ART IN CONTEXT: The Prehistoric and Ancient World to 1200 BCE. ART 121 Lecture 10

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1 ART IN CONTEXT: The Prehistoric and Ancient World to 1200 BCE ART 121 Lecture 10

2 Introduction to the Art History Unit

3 The History of Art This unit of the course will focus on how CONTEXT, that is the original environment, affects the form and content of a given work of art and vice versa. Factors an art historian takes into account when trying to read a work include: Form AND Function of the artwork Available media and technology Religious beliefs Economic situation Political factors Unit 3 of ART 121 will present works in chronological order and trace the major artistic developments to today.

4 History of Art Quizzes/Exams You will be expected to know the following information for the Slide ID quizzes/exams Title Artist Culture Dates on selected works Media (Painting, relief sculpture, etc.) Any info discussed in class and on the review sheets THIS IS A LOT OF INFORMATION. If you haven t yet developed decent study habits for this course its not too late to start!

5 Part 1: Art Before History Paleolithic Era: 35,000 BCE- ca. 8,000 BCE in the Middle East Neolithic Era: 8,000 ca BCE in the Middle East

6 Humanity needs to be creative Timeline: Prehistory 120,000 BCE: Fully modern humans emerge in Africa 100,000 BCE: Humans begin to migrate; oldest evidence of art found 40,000 BCE: Earliest sculpture 30,000 BCE: Cave paintings in Europe 20,000 BCE: Invention of pottery, China 10,000 BCE: Oldest known religious structure in Turkey Stone bowl used to grind ochre into pigment for painting. Discovered in the Blombos Caves in the Horn of Africa. Ca. 100,000 to 70,000 BCE BCE: Agriculture invented in the Middle East 4,000 BCE: Megaliths in England and France

7 Humanity needs to be creative Timeline: Prehistory 120,000 BCE: Fully modern humans emerge in Africa 100,000 BCE: Humans begin to migrate; oldest evidence of art found 40,000 BCE: Earliest sculpture 30,000 BCE: Cave paintings in Europe 20,000 BCE: Invention of pottery, China One of over 8000 pieces of yellow ochre recovered from the Blombos Caves in the Horn of Africa. Ca. 100,000 to 70,000 BCE. Currently the oldest known drawing in the world! 10,000 BCE: Oldest known religious structure in Turkey 8000 BCE: Agriculture invented in the Middle East 4,000 BCE: Megaliths in England and France

8 The earliest surviving sculpture found in modern day Germany. The subject matter? A female nude. Timeline: Prehistory 120,000 BCE: Fully modern humans emerge in Africa 100,000 BCE: Humans begin to migrate; oldest evidence of art found 40,000 BCE: Earliest sculpture 30,000 BCE: Cave paintings in Europe 20,000 BCE: Invention of pottery, China 10,000 BCE: Oldest known religious structure in Turkey Venus of Hohle Fels, Mammoth ivory, ca. 40,000 35,000 BCE. Approx. 2 inches tall. Discovered in BCE: Agriculture invented in the Middle East Currently the oldest (undisputed) Paleolithic sculpture. 4,000 BCE: Megaliths in England and France

9 Woman of Willendorf, Limestone with red ochre, ca. 23,000 BCE. Approx. 4 inches tall.

10 Earliest surviving drawings/paintings found in 50+ underground caves in modern France and Spain. Timeline: Prehistory 120,000 BCE: Fully modern humans emerge in Africa 100,000 BCE: Humans begin to migrate; oldest evidence of art found 40,000 BCE: Earliest sculpture 30,000 BCE: Cave paintings in Europe 20,000 BCE: Invention of pottery, China 10,000 BCE: Oldest known religious Oldest cave art: Chauvet Cave, France, ca. 30,000 BCE. structure in Turkey 8000 BCE: Agriculture invented in the Middle East 4,000 BCE: Megaliths in England and France

11 The Hall of the Bulls, Lascaux Caves, France. Ca. 15,000 13,000 BCE.

12 Ceramics were invented in ancient China as rice growing practices were perfected, so was rice storage! Timeline: Prehistory 120,000 BCE: Fully modern humans emerge in Africa 100,000 BCE: Humans begin to migrate; oldest evidence of art found 40,000 BCE: Earliest sculpture 30,000 BCE: Cave paintings in Europe 20,000 BCE: Invention of pottery, China 10,000 BCE: Oldest known religious structure in Turkey 8000 BCE: Agriculture invented in the Middle East Remains of the earliest Paleolithic pottery. 4,000 BCE: Megaliths in England and France

13 Basin, Majiayoa culture, China, ca BCE.

14 The earliest evidence of architecture comes from Göbekli Tepe in modern Turkey, ca. 10,000 BCE. Timeline: Prehistory 120,000 BCE: Fully modern humans emerge in Africa 100,000 BCE: Humans begin to migrate; oldest evidence of art found 40,000 BCE: Earliest sculpture 30,000 BCE: Cave paintings in Europe 20,000 BCE: Invention of pottery, China 10,000 BCE: Oldest known religious structure in Turkey 8000 BCE: Agriculture invented in the Middle East 4,000 BCE: Megaliths in England and France

15 The last vestiges of the Neolithic in Europe: England s Stonehenge. Timeline: Prehistory 120,000 BCE: Fully modern humans emerge in Africa 100,000 BCE: Humans begin to migrate; oldest evidence of art found 40,000 BCE: Earliest sculpture 30,000 BCE: Cave paintings in Europe 20,000 BCE: Invention of pottery, China 10,000 BCE: Oldest known religious structure in Turkey 8000 BCE: Agriculture invented in the Middle East View of the Sarsen Stones at Stonehenge, the last building phase of the site. 4,000 BCE: Megaliths in England and France

16 Stonehenge Vocab: Megalith: Large stones. Structures built w/o mortar. Post and lintel construction. Posts: vertical members Lintels: horizontal beams Held together with notches Sarsens: type of local granite; used for large horseshoe shape and posts and lintels. Bluestones: uprights only; imported from Wales. Recent discovery: This is only half of the site. To learn more Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England, ca BCE.

