The Teachings of Syrianus on Plato s Timaeus and Parmenides

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2 The Teachings of Syrianus on Plato s Timaeus and Parmenides

3 Ancient Mediterranean and Medieval Texts and Contexts Editors Robert M. Berchman Jacob Neusner Studies in Platonism, Neoplatonism, and the Platonic Tradition Edited by Robert M. Berchman Dowling College and Bard College John F. Finamore University of Iowa Editorial Board JOHN DILLON (Trinity College, Dublin) GARY GURTLER (Boston College) JEAN-MARC NARBONNE (Laval University, Canada) VOLUME 10

4 The Teachings of Syrianus on Plato s Timaeus and Parmenides By Sarah Klitenic Wear LEIDEN BOSTON 2011

5 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Wear, Sarah Klitenic. The teachings of Syrianus on Plato's Timaeus and Parmenides / by Sarah Klitenic Wear. p. cm. (Ancient Mediterranean and medieval texts and contexts) (Studies in Platonism, Neoplatonism, and the Platonic tradition ; v. 10) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (hardback : alk. paper) 1. Syrianus. 2. Plato. Timaeus. 3. Plato. Parmenides. 4. Proclus, ca On the Timaeus. 5. Proclus, ca In Parmenidem. 6. Damaskios, ca. 480-ca In Parmenidem. 7. Damaskios, ca. 480-ca Aporiai kai lyseis peri ton proton archon. I. Title. B387.W dc ISSN X ISBN Copyright 2011 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing, IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change.

6 For John M. Dillon and Kenneth Wear With Love and Gratitude to Both


8 CONTENTS Acknowledgements... AbbreviationsofManuscripts... ix xi Introduction... 1 A. Life... 1 B. Works... 3 C. PhilosophicalPosition... 4 D. Problems of Methodology and Notes on Syrianus Methodology E. ReviewofScholarship F. NotesonPresentEdition fragments In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr

9 viii contents In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Tim.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr In Parm.Fr.14a In Parm.Fr AbbreviationsofWorksFrequentlyCited Bibliography IndexofPhilosophicalTermsandNames IndexofPassagesfromAncientAuthors

10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Syrianus the Platonist on Plato s Timaeus and Parmenides is a revision of a doctoral dissertation done under the guidance of John M. Dillon at Trinity College, Dublin. It has been revised under his care and thanks to the reading of Angela Longo, Anne Sheppard and the anonymous reviewers at Brill. I would also like to thank John Finamore, Stephen Gersh, and Gretchen Reydams-Schils, who have read or heard and commented upon sections of the text at various times. I would like to further thank Margriet van der Wel, the desk editor at Brill, for her care and help in preparation of this manuscript. This book is dedicated to John M. Dillon, my beloved teacher, at whose feet this work was composed. He has dedicated hundreds of hours over the years to discussing Syrianus with me, and his wife Jean, facilitated him in doing so. Being in the presence of this great and kind man has been one of the greatest blessings of my life. I would like to thank Bibliopolis for permission to reprint sections of my article, Syrianus Teachings on the Soul in Proclus Commentary on the Timaeus, in Syrianus et la métaphysique de l Antiquité tardive. Actes du Colloque international Syrianus et la métaphysique de l Antiquité tardive, Université de Genève, 29 septembre 1er octobre 2006 Ed. Anglea Longo. Bibliopolis (Naples, 2009); I would also like to thank Classical Quarterly for permission to reprint sections of my article, Syrianus the Platonist on Eternity and Time Classical Quarterly (vol. 58.2, 2008), pp I would further like to thank The International Journal of the Platonic Tradition for permission to reprint sections of my article, Syrianus on the One, IJPT vol. 6 (2011). This book is also dedicated to my sweet and good husband, Kenneth Wear, without whose support and willingness to mind our four small children, this book would never have seen its completion. I would also like to acknowledge our children. The children are named: Beatrice, Agnes, Myles, and Lucy. I hope they are pleased with seeing their names in a book.


