The Rocks Under Illinois

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Rocks Under Illinois"

Transcription

1 The Rocks Under Illinois Grade Level: 9 12 This lesson builds upon ISM Geology Online lesson 12.3, How Old is Illinois? Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to draw the rock layers under the surface of Illinois between Rock Island and Chicago using the ages determined in ISM Geology Online lesson Suggested Goals: The goal of drawing the rock layers will be met by teaching your students what the law of superposition is and how it can be used to predict the arrangement of the strata beneath the surface. Students will practice drawing layers and then create a three dimensional drawing complete with the appropriate symbols for the rocks. Targeted Objectives: Illinois is covered with thick layers of sedimentary rocks. In many places they are piled layer upon layer until they reach thicknesses of thousands of feet. In this activity students will use the rock layers that are visible at the surface to predict how the layers are arranged far underground where they cannot see. They will use the data from ISM Geology Online lesson 12.3 to make a cross section of Illinois between Rock Island and Chicago. 1. Students will learn the law of superposition 2. Students will learn how sedimentary rocks are arranged 3. Students will learn how to predict the arrangement and inclination of rock layers far underground using clues at the surface. 4. Students will learn the common geologic symbols for sedimentary rocks. 5. Students will make a cross section using the common symbols for sedimentary rocks to label them. 6. Students will learn how the rock layers of northern Illinois are arranged. Background: Material called sediment spreads out evenly over the ocean floor so that a layer of sand or mud covers miles and miles of the sea bottom in roughly horizontal layers. If tectonic forces (mountain building) raise the continent the flow rate will increase and larger particles will reach farther out into the ocean covering the original sediment so that a new bed of coarser sediment might form on top of the first. For hundreds of millions of years, layer after layer settle on top of each other. The great thicknesses of sediment are compressed by their own weight and calcium carbonate, which is abundant in the sea, and change the layers to sedimentary rocks. Since new sediments are deposited on top of those that are already there, we know that the bottom layers are older. This principle, called the Law of Superposition states that the oldest rocks are on the bottom. It is one of the most important principles in the field

2 of geology. Another principle called the Law of Horizontality states that originally the sedimentary rocks were laid down in flat horizontal layers. These two principles will be used in this activity to determine how the rock layers are arranged under Illinois. Materials: Colored pencils Ruler Preparation: To begin this lesson, there should be a discussion of the Law of Superposition. Compare the rock layers to someone building a brick house. Which layer did the bricklayer lay first? How do we know? It is the same way with the rock layers. The bottom layer of brick and rock had to have been there before the others. Remind the students that sedimentary rocks are laid down horizontally but that forces in the earth often fold them. Tell them that Illinois is covered with thousands of feet of rock from times when there the area was covered by ocean or the delta of a great river. Begin the stratigraphy activity by telling the students that now they are going to learn how to tell how the rock layers are situated thousands of feet underground without leaving the surface. Tell them that they did the hard part already when they did ISM Geology Online lesson Pass out copies of the pages labeled Rules. And go over each rule with your students. Draw the following on the board and ask if any student can draw the layers: The correct answer will be Devonian on top of the Silurian. Continue putting examples on the board. I usually let a student attempt to do all of a puzzle until they make a mistake and then I let the student who caught the error come up and try to finish the layers. At first it may be hard to get volunteers, but in a short time your students will be begging you to let them go to the board.

3 At the conclusion of the practice session, I put a sequence from one end of the board to the other with about twenty time periods on it. Just remember that it is easiest for you to make the sequences if you do not skip any periods. If you start with Ordovician then the next period should be either Cambrian or Silurian. In nature periods of time are often missing but for ease in the practice time it is best not to do that at least not at first. When you feel your students are adept at figuring out the rock layers, pass out the sheet labeled Stratigraphy Worksheet and have them try to finish it. I usually assign one at a time and then walk around to see who has the correct answer first. You might want to reward the first person to get each correct. Pass out the sheet labeled A Block of Illinois and tell your students that this sheet has the rock ages on it that they found when they did their fossil assemblage in ISM Geology Online lesson It shows the ages of the rock layers between Rock Island and Chicago. Tell them that now they are going to predict what the rocks are like under their state. Have the students do the same thing on the front of the block as they did in the preceding exercise. Have them draw the layers lightly, in case they make a mistake. If they draw the layers correctly hey will create a sequence of layers sitting on top of Cambrian rocks. When they have completed the layers have them draw the sides as shown on the top of their sheet. Draw the layers back parallel to the top and bottom lines on the side to create a 3-D view. Pass out the sheet that has the rock symbols on it and briefly go over them. Then explain how to draw the layers of limestone, dolomite, and shale so that they are parallel to the bedding plain (bottom of the layer above). It is fortunate for Illinois that it has so much limestone and dolomite but it would have been better for this assignment if the Silurian rock would have been something else since there is a sequence of limestone dolomite limestone which all have pretty much the same symbol on the Illinois Block. This problem is reduced when the students lightly color the different periods of rock creating a very professional looking product. Discussion: 1. Do the rock layers in northern Illinois appear to be folded upward or downward? Upward 2. What other information about the land would be helpful that the model does not have since it is flat on top? It would be good to know the contour of the surface. 3. There is a fault on the east side of the Cambrian rock, which side rose the east side or the west side? The west rose because it brought older rock to the surface. 4. Oil is often found in rock that forms an anticline (upward fold) if there is a layer of sandstone between two layers of shale. This model does show an anticline. Is there any place on the cross section that would likely have oil and why? No

