1 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
2 A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances. The solute is (are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s). The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount. Solution Solvent Solute Soft drink (l) H 2 O Sugar, CO 2 Air (g) N 2 O 2, Ar, CH 4 Soft solder (s) Pb Sn aqueous solutions of KMnO 4 2
3 An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved, results in a solution that does not conduct electricity. nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte 3
4 Conduct electricity in solution? Cations (+) and Anions (-) Strong Electrolyte 100% dissociation NaCl (s) H 2 O Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Weak Electrolyte not completely dissociated CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - (aq) + H + (aq) 4
5 Ionization of acetic acid CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - (aq) + H + (aq) A reversible reaction. The reaction can occur in both directions. Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte because its ionization in water is incomplete. 5
6 Hydration is the process in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific manner. d - d + H 2 O 6
7 Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity? No cations (+) and anions (-) in solution C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq) 7
8 Precipitation Reactions Precipitate insoluble solid that separates from solution precipitate Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq) PbI 2 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) molecular equation Pb NO Na + + 2I - PbI 2 (s) + 2Na + + 2NO 3 - ionic equation PbI 2 Pb I - PbI 2 (s) net ionic equation Na + and NO - 3 are spectator ions 8
9 Precipitation of Lead Iodide Pb I - PbI 2 (s) PbI 2 9
10 Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature. 10
12 Example 4.1 Classify the following ionic compounds as soluble or insoluble: (a) silver sulfate (Ag 2 SO 4 ) (b) calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) (c) sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ).
13 Example 4.1 Strategy Although it is not necessary to memorize the solubilities of compounds, you should keep in mind the following useful rules: all ionic compounds containing alkali metal cations; the ammonium ion; and the nitrate, bicarbonate, and chlorate ions are soluble. For other compounds, we need to refer to Table 4.2. Solution (a) According to Table 4.2, Ag 2 SO 4 is insoluble. (b) This is a carbonate and Ca is a Group 2A metal. Therefore, CaCO 3 is insoluble. (c) Sodium is an alkali metal (Group 1A) so Na 3 PO 4 is soluble.
14 Writing Net Ionic Equations 1. Write the balanced molecular equation. 2. Write the ionic equation showing the strong electrolytes completely dissociated into cations and anions. 3. Cancel the spectator ions on both sides of the ionic equation. 4. Check that charges and number of atoms are balanced in the net ionic equation. 14
15 Example 4.2 Predict what happens when a potassium phosphate (K 3 PO 4 ) solution is mixed with a calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] solution. Write a net ionic equation for the reaction.
16 Example 4.2 Strategy From the given information, it is useful to first write the unbalanced equation What happens when ionic compounds dissolve in water? What ions are formed from the dissociation of K 3 PO 4 and Ca(NO 3 ) 2? What happens when the cations encounter the anions in solution?
17 Example 4.2 Solution In solution, K 3 PO 4 dissociates into K + and and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 dissociates into Ca 2+ and ions. ions According to Table 4.2, calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) and phosphate ions ( ) will form an insoluble compound, calcium phosphate [Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ], while the other product, KNO 3, is soluble and remains in solution. Therefore, this is a precipitation reaction. We follow the stepwise procedure just outlined. Step 1: The balanced molecular equation for this reaction is
18 Example 4.2 Step 2: To write the ionic equation, the soluble compounds are shown as dissociated ions: Step 3: Canceling the spectator ions (K + and ) on each side of the equation, we obtain the net ionic equation: Step 4: Note that because we balanced the molecular equation first, the net ionic equation is balanced as to the number of atoms on each side and the number of positive (+6) and negative ( 6) charges on the lefthand side is the same.