12 ABBREVIATIONS OF MANUSCRIPTS In Tim. fr (manuscripts and abbreviations used by Diehl, In Platonis Timaeum Commentaria,vol.1 3) C Coislinianus 322 saec. XI/XII D cod. Parisinus graec saec. XVI M Marcianus 195 saec. XIV exeuntis P (olim F) Parisinus 1840 saec. XVI N Neapolitanus Borbonicus III D 28 a Q (olim P) Parisinus suppl. graec. 666 saec. XIV QD (ς) loco quodam illius paginae ς solam exhibere te docet ueram lectionem ς recensio uulgata bedition Basileensis a AMonacensis 382 s Schneider qui edidit a Vratislauiae t Taylor qui vertit in linguam Anglorum a Londinii add addidi addidit addendum ci coni conieci sim. em emendaui sim. ins inserui sim. om omisit omissis mg margo or. Chald. De oraculis chaldaicis scr. G. Kroll Vratislauiae a additamenta [ ] delenda [ ] addenda quae ad fenestras codicum explendas inserta sunt Abbreviations for In Parm. Fr.1 9, Proclus, In Parm., vol. 1-III Steel A Parisinus gr. 1810, saec. XIII ex. A 1 lectio primi librarii A 2 lectio secundi librarii (ante 1358)

13 xii abbreviations of manuscripts A 3 lectio tertii librarii (ante 1358) A 4 lectio recentioris librarii, saec. XV? M Ambrosianus gr. 159 (B 165 sup.), saec. XIV M b lectio post Bessarionis correctionem F Laurentianus plut. LXXXV 8, saec. XV (a. 1489) G Scorialensis T. II. 8 (gr. 147), saec. XVI (a ) R Vaticanus Rossianus gr. 962, saec. XVI W Vindobonensis phil. gr. 7, saec. XVI (a. 1561) P Monacensis gr. 425, saec. XVI Σ consensus codicum FGP (Libri IV VII) RW (usque ad IV ) g interpretatio latina Guillelmi de Moerbeka, saec. XIII ex. (ante a. 1286), secundum editionem C. Steel Γ exemplar graecum Guillelmi de Moerbeka (deperditum) A 8 interpretatio Guillelmi de Moerbeka in codice Ambrosiano A 167 sup., saec. XVI (a. 1508) PLAT. B Bodleianus Clark. 39, saec. IX (a. 895) PLAT. C Tubingensis Mb 14, saec. XI PLAT. D Marcianus gr. 185, saec. XII PLAT. T Marcianus App. Class. IV 1, saec. X medio PLAT. W Vindobonensis Suppl. gr. 7, saec. XI PLAT. codd. consensuscodicumplat.bcdtw Sigla in textu: additio [ ] additio ex interpretatione latina { } textus delendus lacuna add. addidit cens. censuit coni. coniecit corr. correxit del. delevit eras. erasum exp. expunxit hab. habet/habent in mg. in margine inv. invertit iter. iteravit litt. litterae (-arum, -is) om. omisit ras. rasura spat. vac. spatium (-o) vacuum (-o) stat. statuit transp. transposuit

14 abbreviations of manuscripts xiii Abbreviations for In Parm Fr , Damascius, In Parm., De Prin., Dub. et Sol., Westerink A add. del. Marcianus gr. 246, s. IX. addidit delevit