4 because there is no place where sandstone is between two layers of shale. Oil is usually found in rock layers much younger than the ones in northern Illinois. 5. The Silurian and Ordovician rock appear to be rising on the left side of the map and then reappear on the right side. If they were once joined, why is there a break in the layers? Weathering and erosion have carried away the top of the anticline since it was highest up and thus more vulnerable to erosion by streams and wind. 6. Why is there no coal deposits in the eastern half of Illinois shown by the cross section? There is no Pennsylvanian or Mississippian rock in the western part. They are the periods when coal was formed. 7. Dinosaur fossils are found in Mesozoic age rocks which includes the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Why will there never be a dinosaur found in northern Illinois? There is no Mesozoic age rock in northern Illinois Assessment: 1. One assessment would be the number of students that raise their hand to go to the board to try their hand at drawing the layers. 2. Observe the students work as you walk around the class while they are working on the two sheets. 3. Collect the pages of student work, Stratigraphy Worksheet and Block of Illinois. 4. Give a quiz with several of the stratigraphy puzzles on it. Begin with some short easy ones and work toward much more difficult ones. Correct them to see how well the students do on them. 5. Students responses to the discussion questions would be a good indicator of student understanding of the concept. Extensions Have your students create a cross section from Cairo to Rockford. The bottom of Illinois is a basin syncline (basin) appropriately named the Illinois Basin. Visit a rock outcrop or a park where layers are visible. If this is not possible, show your students pictures of rock strata such as the Grand Canyon. Make an actual 3-D model of the rock layers of Northern Illinois. The Illinois State Geological Survey sells such a model of Illinois that would be perfect to show after your students have completed this lesson. Look at an Illinois Geologic Map to learn where the various age rocks can be found. Web Resources ISM Geology Online GeoGallery This Website has geologic maps of all fifty states

5 This is the Website for the Illinois Geological Survey An Illinois Geologic Map from the Illinois State Geological Survey Lesson Specifics: Students should have completed ISM Geology Online lesson Duration: two days. It is best for each student to create a drawing of their own but students can work together while doing their individual pictures. Illinois State Board of Education Goals and Standards: 11A: Know and apply the concepts, principles and processes of scientific inquiry. 12B: Know and apply concepts that describe how living things interact with each other and with their environment. 12E: Know and apply concepts that describe the features and processes of the Earth and its resources.

6

7

8 Symbols: Each variety of rock has its own symbol when drawn on a stratigraphic (rock layer) drawing. Also look at pictures on ISM Geology Online web site. Limestone is drawn like several layers of bricks on top of each other. Sandstone is easy to remember because it is shown with dots that resemble sand. Shale is shown with dashes. Each new line of dashes is indented slightly so that it is below the open spaces in the line of dashes above it. Conglomerate is made of gravels so it is easy to remember its symbol since it is tiny circles, that look like gravel, spread throughout the layer. Dolomite is very similar to limestone except that is contains the mineral magnesium. Its symbol is also very much like limestone but the sides of the bricks are diagonals producing rows of parallelograms. When drawing a layer of limestone, conglomerate or shale, it is important to draw them correctly. If a layer of either is inclined, then the symbol will be drawn parallel to the bedding plain which means the limestone will look like bricks that were laid on the layer under it. The dashes for shale will also be parallel to the layer above and below. This is what a layer of limestone and a layer of shale would look like if the layer they are in is folded.