19 Chemistry In Action: An Undesirable Precipitation Reaction Ca 2+ (aq) + 2HCO 3 (aq) - CaCO 3 (s) + CO 2 (aq) + H 2 O (l) CO 2 (aq) CO 2 (g) 19
20 Properties of Acids Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid. Cause color changes in plant dyes. React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas. 2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas. 2HCl (aq) + CaCO 3 (s) CaCl 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity. 20
21 Properties of Bases Have a bitter taste. Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases. Cause color changes in plant dyes. Aqueous base solutions conduct electricity. Examples: 21
22 Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water. Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - in water. 22
23 Hydronium ion, hydrated proton, H 3 O + 23
24 A Brønsted acid is a proton donor A Brønsted base is a proton acceptor base acid acid base A Brønsted acid must contain at least one ionizable proton! 24
25 Monoprotic acids HCl H + + Cl - HNO 3 H + + NO 3 - CH 3 COOH H + + CH 3 COO - Strong electrolyte, strong acid Strong electrolyte, strong acid Weak electrolyte, weak acid Diprotic acids H 2 SO 4 H + + HSO 4 - HSO 4 - H + + SO 4 2- Strong electrolyte, strong acid Weak electrolyte, weak acid Triprotic acids H 3 PO 4 H + + H 2 PO 4 - H 2 PO - 4 H + + HPO 2-4 HPO 2-4 H + + PO 3-4 Weak electrolyte, weak acid Weak electrolyte, weak acid Weak electrolyte, weak acid 25
27 Example 4.3 Classify each of the following species in aqueous solution as a Brønsted acid or base: (a) HBr (b) (c)
28 Example 4.3 Strategy What are the characteristics of a Brønsted acid? Does it contain at least an H atom? With the exception of ammonia, most Brønsted bases that you will encounter at this stage are anions.
29 Example 4.3 Solution (a) We know that HCl is an acid. Because Br and Cl are both halogens (Group 7A), we expect HBr, like HCl, to ionize in water as follows: Therefore HBr is a Brønsted acid. (b) In solution the nitrite ion can accept a proton from water to form nitrous acid: This property makes a Brønsted base.
30 Example 4.3 (c) The bicarbonate ion is a Brønsted acid because it ionizes in solution as follows: It is also a Brønsted base because it can accept a proton to form carbonic acid: Comment The species is said to be amphoteric because it possesses both acidic and basic properties. The double arrows show that this is a reversible reaction.
31 Neutralization Reaction acid + base salt + water HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) H + + Cl - + Na + + OH - H + + OH - NaCl (aq) + H 2 O Na + + Cl - + H 2 O H 2 O 31
32 Neutralization Reaction Involving a Weak Electrolyte weak acid + base salt + water HCN (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCN (aq) + H 2 O HCN + Na + + OH - HCN + OH - Na + + CN - + H 2 O CN - + H 2 O 32
33 Example 4.4 Write molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for each of the following acid-base reactions: (a) hydrobromic acid(aq) + barium hydroxide(aq) (b) sulfuric acid(aq) + potassium hydroxide(aq)
34 Example 4.4 Strategy The first step is to identify the acids and bases as strong or weak. We see that HBr is a strong acid and H 2 SO 4 is a strong acid for the first step ionization and a weak acid for the second step ionization. Both Ba(OH) 2 and KOH are strong bases.
35 Example 4.4 Solution (a) Molecular equation: 2HBr(aq) + Ba(OH) 2 (aq) BaBr 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) Ionic equation: 2H + (aq) + 2Br (aq) + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2OH (aq) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2Br (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) Net ionic equation: or 2H + (aq) + 2OH (aq) H + (aq) + OH (aq) 2H 2 O(l) H 2 O(l) Both Ba 2+ and Br are spectator ions.
36 Example 4.4 (b) Molecular equation: H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2KOH(aq) K 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) Ionic equation: Net ionic equation: Note that because is a weak acid and does not ionize appreciably in water, the only spectator ion is K +.
