Have you ever tasted sour milk? Have you ever exercised

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1 478 Formic acid

2 CAPTER 14 Acids, Bases, and p ave you ever tasted sour milk? ave you ever exercised so hard that your muscles were tired? Ever had an upset stomach after eating too much or been bitten by an ant? Cleaned a toilet with toilet-bowl cleaner? Taken a vitamin C tablet to prevent a cold? ave you ever taken an antacid for an upset stomach? ave you cleaned out a clogged drain with drain cleaner? Or used lime to improve the soil in a potted plant or garden? ave you washed windows or scrubbed the floor with household cleaners? You probably answered yes to many, if not all, of these questions. If you answered yes to any of the questions in the first paragraph, you were experiencing the chemistry of an acid. If you answered yes to any of the questions in the second paragraph, you were experiencing the chemistry of a base. Although the experiences are different, they all share a common chemistry the chemistry of acids and bases. Concept Check Review the following concepts before studying this chapter. Chapter 5: names and formulas of common acids and bases Chapter 13: dissociation of ionic compounds; hydrogen bonding Reading Chemistry Scan the key terms in the chapter for new words. Try to break down each word to find its origin, or recall a context in which you have heard the word used before. As you read, note the words official definition in the text. CEMISTRY To find out more about acids and bases, visit the Glencoe Science Web site. science.glencoe.com Chemistry Around You Acid-base chemistry plays an important role in many processes that occur in your body. An example of the role acids play takes place during exercising. When you exercise, lactic acid is produced as a byproduct of cell processes. If the exercise is vigorous, more lactic acid may be produced than can be removed by your circulatory system. This accumulation may cause muscle soreness until the body removes the acid. 479

3 SECTION 14.1 Acids and Bases SECTION PREVIEW Objectives Distinguish acids from bases by their properties. Relate acids and bases to their reactions in water. Evaluate the central role of water in the chemistry of acids and bases. Key Terms acid hydronium ion acidic hydrogen ionization base acidic anhydride basic anhydride As you have discovered, classifying substances into broad categories simplifies the study of chemistry. Consider some of the chemistry classification schemes you have used. In each scheme, the categories have generally been opposites, such as metal versus nonmetal, ionic versus covalent, and soluble versus insoluble. The materials in each category do not share exactly the same properties, but they share similar properties. Likewise, substances classified as acids or bases can be considered opposites. Substances in each category share some general properties that make them different from other substances. In this section, you will examine acids and bases from both a macroscopic and a submicroscopic level. Macroscopic Properties of Acids and Bases Because they are present in so many everyday materials, acids and bases have been recognized as interesting substances since the time of alchemists. Simple, observable properties distinguish the two. It s a Matter of Taste and Feel Although taste is not a safe way to classify acids and bases, you probably are familiar with the sour taste of acids. Lemon juice and vinegar, for example, are both aqueous solutions of acids. Bases, on the other hand, taste bitter. Bases have a slippery feel. Like taste, feel is not a safe chemical test for bases, but you are familiar with the feel of soap, a base, on the skin. Bases, such as soap, react with protein in your skin, and skin cells are removed. This reaction is part of what gives soaps a slippery feel, as well as a cleansing action. Figure 14.1 shows how this reaction makes some bases excellent drain cleaners. Figure 14.1 Bases and Protein Certain bases are excellent at dissolving hair, which is often the source of clogged drains. air is composed of protein. 480 Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

4 Table 14.1 Top Ten Industrial Chemicals Produced in the United States in 1994 Chemical Billions of Pounds Acid/Base Some Uses Sulfuric acid, 2 SO Acid Car batteries; manufacture of chemicals, fertilizer, and paper Nitrogen, N Oxygen, O Ethylene, C Lime, CaO Base Neutralizes acidic soils Ammonia, N Base Fertilizer; cleaner; making rayon, nylon, and nitric acid Propylene, C Sodium hydroxide, NaO Base Drain and oven cleaners; manufacture of soap and chemicals Phosphoric acid, 3 PO Acid Making detergents and fertilizers; soft drinks Chlorine, Cl Acids React with Bases As you have learned, substances with opposite properties, such as acids and bases, tend to react with each other. You ll learn more about these acid-base reactions in Chapter 15. The reactions of acids and bases are central to the chemistry of living systems, the environment, and many important industrial processes. Table 14.1 shows the top ten industrial chemicals produced in the United States in Not surprisingly, acids and bases make up half of the top ten. Litmus Test and Other Color Changes Acids and bases cause certain colored dyes to change color. The most common of these dyes is litmus. When mixed with an acid, litmus is red. When added to a base, litmus is blue. Therefore, litmus is a reliable indicator of whether a substance is an acid or a base. Figure 14.2 shows how vegetable dyes change color in the presence of an acid or a base. Dyes such as these are called acid-base indicators because they are often used to indicate whether substances are acids or bases. In the chemistry lab, litmus test paper is used. Litmus paper is made by soaking paper in a solution of litmus and then drying it to remove the water. Litmus papers are usually available in a slightly basic form (blue) and a slightly acidic form (red). Figure 14.2 Acid-Base Indicators The ability of a substance to change the color of certain dyes is a good indication of whether the substance is an acid or a base. Common materials that act as acid-base indicators include litmus, red cabbage, radishes, tulips, and rose petals Acids and Bases 481