9 Procedure RULES to Follow when drawing Rock Layers Once the age of rock layers is determined, as was done in ISM Geology Online lesson 12.3, it is a simple matter and even a fun one, to predict what the subsurface orientation of the rock layers is. The rules to follow when determining the arrangement of the rocks are as follows: Quaternary Tertiary Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Pennsylvanian Devonian Silurian Ordovician 1. Start by determining which layer is the youngest and draw that bed on top. If these are several layers of the same age, draw each of them on top. The youngest layer is the Mississippian. 2. The next youngest layer is usually right next to the youngest one and it should be drawn under the younger layer that is already drawn on top. The Devonian would be under the Mississippian. 3. If there are other layers of that age that are not adjacent to the younger layer, draw then on top like you did in rule one. NO 4. It is never possible for lines marking the bottom of two layers to touch one another. In the following example if you draw the Ordovician under the large Silurian you can not bring it to the surface without touching the other Silurian so it is necessary to dip under that layer, too. NO

10 YES 5. When you draw a layer you should always keep it the same thickness. Do not make it thick in one place and thin somewhere else. The new layers should be drawn parallel to the layers above them. NO YES 6. If there is not enough room to put all of a layer on the drawing, bring it down as far as you can and then let it run off of the drawing. 7. If a layer is on the edge and it needs to be drawn on top, you may draw it either of the following ways.

11 8. Do not draw a bottom to the lowest layer. Let it fill all of the space that remains at the bottom of the diagram. NO YES

12 Procedure RULES to Follow when drawing Rock Layers KEY Once the age of rock layers is determined, as was done in ISM Geology Online lesson 12.3, it is a simple matter and even a fun one, to predict what the subsurface orientation of the rock layers is. The rules to follow when determining the arrangement of the rocks are as follows: Quaternary Tertiary Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Pennsylvanian Devonian Silurian Ordovician 1. Start by determining which layer is the youngest and draw that bed on top. If these are several layers of the same age, draw each of them on top. The youngest layer is the Mississippian. 2. The next youngest layer is usually right next to the youngest one and it should be drawn under the younger layer that is already drawn on top. The Devonian would be under the Mississippian. 3. If there are other layers of that age that are not adjacent to the younger layer, draw them on top like you did in rule one. like the youngest layer NO 4. It is never possible for lines marking the bottom of two layers to touch one another. In the following example if you draw the Ordovician under the large Silurian you can not bring it to the surface without touching the other Silurian so it is necessary to dip under that layer, too. NO

13 YES 5. When you draw a layer you should always keep it the same thickness. Do not make it thick in one place and thin somewhere else. The new layers should be drawn parallel to the layers above them. NO YES 6. If there is not enough room to put all of a layer on the drawing, bring it down as far as you can and then let it run off of the drawing. 7. If a layer is on the edge and it needs to be drawn on top, you may draw it either of the following ways.

14 8. Do not draw a bottom to the lowest layer. Let it fill all of the space that remains at the bottom of the diagram. NO YES

15 Stratigraphy Worksheet Name Period Determine how the rock layers would be arranged in each of the following:

16

17 Stratigraphy Worksheet KEY Determine how the rock layers would be arranged in each of the following:

18

Time and Geology Chapter 8

Time and Geology Chapter 8 Time and Geology Chapter 8 Where would you hike to find the oldest rocks in this area? (hint : you would use the principle of superposition) Tasks 1. Read about relative ages on pages 179-190 (skip the

More information

Name Date Per Integrated Science: Plate Tectonics. Geologic Time WebQuest

Name Date Per Integrated Science: Plate Tectonics. Geologic Time WebQuest Name Date Per Integrated Science: Plate Tectonics Geologic Time WebQuest If the age of the Earth were to be scaled to the length of the Golden Gate Bridge (about 6000 ft), then 600 years of civilization

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Grade Level: 9 12

Sedimentary Rocks. Grade Level: 9 12 Grade Level: 9 12 Sedimentary Rocks Purpose: The purpose of this lesson is to introduce sedimentary rocks. Students will learn what sedimentary rocks are and how they form. It will teach them how to identify

More information

What is the Rio Grande Rift?