37 Neutralization Reaction Producing a Gas acid + base salt + water + CO 2 2HCl (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + H 2 O +CO 2 2H + + 2Cl - + 2Na + + CO 3 2-2Na + + 2Cl - + H 2 O + CO 2 2H + + CO 3 2- H 2 O + CO 2 37
38 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (electron transfer reactions) 2Mg 2Mg e - Oxidation half-reaction (lose e - ) O 2 + 4e - 2O 2- Reduction half-reaction (gain e - ) 2Mg + O 2 + 4e - 2Mg O e - 2Mg + O 2 2MgO 38
40 Zn(s) + CuSO 4 (aq) ZnSO 4 (aq) + Cu(s) Zn Zn e - Zn is oxidized Zn is the reducing agent Cu e - Cu Cu 2+ is reduced Cu 2+ is the oxidizing agent 40
41 Oxidation number The charge the atom would have in a molecule (or an ionic compound) if electrons were completely transferred. 1. Free elements (uncombined state) have an oxidation number of zero. Na, Be, K, Pb, H 2, O 2, P 4 = 0 2. In monatomic ions, the oxidation number is equal to the charge on the ion. Li +, Li = +1; Fe 3+, Fe = +3; O 2-, O = The oxidation number of oxygen is usually 2. In H 2 O 2 and O 2-2 it is
42 4. The oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 except when it is bonded to metals in binary compounds. In these cases, its oxidation number is Group IA metals are +1, IIA metals are +2 and fluorine is always The sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms in a molecule or ion is equal to the charge on the molecule or ion. 7. Oxidation numbers do not have to be integers. The oxidation number of oxygen in the superoxide ion, O 2-, is ½. 42
43 Example 4.5 Assign oxidation numbers to all the elements in the following compounds and ion: (a) Li 2 O (b) HNO 3 (c)
44 Example 4.5 Strategy In general, we follow the rules just listed for assigning oxidation numbers. Remember that all alkali metals have an oxidation number of +1, and in most cases hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 and oxygen has an oxidation number of 2 in their compounds.
45 Example 4.5 Solution (a) By rule 2 we see that lithium has an oxidation number of +1 (Li + ) and oxygen s oxidation number is 2 (O 2 ). (b) This is the formula for nitric acid, which yields a H + ion and a N ion in solution. From rule 4 we see that H has an oxidation number of +1. Thus the other group (the nitrate ion) must have a net oxidation number of 1. Oxygen has an oxidation number of 2, and if we use x to represent the oxidation number of nitrogen, then the nitrate ion can be written as so that x + 3( 2) = 1 x = +5
46 Example 4.5 (c) From rule 6 we see that the sum of the oxidation numbers in the dichromate ion must be 2. We know that the oxidation number of O is 2, so all that remains is to determine the oxidation number of Cr, which we call y. The dichromate ion can be written as so that 2(y) + 7( 2) = 2 y = +6 Check In each case, does the sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms equal the net charge on the species?
47 The Oxidation Numbers of Elements in their Compounds 47
48 Types of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Combination Reaction A + B C Al + 3Br 2 2AlBr 3 Decomposition Reaction C A + B KClO 3 2KCl + 3O 2 48
49 Types of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Combustion Reaction A + O 2 B S + O 2 SO MgO 2Mg + O 2 49
50 Types of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Displacement Reaction A + BC Sr + 2H 2 O Sr(OH) 2 + H TiCl 4 + 2Mg Ti + 2MgCl Cl 2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br 2 AC + B Hydrogen Displacement Metal Displacement Halogen Displacement 50
51 The Activity Series for Metals Hydrogen Displacement Reaction M + BC MC + B M is metal BC is acid or H 2 O B is H 2 Ca + 2H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 Pb + 2H 2 O Pb(OH) 2 + H 2 51
52 The Activity Series for Halogens F 2 > Cl 2 > Br 2 > I 2 Halogen Displacement Reaction Cl 2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br 2 I 2 + 2KBr 2KI + Br 2 52
53 Types of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Disproportionation Reaction The same element is simultaneously oxidized and reduced. Example: reduced Cl 2 + 2OH - oxidized ClO - + Cl - + H 2 O 53
54 Example 4.6 Classify the following redox reactions and indicate changes in the oxidation numbers of the elements: (a) (b) (c) (d)
55 Example 4.6 Strategy Review the definitions of combination reactions, decomposition reactions, displacement reactions, and disproportionation reactions. Solution (a) This is a decomposition reaction because one reactant is converted to two different products. The oxidation number of N changes from +1 to 0, while that of O changes from 2 to 0. (b) This is a combination reaction (two reactants form a single product). The oxidation number of Li changes from 0 to +1 while that of N changes from 0 to 3.