16 INTRODUCTION A. Life Syrianus, 1 successor to Plutarch of Athens as head of the Athenian school of Platonism from , 2 is best known through the writings of his well-published pupil, Proclus. In the introduction to his commentary on Plato s Parmenides, Proclus offers the following encomium to his teacher Syrianus: So may all the orders of divine beings help to prepare me fully to share in this most illuminating and mystical vision that Plato reveals to us in the Parmenides with a profundity appropriate to its subject; and which has been unfolded to us, with his own very lucid applications, by one who was in very truth a fellow Bacchant with Plato and filled entirely with divine truth, and who, by leading us to the understanding of this vision has become a true hierophant of these divine doctrines. Of him I would saythathecametomenastheexactimageofphilosophyforthebenefit of souls here below, in recompense for the statues, temples, and the whole ritual of worship, and as the chief author of salvation for men who now live and for those to come hereafter. So may all the higher powers be propitious to us and be ready with their gifts to illuminate us also with the light that comesfromthemandleadsusupwards. (Proclus,In Parm. 618) 3 1 Something of Syrianus background is known through works such as Damascius Philosophical History; Syrianus was related to Aedesia and Ammonianus (Damascius, PH 47; 54). Damascius informs us, moreover, that he was tall, good-looking, and strong and more beloved of the gods than Ammonianus. Regarding other details of Syrianus physical appearance, the reader is leftto his own imagination. 2 In addition to Proclus, Syrianus students included Isidore, Hermeias, and Domninus (Damascius, PH, 34D; 54; 89A). 3 Translation Morrow-Dillon (1987). Proclus offers similar praise to Syrianus in PT I,1pp.7 8(whereSyrianusiscalledahierophant)andIn Remp. I, In his praise of Syrianus in his Parmenides Commentary, Proclus makes it seem that Syrianus is one of the pure souls who descend willingly for the aid of the human race. This passage is not a hymn, however, because Proclus addresses the higher powers, rather than his teacher. For a hymn to a philosopher see Lucretius hymn to Epicurus in De rerum natura V See also Porphyry s Life of Plotinus, ch. 22 where Porphyry calls on the Muses before he writes praise of Plotinus.

17 2 introduction One gathers from this quotation that Syrianus was a figure of immense religious and spiritual importance to Proclus. As the exact image of philosophy, Syrianus personified the philosophical art for Proclus in such a way that it is impossible to avoid Syrianic thought in Proclus own philosophy, so pervasive is his philosophy in the works of Proclus. Moreover, although Proclus frequently mentions his teacher when discussing a point, more often than not Syrianus is behind Proclus discourse even when he goes unmentioned. In his Life of Proclus, Marinus discusses the close relationship between Syrianus and Proclus: Now the old man lived only two years more with Proclus as his lodger, andthenwhenhediedheentrustedtheyoungmantohissuccessor Syrianus, as he also did his grandson Archiadas. And when Syrianus took him, he not only gave him more help wth his scholarly pursuits, but made him his housemate from then on and a sharer in his philosophic life, finding in him the sort of hearer and successor that he had long desired to have, as he was able to receive his manifold learning and divine teachings. 4 Proclus was the hand-picked successor of Syrianus, who not only studied at the feet of Syrianus, but lived with him and adapted his philosophical way of life, even positioning himself within ear-shot of his Master at death. 5 Little is known about Syrianus personal history the major study on the person of Syrianus remains K. Praechter s article, Syrianos in R.E (IV A ), the information for which seems based on Marinus Life of Proclus. Marinus notes that Syrianus was the son of Philoxenus and that he became head of the school of Athens in 431/2 after Plutarch s death. 6 In addition to overseeing Proclus, he was the teacher of Hermeias and Domninus. He died, according to Marinus, shortly after a period when he was to read either Orphic writings or Chaldean Oracles with Domninus and Proclus, in the midst of his service as diadochos. 7 4 Marinus, Life of Proclus, 12, translation Edwards (2000). 5 Marinus, Life of Proclus, 36. Marinus tells the story that Syrianus had requested two vaults one for himself, one for Proclus in one tomb. When Proclus later worried out of piety that it would be improper for him to be buried with Syrianus, Syrianus appeared to him in a dream to persuade him otherwise (Marinus, ibid). The inscription on Proclus tomb, which he shares with his teacher, Syrianus, on Mt. Lycabettus reads: Proclus I was, by race a man of Lycia, whom Syrianus Fostered here to become the successor to his own school. This is the common tomb which received the bodies of both men; Oh may a single Place be a portion of both their souls. Marinus, ibid.trans.edwards. 6 Marinus, Life of Proclus,11 7 Marinus, Life of Proclus, 26.