What is the Rio Grande Rift? 26. What is the Rio Grande Rift? Description: Objectives: Students will learn about the concept of a rift in general and about the Rio Grande Rift in particular. Two different diagrams of the rift can

More information

Carbonate Rock Formation

Carbonate Rock Formation Limestone, dolomite (or dolostone), and marble are often collectively referred to as carbonate rocks because the main mineral is calcite. The chemical name of calcite is calcium carbonate. Limestone, dolomite,

More information

Geological Maps 1: Horizontal and Inclined Strata

Geological Maps 1: Horizontal and Inclined Strata Geological Maps 1: Horizontal and Inclined Strata A well-rounded geologist must be familiar with the processes that shape the Earth as well as the rocks and minerals that comprise it. These processes cover

More information

Geologic Mapping C Div

Geologic Mapping C Div C Div. - 2014 Thank you for running this event! This is a station event. There are 19 stations. If you have more than 19 teams, print a second set. If there are only one or two more teams than you have

More information

Geology and Landscapes 2014 Maps and cross-sections

Geology and Landscapes 2014 Maps and cross-sections Geology and Landscapes 2014 Maps and cross-sections Practicals 2 to 9 will be dedicated to the study of geological maps and the production of geological cross-section. Below is a summary of the different

More information

Geologic History Review

Geologic History Review 1. The climate that existed in an area during the early Paleozoic Era can best be determined by studying (1) the present climate of the area (2) recorded climate data of the area since 1700 (3) present

More information

LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES

LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY- EES 1005 LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES Introduction Structural geology is the study of the ways in which rocks or sediments are arranged and deformed

More information

Worksheet: The geological time scale

Worksheet: The geological time scale Worksheet: The geological time scale Senior Phase Grade 7-9 Learning area: Natural Science Strand: Life and living Theme: Biodiversity, change and continuity Specific Aim 1: Acquiring knowledge of natural

More information

Dip is the vertical angle perpendicular to strike between the imaginary horizontal plane and the inclined planar geological feature.

Dip is the vertical angle perpendicular to strike between the imaginary horizontal plane and the inclined planar geological feature. Geological Visualization Tools and Structural Geology Geologists use several visualization tools to understand rock outcrop relationships, regional patterns and subsurface geology in 3D and 4D. Geological

More information

Edible Rock Activity

Edible Rock Activity Activity Guidelines Page 1 Edible Rock Activity Grade: 6-12 Subject: Earth Science Purpose: To introduce students to relative age dating. Objective: Students will understand the concept of relative age

More information

Geological maps are topographic maps on which different rock types and geologic features are represented.

Geological maps are topographic maps on which different rock types and geologic features are represented. LAB 8 Using Geologic Maps, Cross Sections and Stratigraphic Columns Geological maps are topographic maps on which different rock types and geologic features are represented. Types of rock bodies: Intrusive

More information

What s Up? A Relative Age Dating Activity By Christine McLelland

What s Up? A Relative Age Dating Activity By Christine McLelland What s Up? Relative ge ating ctivity y hristine McLelland Topic: Relative age dating of geologic cross sections Grade Level: 7-14 ontent Standard: National arth and Space Science Standard ontent Objective:

More information

Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS Name Date Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 1. Geologic time is divided into units based upon 1 erosion rates 3 surface topography 2 rock types 4 fossil evidence As we have

More information

Though you can t tell just by

Though you can t tell just by Students get to the core of stratigraphic principles and learn about geologic sampling. By Rebecca Tedford and Sophie Warny Though you can t tell just by looking at them, layers of sediments tell us much

More information

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity GEOS 2900 Sample Activity 3.3 GEOLOGIC TIME Introduction: Now that we understand how fossils and rocks are used to interpret past events and to put relative and absolute ages on these events, we can begin

More information

Lab 10: Geologic Time

Lab 10: Geologic Time Name: Lab 10: Geologic Time Much of geology is focused on understanding Earth's history. The physical characteristics of rocks and minerals offer clues to the processes and conditions on and within Earth

More information

-most form when things die and are buried by sediments. -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms

-most form when things die and are buried by sediments. -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms Fossils -preserved remains or traces of living things -most form when things die and are buried by sediments -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms -found in sedimentary

More information

2012 Learning on Location St. Louis Science Center Symposium

2012 Learning on Location St. Louis Science Center Symposium 2012 Learning on Location St. Louis Science Center Symposium Title of Activity/Lesson Understanding the Geologic Time Scale Michelle Hrastich, Windsor School District Grade Level(s) this activity/lesson

More information

Our Changing Landforms. Wind, Water, Ice, and Gravity Form Sand Dunes, Canyons, and Deltas

Our Changing Landforms. Wind, Water, Ice, and Gravity Form Sand Dunes, Canyons, and Deltas Our Changing Landforms Wind, Water, Ice, and Gravity Form Sand Dunes, Canyons, and Deltas Landforms Change Over Time Two main ways landforms change are Uplifting is due to changes inside the Earth Uplifting