5 1 What do acids do? Most acids tend to be reactive substances. Test the reactivities of three acids with several common substances, and develop an operational definition for acidic solutions. Procedure 1. Wear an apron and goggles. 2. Use a labeled microtip pipet to add 10 drops of 3M hydrochloric acid, Cl, to wells D1-D6 of a clean, 24-well microplate. In the same manner, add 10 drops of 3M sulfuric acid, 2 SO 4,to wells C1-C6 and 10 drops of 3M acetic acid, C 2 3 O 2,to wells B1-B6. 3. Dip blue litmus paper into the solutions in wells D1, C1, and B1. Record your observations. 4. Add 2 drops of bromothymol blue indicator solution to wells D2, C2, and B2. This indicator turns from blue to yellow as the solutions become more acidic. Record your observations. 5. In a similar manner, add marble chips (calcium carbonate) to wells D3, C3, and B3; pieces SMALL SCALE of zinc to wells D4, C4, and B4; pieces of aluminum to wells D5, C5, and B5; and a small amount of egg white to wells D6, C6, and B6. Record your observations. 6. Dispose of all materials as directed by your teacher. Rinse the microplate with tap water, then distilled water. Analysis 1. Summarize the reactions of the three acids with the substances you tested. This summary constitutes an operational definition of an acid. 2. Which acid, although it had the same molar concentration as the other acids, reacted less noticeably? Explain this behavior. Except for Group I carbonates, carbonatecontaining compounds are almost completely insoluble in water. This makes naturally occurring substances such as marble and limestone stable materials for sculpting and building. Reactions with Metals and Carbonates Another characteristic property of an acid is that it reacts with metals that are more active than hydrogen. Figure 14.3 shows how iron metal rapidly reacts with hydrochloric acid, Cl, to form iron(ii) chloride, FeCl 2, and hydrogen gas. owever, if you were to add a piece of copper metal to the acid, you could see that the acid will not react with copper metal. This property explains why acids corrode most metals. Bases do not commonly react with metals. Another simple test that distinguishes acids from bases is the reaction of acids with ionic compounds that contain the carbonate ion, CO 3 2,to form carbon dioxide gas, water, and another compound, as shown in Figure A similar reaction, also shown in Figure 14.3, is the source of the destructive action of acidic pollution on marble and limestone sculptures. Bases do not react with carbonates. 482 Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

6 Figure 14.3 Acids with Metals and Carbonates Typical behavior in certain chemical reactions helps identify substances as acids. lithium potassium calcium sodium magnesium aluminum zinc chromium iron nickel tin lead hydrogen copper mercury silver platinum gold Decreasing activity Vinegar, a solution of acetic acid, reacts with egg shell, which is primarily calcium carbonate, to produce carbon dioxide, calcium acetate, and water. 2C 2 3 O 2 (aq) CaCO 3 (s) ˇ CO 2 (g) Ca(C 2 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) 2 O(l) Acids react with metals that are more active than hydrogen to form both a compound of the metal and hydrogen gas. Fe(s) 2Cl(aq) ˇ FeCl 2 (aq) 2 (g) Calcium carbonate is the major component in limestone and marble. In the presence of acids in the environment, marble and limestone sculptures and buildings can be damaged or destroyed. Defining Acids and Bases A Submicroscopic Look The description of acids and bases in terms of their physical and chemical properties is useful for classification purposes. owever, to understand these properties, you need to know about the behavior of acids and bases at the submicroscopic level. Submicroscopic Behavior of Acids The submicroscopic behavior of acids when they dissolve in water can be described in several ways. The simplest definition is that an acid is a substance that produces hydronium ions when it dissolves in water. A hydronium ion, 3 O, consists of a hydrogen ion attached to a water molecule Acids and Bases 483