18 introduction 3 After his death, Domninus took the chair at the Athenian School for a short while, followed by Proclus, who became head until his death in 485. B. Works The written product of Syrianus teaching is scant: extant works include atextbookonrhetoric(in Hermogenem, a commentary on Hermogenes De Ideis and De Statibus) 8 and a commentary on Aristotle s Metaphysics, books Β, Γ, Μ, Ν (In Metaphysica). 9 The Suda (IV 478, 21) attributes the following works to Syrianus s.v. Συριαν ς: Εγραψεν Ε ς Ομηρον λεν π μνημα ν Βιβλίοις ζ. Ε ς τ ν Πολιτείαν Πλάτωνος Βιβλία δ. Ε ς τ ν ορφέως εολ γιαν βιβλία Β [Ε ς τ Πρ κλου] Περ τ ν παρ Ομήρ ω ε ν Συμφωνίαν Ορφέως, Πυφαγ ρου καί Πλάτωνος Περ τ λ για, βιβλία δέκα Κα λλα τιν ζηγητικά. There is some debate as to whether these works were actually authored by Syrianus because Proclus is listed as the author of works with the same titles, Suda s.v. Πρ κλος. E. Zeller, in Die Philosophie der Griechen in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, 10 claims that the works were written by Proclus and that this list was tacked on to Syrianus entry. Praechter, in Das Schriftenverzeichnis des Neuplatonikers Syrianos bei Sudas, 11 attributes the works to Syrianus, arguing that Syrianus works were falsely attributed to Proclus. A.D.R. Sheppard suggests that both Syrianus and Proclus may have written works with the same title. 12 H.-D. Saffrey maintains that Proclus edited Syrianus work, while R.L. Cardullo regards 8 There is actually some debate as to whether the author of In Hermogenem is the same Syrianus who was head of the Athenian School, though there is no compelling reason to deny the identification. The work is, however, dedicated to the author s son, Alexander, of whom we have no other evidence, even as there is none of Syrianus being married. It is possible that his purported son was a spiritual son. 9 See CAG VI.1 (902). These are now treated in the Aristotelian Commentators series, by O Meara and Dillon ( ) It remains unclear whether Syrianus wrote a commentary on the other books of Aristotle s Metaphysics,butprobablynot. 10 Zeller (1903) 818ff. 11 Praechter (1973) Sheppard (1980) 46.

19 4 introduction the entire list as suspect. 13 It is possible that Proclus works as listed are written versions and elaborations of Syrianus lectures on the same subject. In addition to the works listed in the Suda,itseemsthatSyrianusdelivered lectures which later formed the basis for Hermias Commentary on the Phaedrus. Whether he actually composed commentaries on other dialogues of Plato remains uncertain. The issue of the possible appropriation of Syrianus unwritten teaching by Proclus in commentary-formwill be taken up in section D of this introduction, on methodology. C. Philosophical Position While it is somewhat premature to summarise Syrianus metaphysics based on fragments of his teachings on Plato s Timaeus and Parmenides, by gathering such evidence as appears in the attested fragments, we can begin to see a picture develop of what the Syrianic cosmos looked like and how it influenced Proclus metaphysics. As the hallmark of hismetaphysics,syrianuspostulatesanewlevelofrealityforevery difficulty he finds in the text of the Timaeus, while every step in the argument of the first and second hypotheses in the Parmenides represents also a distinct level of reality. This reality, moreover, displays Syrianus impulse to proliferate levels of triads an impulse which originated with Iamblichus, who distinguished three triads at the level of intellect. 14 Syrianus, indeed, comes to many of his conclusions by appropriating the opinions of Porphyry and Iamblichus, taking aspects of each to create, out of often contradictory views, one coherent doctrine. This doctrine was then elaborated upon by Proclus, who created even more ranks within Syrianus tiered cosmos. The One Syrianus description of the One is encapsulated in his treatment of the first and second hypotheses of the Parmenides: 15 what is systematically denied of the One in the first hypothesis is affirmed of the One in 13 Saffrey (1984) ; Cardullo (1986) C.-P. Manolea summarises these arguments (2004) Cf. Procl. In Tim I 308, 18ff. and Appendix C to Dillon (1973). 15 Unfortunately, for Proclus Commentary on the Parmenides, only his discussion of the first hypothesis is extant (though some evidence in the interpretation of the second is derivable both from there and from the Platonic Theology.) Damascius, however, seems