More information

GEOLOGIC MAPS. PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps

GEOLOGIC MAPS. PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps GEOLOGIC MAPS PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps Geologic maps show the distribution of the various igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks at Earth s surface in

More information

Geological Maps 2: Folded Strata

Geological Maps 2: Folded Strata Geological Maps 2: Folded Strata The same factors responsible for metamorphism (chiefly pressure and temperature) are also responsible for rock deformation; however, the actual processes of deformation

More information

GEOLOGICAL TIME / DATING TECHNIQUES

GEOLOGICAL TIME / DATING TECHNIQUES DATE DUE: INSTRUCTOR: TERRY J. BOROUGHS Geology 305 NAME: SECTION: GEOLOGICAL TIME / DATING TECHNIQUES Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Provide specific and

More information

geologic structures!

geologic structures! geologic structures! geologic structures! up until now, we have focused our attention mostly on! flat-lying rocks, i.e. sedimentary or volcanic layers! not all layers on Earth are flat-lying: geologic

More information

Wednesday 30 January 2013 Afternoon

Wednesday 30 January 2013 Afternoon Wednesday 30 January 2013 Afternoon A2 GCE GEOLOGY F795/01 Evolution of Life, Earth and Climate *F712980113* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied materials: None Other materials required:

More information

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form?

How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? 298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations

More information

89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY GEOLOGIC TIME AND GEOLOGIC MAPS

89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY GEOLOGIC TIME AND GEOLOGIC MAPS NAME 89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY GEOLOGIC TIME AND GEOLOGIC MAPS I. Introduction There are two types of geologic time, relative and absolute. In the case of relative time geologic events are arranged in

More information

Geology 12 Stanley Park Field Trip Student Worksheet

Geology 12 Stanley Park Field Trip Student Worksheet Stop 1 Prospect Point Lookout NAMES 1) Look across the water to the North Shore. Much of Vancouver s early prosperity came from logging those slopes. Far to the left is Point Atkinson (or Lighthouse Park),

More information

Earth s Rocky Surface

Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s Rocky Surface You have learned that Earth s surface is not permanent and is constantly changing. Some changes take place very slowly over millions of years, such as crustal plates moving and creating

More information

Pre/Co- Requisite Challenge for Field Courses

Pre/Co- Requisite Challenge for Field Courses Pre/Co- Requisite Challenge for Field Courses In order to register for any field course through Earth and Planetary Sciences, a student must satisfy one of the following requirements: 1) Be currently enrolled

More information

Interactive Animation: Relative Geologic Dating

Interactive Animation: Relative Geologic Dating Homework 5 Geologic Time Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, February 28, 2016 You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy Interactive Animation: Relative Geologic

More information

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Rocks are classified based on how they were formed. The three types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Igneous rock forms when magma (liquid

More information

Fish, Fossils and Fuel

Fish, Fossils and Fuel Lesson Plan - Page 1 Topic Where oil comes from Source Oil and Natural Gas, pages 18-19 Objective Students will gain an overall picture of the sequence of processes that leads to the formation of sedimentary

More information

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale Two Conceptions of Earth History: Catastrophism Assumption: Great Effects Require Great Causes Earth History Dominated by Violent Events Uniformitarianism Assumption: We Can Use Cause And Effect to Determine

More information

Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred.

Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred. Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred. With layers of undeformed sedimentary rocks, a layer of rock that below another is older than the

More information

USING RELATIVE DATING AND UNCONFORMITIES TO DETERMINE SEQUENCES OF EVENTS

USING RELATIVE DATING AND UNCONFORMITIES TO DETERMINE SEQUENCES OF EVENTS EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY- EES 1005 LABORATORY THREE USING RELATIVE DATING AND UNCONFORMITIES TO DETERMINE SEQUENCES OF EVENTS Introduction In order to interpret Earth history from

More information

California Geologic History

California Geologic History California Geologic History Why do Sierra Nevada look this way? Alabama Hills Introduction California s geologic history is very complex, most of the state did not exist as a coherent piece of the earth

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

Structural Geology Laboratory 9 (Name)

Structural Geology Laboratory 9 (Name) Structural Geology Laboratory 9 (Name) Geologic maps show the distribution of different types of structures and rock stratigraphic units generally on a topographic base such as a quadrangle map. Key structures

More information

Igneous rocks formed when hot molten material (magma) cools and hardens (crystallizes).