56 Example 4.6 (c) This is a metal displacement reaction. The Ni metal replaces (reduces) the Pb 2+ ion. The oxidation number of Ni increases from 0 to +2 while that of Pb decreases from +2 to 0. (d) The oxidation number of N is +4 in NO 2 and it is +3 in HNO 2 and +5 in HNO 3. Because the oxidation number of the same element both increases and decreases, this is a disproportionation reaction.
57 Chemistry in Action: Breath Analyzer +6 3CH 3 CH 2 OH + 2K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + 8H 2 SO CH 3 COOH + 2Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 2K 2 SO H 2 O 57
58 Solution Stoichiometry The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. M = molarity = moles of solute liters of solution 58
59 Preparing a Solution of Known Concentration 59
60 Example 4.7 How many grams of potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) are required to prepare a 250-mL solution whose concentration is 2.16 M? A K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution.
61 Example 4.7 Strategy How many moles of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 does a 1-L (or 1000 ml) 2.16 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution contain? A 250-mL solution? How would you convert moles to grams?
62 Example 4.7 Solution The first step is to determine the number of moles of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 in 250 ml or L of a 2.16 M solution. Rearranging Equation (4.1) gives Thus, moles of solute = molarity L soln
63 Example 4.7 The molar mass of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 is g, so we write Check As a ball-park estimate, the mass should be given by [molarity (mol/l) volume (L) molar mass (g/mol)] or [2 mol/l 0.25 L 300 g/mol] = 150 g. So the answer is reasonable.
64 Example 4.8 In a biochemical assay, a chemist needs to add 3.81 g of glucose to a reaction mixture. Calculate the volume in milliliters of a 2.53 M glucose solution she should use for the addition.
65 Example 4.8 Strategy We must first determine the number of moles contained in 3.81 g of glucose and then use Equation (4.2) to calculate the volume. Solution From the molar mass of glucose, we write
66 Example 4.8 Next, we calculate the volume of the solution that contains mole of the solute. Rearranging Equation (4.2) gives Check One liter of the solution contains 2.53 moles of C 6 H 12 O 6. Therefore, the number of moles in 8.36 ml or L is (2.53 mol ) or mol. The small difference is due to the different ways of rounding off.
67 Dilution is the procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution. Dilution Add Solvent Moles of solute before dilution (i) = Moles of solute after dilution (f) M i V i = M f V f 67
68 Example 4.9 Describe how you would prepare ml of a 1.75 M H 2 SO 4 solution, starting with an 8.61 M stock solution of H 2 SO 4.
69 Example 4.9 Strategy Because the concentration of the final solution is less than that of the original one, this is a dilution process. Keep in mind that in dilution, the concentration of the solution decreases but the number of moles of the solute remains the same.
70 Example 4.9 Solution We prepare for the calculation by tabulating our data: M i = 8.61 M V i =? M f = 1.75 M V f = ml Substituting in Equation (4.3),
71 Example 4.9 Thus, we must dilute 102 ml of the 8.61 M H 2 SO 4 solution with sufficient water to give a final volume of ml in a 500-mL volumetric flask to obtain the desired concentration. Check The initial volume is less than the final volume, so the answer is reasonable.
72 Gravimetric Analysis 1. Dissolve unknown substance in water 2. React unknown with known substance to form a precipitate 3. Filter and dry precipitate 4. Weigh precipitate 5. Use chemical formula and mass of precipitate to determine amount of unknown ion 72
73 Example 4.10 A g sample of an ionic compound containing chloride ions and an unknown metal is dissolved in water and treated with an excess of AgNO 3. If g of AgCl precipitate forms, what is the percent by mass of Cl in the original compound?
74 Example 4.10 Strategy We are asked to calculate the percent by mass of Cl in the unknown sample, which is The only source of Cl ions is the original compound. These chloride ions eventually end up in the AgCl precipitate. Can we calculate the mass of the Cl ions if we know the percent by mass of Cl in AgCl?