20 introduction 5 the second, so that each positive attribute corresponds in order to the preceding negation: All things are presented in logical order, as being symbols of divine orders of being; and also that the fact that all those things which are presented positively in the second hypothesis are presented negatively in the first indicates that the primal cause transcends all the divine orders, while they undergo various degrees of procession according to their various distinct characteristics (Proclus, In Parm ) 16 Hence, the first hypothesis says that the One is beyond multiplicity and simple and partless; however, the second hypothesis allows us to note how the One contains a beginning, middle, and end when the One is looked at with respect to others. 17 TheOneisthussimple(withrespect to itself the Absolute One) or participated (with respect to the generated cosmos): Syrianus says that when Plato discusses the One as unparticipated and participated, he distinguishes between the two by adding τι to ν when discussing the participated One. This concept breaks from Iamblichus discussion of the particular, rather than participated, One 18 the particular ones refers to a doctrine of henads, which will be described below. For Syrianus, the connection between the two hypotheses exists because the negative propositions are tied to the positive; the ways in which the One is not is another way of attributing something to the One i.e., negative statements say that the One is other than these things. 19 This mode of thinking is a correction to Iamblichus idea that the One is ineffable: if anything were attributed to it, such terms would subtract from and diminish the One. For Syrianus, at the intelligible level, negative statements can be specificatory: because each form has its own identity, it can be said that the One is not rest; because it is not movement, identity; and so forth. At the sensible level, negation is a denial of attributes. Syrianus distinguishes between περ το ν ς, referring to the One, and περ τ ν, talkingabouttheone. 20 In the first case, the use of the genitive when discussing the topic of the One is permissible, as it implies that the One is only being mentioned as a subject. In the to have been aware of the remainder of Proclus Commentary on the Parmenides and comments on both it and Syrianus teaching as revealed in it. 16 Trans. Morrow-Dillon (1987). 17 Syrianus, In Parm. fr. 4 Wear. 18 Syrianus, In 19 Syrianus, In Parm. fr. 6 Wear. Iamblichus attributes characteristics denied of the One itself to the lower elements of henadic realm. See Iamblichus, In Tim. Fr. 29 Dillon. 20 Syrianus, In

21 6 introduction second case, the accusative suggests that the One is being discussed and that things are being said about the content of the One; this is impossible, because when humans speak about the One, they use sensible language, which the One transcends. Proclus agrees with and expands his teacher s thinking on this subject, arguing two additional ways in which the One is transcendent and immanent in The Platonic Theology II.12: the One has the power of generation; the One can be approached by the soul, but only when it leaves behind dialectic (as a form of sensible discourse) in mystical ascent. Syrianus, then, discusses the One and its relation to the generated universe based on the first and second hypotheses of the Parmenides. Syrianus, like Iamblichus, does not consider the One in its absolute state even in the first hypothesis; instead, he describes the One in its capacity for generating gods. In a rather strange passage, Damascius credits Syrianus with positing an ineffable One beyond the One: There is, then, a certain relation perceived between the two, such as the relationship of extremes, these things forming a sequence: the Unified, the relation, the One, and beyond the One there will be a unique principle, the Ineffable. (Syrianus In Parm, fr. 11 Wear = Damascius, DePrincip. II. 17, 1 17.) That Syrianus postulated an ineffable One beyond the One is a questionable proposal, as there is no other textual evidence that I have found to support the claim here, but since Iamblichus had done so before him, it is not impossible. It is possible that Damascius is reading into Syrianus his own structure of the Ineffable, followed by a generative One. It is also possible, one may suppose, that Damascius had access to more material that what is now extant and that Syrianus Ineffable One appears in now lost material. When Proclus inherits Syrianus One, he tightens the subject matter of the first hypothesis, arguing that it is about the absolute One. The ineffable, however, would not, as such, be the proper subject of any of the hypotheses. Peras and Apeiria After the One, Syrianus places peras (Limit) and apeiria (Unlimitedness), features of the henadic realm which filter down and pervade every level of existence. The following chart, reproduced and discussed at length in In Parm. Fr. 5 below, outlines the levels of being and how Limit and Unlimitedness affect them.