Igneous rocks formed when hot molten material (magma) cools and hardens (crystallizes). Objectives You will learn about how the land of North Dakota was formed. Introduction North Dakota is a wonderful place to live. Have you ever though about how it was formed? To answer that question, you

More information

Earth s Rocky Surface

Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s Rocky Surface Earth s surface is not permanent and is constantly changing. Some changes take place very slowly over millions of years, such as crustal plates moving and creating mountains or valleys.

More information

limestone sandstone fault

limestone sandstone fault ACTIVITY 1: SANDWICH STRATIGRAPHY Using a sandwich model, students will determine the relative ages of different sedimentary rock layers and experiment with folding and faulting. OBJECTIVES Students will

More information

Geologic History. 5. Which radioactive isotope disintegrates to lead (Pb 206 )? A) C 14 B) K 40 C) Rb 87 D) U 238

Geologic History. 5. Which radioactive isotope disintegrates to lead (Pb 206 )? A) C 14 B) K 40 C) Rb 87 D) U 238 1. Which event occurred earliest in geologic history? A) appearance of the earliest grasses B) appearance of the earliest birds C) the Grenville Orogeny D) the intrusion of the Palisades Sill 2. When did

More information

principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation

principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation Relative Age Dating Comparative Records of Time Nature of the rock record principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation Stratigraphic tools biological succession of life:

More information

SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS

SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS Date Period Name SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS SECTION.1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks In your textbook, read about the processes that form sedimentary rocks. Use each of the terms below to complete

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which sedimentary rock would be formed by the compaction and cementation of particles 1.5 centimeters in diameter? A) shale B) conglomerate C)

More information

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks?

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks? The rock cycle This Revision looks at the three types of rock: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. It looks at how they are formed, the weathering of rocks and the way one form of rock turns into another,

More information

Introduction to Structural Geology

Introduction to Structural Geology Introduction to Structural Geology Workbook 3 Geological Maps BGS Introduction to geological maps 4 1. Outcrop patterns on geological maps 7 2. Cross sections 16 3. Structure contours 22 cknowledgements

More information

Geologic Time. This page last updated on 08-Oct-2015

Geologic Time. This page last updated on 08-Oct-2015 Page 1 of 16 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Geologic Time This page last updated on 08-Oct-2015 From the beginning of this course, we have stated that the Earth is

More information

GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment. DUE: Mon. Sept. 18

GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment. DUE: Mon. Sept. 18 GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment DUE: Mon. Sept. 18 Part I: Environments of Deposition Geologists can use various clues in sedimentary rocks to interpret their environment of deposition:

More information

EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass

EARTH LAYERS ROCKS. Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass Released SOL Test Questions Sorted by Topic Compiled by SOLpass www.solpass.org SOL 5.7 Earth s Constantly Changing Surface The student will investigate and understand how Earth s surface is constantly

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet?

Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Rocks and Minerals What is right under your feet? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know? What is the difference between a rock and a mineral? What are the three categories of rocks? 1. 2. 3.

More information

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 4 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the theory of plate tectonics? What

More information

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones

Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean

More information

How Did Rocks and Rivers Shape the Great Lakes?

How Did Rocks and Rivers Shape the Great Lakes? How Did Rocks and Rivers Shape the Great Lakes? The rocks in the Great Lakes Basin are of two main types: metamorphic/igneous and sedimentary. The metamorphic/igneous rocks formed long ago, when molten

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

Topography and geology

Topography and geology unconformities, cross sections and geological map descriptions Topography and geology Read Chapter 2, pages 11-13, of the text by Rowland et al (2007) if you have not already done so. In this week s lab

More information

The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine

The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine Geologic Site of the Month February, 2002 The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine 43 14 23.88 N, 70 35 18.36 W Text by Arthur M. Hussey II, Bowdoin College and Robert G. Marvinney,, Department

More information

See Fig Sequence of events: deposition of sedimentary layers A, B; reverse faulting; slump

See Fig Sequence of events: deposition of sedimentary layers A, B; reverse faulting; slump C H A P T E R 2 Fundamental Concepts EXERCISES Exercise 2-1 ORDERING GEOLOGIC EVENTS Part A Complete the ordering of geologic events in the four following diagrams. These answers refer to Fig. 2.16 (a,

More information

Laboratory #8: Structural Geology Thinking in 3D

Laboratory #8: Structural Geology Thinking in 3D Name: Lab day: Tuesday Wednesday Thursday ENVG /SC 10110-20110L Planet Earth Laboratory Laboratory #8: Structural Geology Thinking in 3D http://www.nd.edu/~cneal/physicalgeo/lab-structural/index.html Readings:

More information

Stratigraphic Cross Sections Why study old rocks?