75 Example 4.10 Solution The molar masses of Cl and AgCl are g and g, respectively. Therefore, the percent by mass of Cl in AgCl is given by Next, we calculate the mass of Cl in g of AgCl. To do so we convert percent to and write
76 Example 4.10 Because the original compound also contained this amount of Cl ions, the percent by mass of Cl in the compound is Check AgCl is about 25 percent chloride by mass, so the roughly 1 g of AgCl precipitate that formed corresponds to about 0.25 g of chloride, which is a little less than half of the mass of the original sample. Therefore, the calculated percent chloride of percent is reasonable.
77 Titrations In a titration, a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete. Equivalence point the point at which the reaction is complete Indicator substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point Slowly add base to unknown acid UNTIL the indicator changes color 77
78 Titrations can be used in the analysis of Acid-base reactions H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH 2H 2 O + Na 2 SO 4 Redox reactions 5Fe 2+ + MnO H + Mn Fe H 2 O 78
79 Example 4.11 In a titration experiment, a student finds that ml of a NaOH solution are needed to neutralize g of KHP. What is the concentration (in molarity) of the NaOH solution?
80 Example 4.11 Strategy We want to determine the molarity of the NaOH solution. What is the definition of molarity? need to find want to calculate given The volume of NaOH solution is given in the problem. Therefore, we need to find the number of moles of NaOH to solve for molarity. From the preceding equation for the reaction between KHP and NaOH shown in the text we see that 1 mole of KHP neutralizes 1 mole of NaOH. How many moles of KHP are contained in g of KHP?
81 Example 4.11 Solution First we calculate the number of moles of KHP consumed in the titration: Because 1 mol KHP 1 mol NaOH, there must be mole of NaOH in ml of NaOH solution. Finally, we calculate the number of moles of NaOH in 1 L of the solution or the molarity as follows:
82 Example 4.12 How many milliliters (ml) of a M NaOH solution are needed to neutralize 20.0 ml of a M H 2 SO 4 solution?
83 Example 4.12 Strategy We want to calculate the volume of the NaOH solution. From the definition of molarity [see Equation (4.1)], we write need to find want to given calculate From the equation for the neutralization reaction just shown, we see that 1 mole of H 2 SO 4 neutralizes 2 moles of NaOH. How many moles of H 2 SO 4 are contained in 20.0 ml of a M H 2 SO 4 solution? How many moles of NaOH would this quantity of H 2 SO 4 neutralize?
84 Example 4.12 Solution First we calculate the number of moles of H 2 SO 4 in a 20.0 ml solution: From the stoichiometry we see that 1 mol H 2 SO 4 2 mol NaOH. Therefore, the number of moles of NaOH reacted must be mole, or mole.
85 Example 4.12 From the definition of molarity [see Equation (4.1)], we have or
86 Example 4.13 A mL volume of M KMnO 4 solution is needed to oxidize ml of a FeSO 4 solution in an acidic medium. What is the concentration of the FeSO 4 solution in molarity? The net ionic equation is
87 Example 4.13 Strategy We want to calculate the molarity of the FeSO 4 solution. From the definition of molarity need to find want to given The calculate volume of the FeSO 4 solution is given in the problem. Therefore, we need to find the number of moles of FeSO 4 to solve for the molarity. From the net ionic equation, what is the stoichiometric equivalence between Fe 2+ and? How many moles of KMnO 4 are contained in ml of M KMnO 4 solution?
88 Example 4.13 Solution The number of moles of KMnO 4 in ml of the solution is From the net ionic equation we see that 5 mol Fe 2+ 1 mol Therefore, the number of moles of FeSO 4 oxidized is
89 Example 4.13 The concentration of the FeSO 4 solution in moles of FeSO 4 per liter of solution is
90 Chemistry in Action: Metals from the Sea CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + H 2 O (l) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2OH (aq) Mg(OH) 2 (s) + 2HCl (aq) - Mg(OH) 2 (s) MgCl 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O (l) Mg e - Mg 2Cl - Cl 2 + 2e - MgCl 2 (aq) Mg (l) + Cl 2 (g) 90
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