22 introduction 7 Rank Unlimit (Chaos) Limit (Aether) Matter formless of itself forms and shapes are limits of matter Unqualified Body divisible to infinity limited in size; body as a whole is limited Qualities contain more and less quantity is limited in material things Realm of generation circuits of heaven constant coming into being and ceaseless cycle possesses unlimited power of that which moves it; happens continuously creation of forms in matter; nothing of all things perishes (forms continue) places limit upon the disorderly elements in matter; turns back on itself and limits itself Soul power of unceasing motion circuits of the soul are uniform Time measures whole circuit of the soul power which unfolds circuits of the soul is unlimited proceeds according to number; measure of the circuits of the soul Intellect Eternity Infinity/Essential Limit eternal motion and unfailing continuity comprehends the whole intellectual infinity. It is power itself fount of all infinity remains in itself; its life is single and eternal and same Measure of all intellectual activity and bound of the life of intellect (mixed entity, formed of Limit and Unlimitedness) foundation of all limits The pair reveal the transcendent nature of the One and the One as the cause of all things; peras is responsible for unity and sameness, while apeiria causes production, procession, and plurality. Everything, thus, contains Limit and Unlimitedness, with the exception of the One, which exists beyond it. Syrianus assumes these cosmic principles from Iamblichus, who placed them after his second One. 21 Unlike Iamblichus, whomadethesecondoneamonadandcalled peras and apeiria together a dyad, Syrianus seems to assimilate Iamblichus second One to peras as monad, while characterising apeiria as an (indefinite) dyad. Proclus uses both terms, depending on the context of his discussion Cf. Iambl. In Tim. fr. 7 Dillon. 22 Proclus sometimes uses dyad to refer to peras and apeiria in his commentary on Plato s Parmenides, while in other writings, he refers to apeiria as the dyad. See Syrianus, In Parm. fr. 5 Wear, and Sheppard (1982) 3 6.

23 8 introduction The Henomenon Before the noetic triad, Syrianus discusses a relationship between the One and what he terms, following Iamblichus, the Unified (to hênomenon) which relates these extremes of the henadic realm: the One, the Unified, and the relationship can be taken to constitute a triad. Moreover, between the hênomenon andbeinghepositsabondcalleddynamis;the hênomenon, Being, and this bond (skhesis) constituteasecondtriad. 23 The henomenon participates in the One and is the first product of the relationship between peras and apeiria.thesecondtriad,ofhenomenon and Being (or Nous) and their bond, may owe something to Porphyry s doctrine of the One. Porphyry is reported by Damascius 24 as making the One the Father of the intelligible triad Being, Life, and Intellect, so that the head of the noetic world is also the One at least in its positive, creative aspect. Syrianus, while not adopting Porphyry s peculiar theory, expands this interpretation of the One by explaining the relationship between the One and the noetic world in terms of the two triads different functions of the One are expressed in terms of individual cosmic entities. Such a thesis creates a drawn-out and elaborate cosmos, as opposed to Porphyry s compact universe based on the premise that the Father of the intelligible triad is the One. Henads In the Syrianic cosmos, the henads represent the link between the henadic and intelligible realm they connect the two in a way which the absolute transcendence of the One would otherwise seem to render impossible. As aspects of the One which pervade the universe, the henads do not have a precise location per se, as might an hypostasis such as Intellect, or Soul, for instance. Still, it is possible to locate where they first enter the cosmos. The henads are the lowest element in the realm of the One, below peras and apeiria, and constitute the link to the Intelligible. The Unified (hênomenon), however, is also the product of peras and apeiria and the link to the Intelligible. It seems, then, that either Syrianus makes the contents of the hênomenon the henads or he makes the hênomenon the totality of the henads. Most likely both are true, with the hênomenon possessing the simultaneous unity and plurality which the first and second hypotheses of the Parmenides bring to light with respect to the One. 23 Syrianus, In 24 Damascius, De Princ. Ch. 43.

