisStamp connected to 3 solid state relays. The relays allow the BasicStamp to control over 3000 Watts of lighting.

21 General Interface Techniques Buttons on remote can be controlled from microcontroller (Hint: buy a universal remote to hack) Almost any consumer electronic device can be controlled this way: DVD players MP3 players Receivers Ceiling fans, fireplaces! etc Buttons on device can be controlled from microcontroller

22 Interfacing Approaches - active low Microcontroller pin goes low to activate Make sure voltage across switch does not exceed 5V If voltage across switch is less than 5V, add a diode in series with resistor

23 Interfacing Approaches - active high Microcontroller pin goes high to activate Make sure voltage across switch does not exceed 5V

24 A Universal Interfacing Approach Small 5V, 20mA reed relays can be driven directly by an Arduino output Multiple instances of this circuit can be used to control multiple functions: Play Stop Next track Etc

25 Interleaving Operations Why won t this program work? /* Flash LED and make sound */ void setup() { pinmode(2, OUTPUT); // connect speaker to pin 2 pinmode(13, OUTPUT); // LED } void loop() { // make sound by sending pin 2 high and low every 1000 microseconds digitalwrite(2, HIGH); delaymicroseconds(500); digitalwrite(2, LOW); delaymicroseconds(500); // flash LED on pin 13 every second digitalwrite(13, HIGH); delay(1000); digitalwrite(13, LOW); delay(1000); }

26 Technical Assignment For Thursday March 4th Create a program that makes a continuous 1000Hz tone and simultaneously flashes an LED on for 1 second, off for 1 second. Hint: modify the BlinkWithoutDelay example. Then modify the program so that the LED can be turned on or off using 'a' or 'b' characters sent from the serial terminal. Please your two versions of this program to me or bring a hardcopy with you to class. You can test your code using a small speaker or one of the piezo speakers we have used in class. If you can t get access to these or are having trouble with the assignment please contact me. Remember, many code examples are also available here: And some more serial communications information can be found here:

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