Chapter 13 Renewable Energy and Conservation

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1 Chapter 13 Renewable Energy and Conservation

2 Overview of Chapter 13 Direct Solar Energy Indirect Solar Energy Wind Biomass Hydropower Geothermal Tidal High and Low Technology Energy Solution

3 Direct Solar Energy Perpetually available Varies with latitude, season, time of day, and cloud cover

4 Heating Buildings and Water Passive solar energy System of putting the sun s energy to use without requiring mechanical devices to distribute the collected heat Certain design features can enhance passive solar energy s heating potential South facing windows (in N. hemisphere) Well insulated buildings Attic vents Overhangs and solar sunspaces

5

6 Solar Sunspace Utilizes passive solar energy to heat and cool homes Can be added to existing homes

7 Heating Buildings and Water Active Solar Energy System of collecting and absorbing the sun s energy, and using pumps or fans distribute the collected heat Typically used to heat water 8% of energy in US is used to heat water This technology could supply large amount of US energy demand

8 Heating Buildings and Water Solar Thermal Electric Generation Means of producing electricity in which the sun s energy is concentrated by mirrors or lenses to either heat a fluid filled pipe or drive a Stirling engine More efficient than other solar technologies No air pollution No contribution to global warming or acid precipitation

9 Solar Thermal Electric Generation

10 Photovoltaic Solar Cells A wafer or thin film that is treated with certain metals so that they generate electricity when they absorb solar energy No pollution and minimal maintenance Used on any scale Lighted road signs Entire buildings

11 Photovoltaic Solar Cells More economical than running electrical lines to rural areas Can be incorporated into building materials Roofing shingles Tile Window glass

12 Cost of Electrical Power Plants Alternative power sources are becoming competitive with traditional power sources

13 Indirect Solar Energy Biomass Plant materials, such as wood, crop wastes and animal waste, used as fuel Wind energy Electric or mechanical energy obtained from surface air currents caused by solar warming of air Hydropower Form of renewable energy reliant on flowing or falling water to generate mechanical energy or electricity

14 Biomass Contains energy from sun via photosynthesizing plants Oldest known fuel to humans - still used by half the world s population Renewable when used no faster than it can be produced Can convert to biogas or liquids Ethanol and methanol Clean fuel

15 Biomass Advantages Reduces dependence on fossil fuels Often uses waste materials If trees are planted at same rate biomass is combusted, no net increase in atmospheric CO 2 Disadvantages Requires land, water and fossil fuel energy Can lead to Deforestation Desertification Soil erosion

16 Wind Energy World s fastest growing source of energy Wind results from sun warming the atmosphere Varies in direction and magnitude New wind turbines harness wind efficiently Most profitable in rural areas with constant wind

17 Wind Energy Few environmental problems Kills birds and bats No waste - clean source of energy Biggest constraints: Cost Public resistance (NIMBY)

18 Hydropower Most efficient energy source (90%) Most widely used form of solar energy 19% of world s energy Traditional hydropower Suited only to large dams New technology Utilize low flow systems

19 Hydropower

20 Other Indirect Solar Energy Ocean waves Produced by winds Has potential to turn a turbine- and create electricity Ocean Temperature Gradients Use difference in temperature of surface and deep water to create electricity

21 Other Renewable Energy Sources Geothermal energy Energy from the Earth s interior for either space heating or generation of electricity Tidal Energy Form of renewable energy that relies of the ebb and flow of the tides to generate electricity

22 Geothermal Energy Enormous energy source 1% of heat in upper 10 km of earth crust is equal to 500x the earth s fossil fuel sources From Hydrothermal Reservoirs Created by volcanoes Reservoirs used directly for heat or to generate electricity

23 Geothermal Energy From hot, dry rock Geothermal heat pumps Use difference in temperature between surface and subsurface Great for heating buildings Expensive installation

24 Tidal Energy Typical difference between high and low tide is 1 2 ft Narrow bays may have greater variation Potential energy difference between low and high tide can be captured with A dam across a bay A turbine similar to a wind turbine

25 High and Low Technology Energy Solutions Most promising energy sources are energy conservation and energy efficiency Energy Conservation Using less energy by reducing energy use and waste Energy Efficiency Using less energy to accomplish a given task

26 Hydrogen as a Fuel Source Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) Comprised of two hydrogen molecules Large amounts of available energy Explodes when combined with oxygen releasing energy and forming water

27 Hydrogen as a Fuel Source Advantages Very high energy density Can be produced from any electrical source Electrolysis (see illustration on next slide) No greenhouse gases and few other pollutants Can be use in vehicles Disadvantages Highly volatile (requires special storage) Relatively inefficient

28 Hydrogen as a Fuel Source - Electrolysis

29 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Fuel cell Device that directly converts chemical energy into electricity Requires hydrogen from a tank and oxygen from the air Similar to a battery, but reactants are supplied from outside source

30 Future Applications of Fuel Cells Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen is not yet readily available as a fuel source 61 hydrogen fueling stations in US Batteries in cells phones or laptops

31 Energy Consumption Trends and Economics

32 Energy Efficient Technologies Super-insulated buildings (right) Energy efficient appliances Automobiles Aircraft technology Compact Fluorescent light bulbs Condensing furnaces

33 Cogeneration Production of two useful forms of energy from the same fuel Most effective on small scale

34 Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings

35 Saving Energy at Home

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