24 introduction 9 There has been some discussion as to whether the theory of the henads originated with Syrianus or if they existed already in Iamblichus cosmology. While E.R. Dodds credited Syrianus with first postulating the henads in his edition of Proclus Elements of Theology, (pp ), he later retracts a key piece of evidence in his addenda and corrigenda.thepoint at issue for Dodds (and for Dillon) is a position attributed by Proclus in In Parmenidem to some of those revered by us (τινες τ ν μ ν α δοίων) that the first hypothesisof the Parmenides addresses god and the gods, by which Proclus understands henads. Dodds initially attributes this statement to Syrianus, and then later retracts it. It is clear, however, that Syrianus located the gods in the second hypothesis, leaving the first hypothesis for the One alone ( ) and that Iamblichus is most likely the author of this doctrine. Dillon first attributed the doctrine of the henads referred to in ff. to Iamblichus, arguing that this doctrine does, indeed, reflect Syrianus and Proclus concept of the henads, rather than mere noetic beings, the suggestion of Saffrey and Westerink. 25 Dillon argues that Iamblichus was prepared to identify the henads, while serving as the lowest participated element of the realm of the One, also as objects of intellection. 26 For Iamblichus, the One- Being exists in itself and is substantially identical with the highest level of Nous; 27 in this way that it can be viewed as a unity and multiplicity when viewed as an intelligised multiplicity, Iamblichus calls this gods or henads. 28 Syrianus makes the hênomenon (not the hen on)thecontentsof theformsandplacesgodsineveryleveloftheuniverse;hismetaphysics, thus, prohibits the henads as objects of intellection. For Syrianus, each intelligible level is presided over by a henad the henads adjust to suit every level, existing noetically in the noetic levels, noerically in the noeric levels. 29 The structure of the henadic realm is, therefore, as follows: Saffrey-Westerink (1978) ix xl. Saffrey and Westerink argue that Iamblichus use henas to denote the forms. 26 See Dillon (1972). More recently, Dillon approached the topic again (1993). 27 Cf. In Tim. fr Dillon (1993) 50ff. 29 Syrianus, In Parm. fr. 7 Wear. 30 This chart is reproduced and discussed in-depth in Syrianus, In

25 10 introduction Τ παντελ ς ρρητον Iamblichus and Syrianus agree here πέρας ν τ νωμένον [ νάδες] πειρία Syrianus explanation of the first noetic triad: ν ν Monad (τ πλώς ε ναι) α ών Τ α ώνιον Ζώη Νο ς ν ζώη νο ς ν ζώη νο ς Dyad of εί+ ν (τ ε ε ναι) (thisistheσχέσις between ν + ν) The Noetic Realm Syrianus designs the noetic realm so that every layer of reality is marked by a level of divinity. Layers of reality, moreover, inter-relate so that the lowest level of one realm is the highest of the next. Syrianus hierarchy of noetic, noetic-noeric, and noeric gods is further divided into triads, which become even further divided by Proclus a cosmos he describes over the course of the Platonic Theology. The noetic realm thus has the following levels of gods, 31 which Syrianus relates to Parmenides 144 E D The hierarchy, as set out in of J. Opsomer s appendix tohisarticle, ProclusonDemiurgyandProcession:ANeoplatonic Reading of the Timaeus 33 appearsasfollows: The intelligible gods: Being 1st intelligible triad: One-Being 2nd intelligible triad: Eternity 3rd intelligible triad: Intelligible Intellect (Paradigm) 31 For a discussion of these levels, see Syrianus, In 32 Syrianus, In 33 Opsomer (2000).