17 Video: Secrets of Stonehenge Please be sure to complete the worksheet that accompanies this video.

18 Part 2: Ancient Civilizations Across the Globe to the 1200 BCE Mesopotamia: Sumer Africa: Egypt India: Harappa China: Shang Dynasty Aegean: Minoan

19 MESOPOTAMIA: Civilization as we recognize it appears in the cites of Sumer around 3,500 BCE. Timeline: Ancient Worlds 4,000: Irrigation invented in Middle East 3,500: Writing Invented!!! Also first cities. 3,000: Egypt united 2750: Stonehenge 2,500: Pyramid Age of Egypt; Golden Age of Harappa in India 2,000: Shang Dynasty in China 1500: Height of Minoan Civilization. 1200: Dark Age descends on Middle East and Europe

20 Statuettes from Abu Temple, Sumerian (modern Iraq), stone/bitumen/shell, ca BCE.

21 AFRICA: Egypt unified ca. 3,000 BCE and it culture remains almost unchanged until Roman rule in 31 BCE. Timeline: Ancient Worlds 4,000: Irrigation invented in Middle East 3,500: Writing Invented!!! Also first cities. 3,000: Egypt united 2750: Stonehenge 2,500: Pyramid Age of Egypt; Golden Age of Harappa in India 2,000: Shang Dynasty in China 1500: Height of Minoan Civilization. 1200: Dark Age descends on Middle East and Europe

22 The Palette of Narmer, Predynastic Egypt, Slate, 25 inches, ca BCE.

23 Great Pyramids, Giza, Old Kingdom Egypt, Limestone. Khufu BCE Khafre BCE Menkaure BCE

24 The Pyramid of Khufu: Wonder of the Ancient World Measures 775 ft per side 450 feet high Limestone blocks weigh 2.5 tons each 2.3 million of them

25 INDIA: Harappan civilization born on the Indus River. Known for amazing brick cities and small scale works. Timeline: Ancient Worlds 4,000: Irrigation invented in Middle East 3,500: Writing Invented!!! Also first cities. 3,000: Egypt united 2750: Stonehenge 2,500: Pyramid Age of Egypt; Golden Age of Harappa in India 2,000: Shang Dynasty in China 1500: Height of Minoan Civilization. 1200: Dark Age descends on Middle East and Europe

26 Torso of a priest king, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca BCE.

27 CHINA: Shang, the first Chinese Empire on the Yellow River. Power of kings seen in objects of jade, lacquer, and bronze. Timeline: Ancient Worlds 4,000: Irrigation invented in Middle East 3,500: Writing Invented!!! Also first cities. 3,000: Egypt united 2750: Stonehenge 2,500: Pyramid Age of Egypt; Golden Age of Harappa in India 1600: Shang Dynasty in China 1500: Height of Minoan Civilization. 1200: Dark Age descends on Middle East and Europe

28 Bronze Ritual Vessels: Bronze: alloy of copper and tin. Very strong. Piece mold cast. Vessels used in ceremonies of ancestor worship. Vessels used by the the rich. Many of the patterns and symbols represent royal strength. Shang Dynasty Ding with Taotie carvings, 10th or 11th Century BCE. Bronze.

29 The Taotie Mask: ogre or glutton face? A god or monster? Perhaps protected people or the food within the vessel from evil spirits.

30 AEGEAN: Home to Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean civilizations. Seeds of Greek civilization found here. Minoan art celebrates life, bulls, and the sea. Timeline: Ancient Worlds 4,000: Irrigation invented in Middle East 3,500: Writing Invented!!! Also first cities. 3,000: Egypt united 2750: Stonehenge 2,500: Pyramid Age of Egypt; Golden Age of Harappa in India 1600: Shang Dynasty in China 1500: Height of Minoan Civilization. 1200: Dark Age descends on Middle East and Europe

31 Bull-leaping, from the palace at Knossos (Crete), Greece, ca BCE. Fresco, 2 8 high, including border. Archaeological Museum, Herakleion.

32 1200: The Dark Age Begins For over a century archaeologists have noted that in sites all over Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean show evidence of decline. What happened? Invaders? Disease? Volcanoes? In 2013 a new hypothesis was put forward: Climate Change. 13/08/14/the-bronze-agecollapse-was-caused-byclimate-change-study/ Did Troy fall because of the Trojan horse? Or did the city simply run out of food and water?

33 Tying it Together: A Review of the Ancient Civilizations

34 Questions to discuss in small groups: 1. What types of media did we focus on today? What types of media were not studied why? 2. Which society had the most abstract art? Which had the most mimetic art? 3. Which image do you think was the most overtly political? How were those politics the same as today? How were they different? 4. Which work was the most religious? When you first saw it, did you think it was a religious piece? What details about the religion did you learn from looking at the art and thinking about its function? 5. Based on what you learned about these cultures through their artwork, who would you go back in time to visit, and why?

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