Stratigraphic Cross Sections Why study old rocks? rom IRIS collection: Animations of eologic Processes www.iris.edu/educate/animations Stratigraphic ross Sections Why study old rocks? The earthquake potential of an area can be determined by studying the

More information

The Evolution of Earth through Time

The Evolution of Earth through Time The Evolution of Earth through Time Part I: Events throughout Earth history 1. What percent (%) of Earth history passed before earliest life appeared on Earth roughly 3.5 billion years ago? 4.6 bill 3.5

More information

The Formation of Fossil Fuels

The Formation of Fossil Fuels If you have ever walked along the bottom of a cliff, you may have noticed that the rocks form layers. Different layers may have different colors or textures. They may be made of bits of other rocks. Rocks

More information

20, (PAGES 267 279 IN YOUR MANUAL,

20, (PAGES 267 279 IN YOUR MANUAL, GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and your geology

More information

Earth s Crust and Interior

Earth s Crust and Interior Student: Date received: Handout 6 of 14 (Topic 2.1) Earth s Crust and Interior Seafloor topography around Iceland in the North Atlantic Ocean (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/image:n-atlantic-topo.png). Iceland

More information

Lesson Plan Title. Toilet Paper Tape Measure of Geologic Time

Lesson Plan Title. Toilet Paper Tape Measure of Geologic Time Lesson Plan Title Toilet Paper Tape Measure of Geologic Time Name (last, first): Serratos, Danielle J. Scientific Theme(s): Life Science *Changes in Life Forms over Time Earth Science *Forces that Shape

More information

Weathering, erosion, and deposition shape Earth s surface.

Weathering, erosion, and deposition shape Earth s surface. Chapter 8 Weathering, erosion, and deposition shape Earth s surface. Lesson 1: Weathering Rocks exposed at Earth s surface are broken down into sediment and soils by the action of weathering. Lesson 2:

More information

1. The timeline below represents time on Earth from the beginning of the Paleozoic Era Ato the present B.

1. The timeline below represents time on Earth from the beginning of the Paleozoic Era Ato the present B. Name Roy G Biv 1. The timeline below represents time on Earth from the beginning of the Paleozoic Era Ato the present B. Which numbered position best represents the time when humans first appeared in the

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Sedimentary Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised September 2007

Sedimentary Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised September 2007 Sedimentary Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised September 2007 1. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of and derived from pre-existing material. 2. What is physical weathering? 3. What is chemical

More information

Plate Tectonics Review

Plate Tectonics Review 1. Recent volcanic activity in different parts of the world supports the inference that volcanoes are located mainly in 1) the centers of landscape regions 2) the central regions of the continents 3) zones

More information

Chapter 8: Geologic Time

Chapter 8: Geologic Time Chapter 8: Geologic Time 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Art of Time The History of Relative Time Geologic Time Numerical Time Rates of Change Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction

More information

Geologic Background for the Sierra Foothills

Geologic Background for the Sierra Foothills Geologic Background for the Sierra Foothills To understand what s going on as we raft through the Sierra foothills on the rivers, we first need to understand the dynamics of the Earth s crust. Figure 1

More information

Geologic Time. Life and Geologic Time

Geologic Time. Life and Geologic Time chapter 10 3 Geologic Time section 1 Life and Geologic Time Before You Read Think about a giraffe you have seen. On the lines below, describe the giraffe and tell why you think it has a long neck. What

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

The Foothills of Western Canada, a Fold and Thrust Belt Natural Gas Play.

The Foothills of Western Canada, a Fold and Thrust Belt Natural Gas Play. The Foothills of Western Canada, a Fold and Thrust Belt Natural Gas Play. Andrew Newson, Moose Oils Ltd, Calgary, Alberta, Canada The Foothills of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) has a long

More information

Landforms of Illinois

Landforms of Illinois Landforms of Illinois Grade Level: 5 6 Purpose: To introduce primary landforms of Illinois and how they were formed. Suggested Goals: Students will gain an understanding in how landforms are created. Targeted

More information

Using specific examples, students will be able to explain how rocks change as they go through the rock cycle.

Using specific examples, students will be able to explain how rocks change as they go through the rock cycle. Title: Rock Cycle Comic Strip Author: Ashley Packard Subject Area: Geology Grade: 8 Description of Lesson: This lesson is designed to help the students understand how the rock cycle works. They will play

More information

Section: The Rock Cycle

Section: The Rock Cycle Skills Worksheet Chapter 2 section 1 Inside the Restless Earth /29 Section: The Rock Cycle 1. A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter is called a. an element. b. a

More information

Ride the Rock Cycle. Suggested Goals: Students will gain an understanding of how a rock can move through the different stages of the rock cycle.

Ride the Rock Cycle. Suggested Goals: Students will gain an understanding of how a rock can move through the different stages of the rock cycle. Illinois State Museum Geology Online http://geologyonline.museum.state.il.us Ride the Rock Cycle Grade Level: 5 6 Purpose: To teach students that the rock cycle, like the water cycle, has various stages

More information

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia.

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia. Please read chapters 10 and 5 CHAPTER 5 Sedimentary Rocks 1) Sedimentary rocks A) form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment. B) are widespread on the continents and ocean floor. C) are common

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

The Fossil Record. MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year Name

The Fossil Record. MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year Name The Fossil Record MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year 7-10 At School Discuss why you think fossils are useful and what they teach us about life on Earth In the Museum go to the MasterFoods Fossil Gallery.

More information

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms

Theory of Catastrophism - earth s shapes created in great cataclysms Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Lithosphere is the branch of physical geography, shared with the fields of Geomorphology and Tectonics, that specifically examine the landforms, continents

More information

Fill in the blanks. Reading Skill: Draw Conclusions - questions 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 16

Fill in the blanks. Reading Skill: Draw Conclusions - questions 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 16 Earth s Oceans Fill in the blanks Reading Skill: Draw Conclusions - questions 1, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 16 What Are Oceans, Seas, and Basins? 1 Most of Earth s water is contained in large bodies of salt water

More information

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

More information

II. Grade 7, A Trip Through TIME! 2006 Colorado Unit Writing Project 1

II. Grade 7, A Trip Through TIME! 2006 Colorado Unit Writing Project 1 A Trip Through TIME! Grade Level or Special Area: 7 th Grade Science Written by: Beth Spencer, Aurora Academy Charter School, Aurora, Colorado Length of Unit: 5 lessons (approximately 8 days long; one

More information

Project 1: Sedimentology of the Jackfork Group, DeGray spillway near Caddo Gap, Arkansas Due: September 30, 2003

Project 1: Sedimentology of the Jackfork Group, DeGray spillway near Caddo Gap, Arkansas Due: September 30, 2003 Project 1: Sedimentology of the Jackfork Group, DeGray spillway near Caddo Gap, Arkansas Due: September 30, 2003 Over the next month or so, we will use the Pennsylvanian age Jackfork Group (JFG) to get

More information

Karst Geology Pre-visit

Karst Geology Pre-visit Karst Geology Pre-visit Classroom Activity Brief Synopsis: Students will first become familiar with karst vocabulary words by finding them in the Word Find puzzle. Students will then learn the definitions

More information

All sediments have a source or provenance, a place or number of places of origin where they were produced.

All sediments have a source or provenance, a place or number of places of origin where they were produced. Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as rock fragments, mineral grains, part of plants or animals,

More information

Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest

Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest Grade 7 Earth/Space Pretest Select the best answer to each question. 1. Earth can be divided into layers based on chemical composition. The three compositional layers of Earth are the core, the mantle,

More information

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals

Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Earth Science Grade 4 Minerals Standards: Identifies the physical properties of minerals Teacher Background Minerals are pure substances and mix together to make rocks. Rocks have a cycle and different

More information

Rocks and Plate Tectonics

Rocks and Plate Tectonics Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or

More information

Earth Science Education Learning about Kentucky s Land and Water Resource Materials for Teachers

Earth Science Education Learning about Kentucky s Land and Water Resource Materials for Teachers Earth Science Education Learning about Kentucky s Land and Water Resource Materials for Teachers Overview The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kentucky (UK) seeks to expand its efforts

More information

Deformation of Rocks

Deformation of Rocks Deformation of Rocks Rock Deformation Large scale deformation of the Earth s s crust = Plate Tectonics Smaller scale deformation = structural geology 1 Deformation of rocks Folds and faults are geologic

More information

Physical and chemical processes break up solid rock into smaller grains (particles).

Physical and chemical processes break up solid rock into smaller grains (particles). Physical and chemical processes break up solid rock into smaller grains (particles). Some grains, like rock pebbles, quartz grains, and mica flakes are basically fragments of the original rock. Others,

More information

Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide

Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide #35-1145 Paper #35-1146 Laminated Background Geologic Time Scale Basics The history of the Earth covers a vast expanse of time, so scientists

More information