7 Manufacturing Sulfuric Acid CEMISTRY &TECNOLOGY You might not expect that a simple acid would acquire worldwide status, but sulfuric acid has done just that. Most industrialized nations produce significant quantities of the chemical. The United States alone produces 40 million tons of sulfuric acid every year. With such quantities being produced, this product must have many uses. Ninety percent of the sulfuric acid made in the United States is used in the production of liquid fertilizers and other inorganic chemicals. The rest is used in refining petroleum, in steel production, and in producing organic chemicals. Sulfuric acid is also useful in removing unwanted materials from ores. The Manufacturing Process The production of sulfuric acid is fairly simple. It starts with burning sulfur to produce sulfur dioxide. S(s) O 2 (g) ˇ SO 2 (g) The next step in the process is called the contact method because the sulfur dioxide and oxygen molecules are in contact with a catalyst, usually vanadium pentoxide, V 2 O 5. When the sulfur dioxide and oxygen gases pass through a heated tube that contains layers of the pellet-size catalyst, the sulfur dioxide is converted to sulfur trioxide. To make sure the reaction is complete, contact with the catalyst takes place twice. catalyst 2SO 2 (g) O 2 (g) ˇ 2SO 3 (g) Then the sulfur trioxide is bubbled through a solution of sulfuric acid to produce pyrosulfuric acid, 2 S 2 O 7. Pyrosulfuric acid is then added to water to produce sulfuric acid. SO 3 (g) 2 SO 4 (l) ˇ 2 S 2 O 7 (l) 2 S 2 O 7 (l) 2 O(l) ˇ 2 2 SO 4 (l) DISCUSSING TE TECNOLOGY 1. ypothesizing Why do you suppose sulfur trioxide is bubbled through a solution of sulfuric acid instead of through water to produce sulfuric acid? Isn t this inefficient? 2. Inferring Some people use the quantity of sulfuric acid produced by an industrialized nation as an economic indicator. Why is sulfuric acid production useful in this regard? 484 Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

8 For example, hydrochloric acid is produced by dissolving hydrogen chloride gas, Cl, in water. Remember from Chapter 13 that water is a polar molecule that is able to form strong hydrogen bonds with solutes that also form hydrogen bonds. When Cl dissolves in water, it produces hydronium ions by the reaction shown below. Cl is definitely an acid; it produces 3 O when dissolved in water. Cl(g) 2 O(l) ˇ 3 O (aq) Cl (aq) Acetic acid, C 2 3 O 2, undergoes a similar reaction when it dissolves in water to form a vinegar solution. C 2 3 O 2 (aq) 2 O(l) ˇ 3 O (aq) C 2 3 O 2 (aq) Notice the similarities in these two reactions. In both cases, the dissolved substance reacts with water to form hydronium ions and a negatively charged ion. acid: acidus (L) sour One property of acids is that they taste sour. Acidic ydrogen Atoms ow and why are hydronium ions formed? At the submicroscopic level, the reaction of an acid with water is a transfer of a hydrogen ion,,from an acid to a water molecule. This transfer forms the positively charged hydronium ion, 3 O, and a negatively charged ion. In an acid, any hydrogen atom that can be transferred to water is called an acidic hydrogen. Take another look at the acetic acid example. Although a molecule of acetic acid, C 2 3 O 2, contains four hydrogen atoms, only one is an acidic hydrogen that participates in the transfer. The other hydrogen atoms remain a part of the acetate ion. Figure 14.4 shows that it is possible for acids to have more than one acidic hydrogen per molecule. To help distinguish acids from other hydrogen-containing molecules, acidic hydrogens are written first in the formula. Any time hydrogen is the first element in a formula of a compound, the substance is an acid. C 2 3O2 Cl Acetic acid ydrochloric acid Monoprotic acids Acids such as acetic acid, C 2 3 O 2, and hydrochloric acid, Cl, are called monoprotic acids. Monoprotic acids contain only one acidic hydrogen. Figure 14.4 Acidic ydrogen If a hydrogen atom loses its electron, all that remains is a proton. Prefixes, used with the term protic, which refers to the remaining proton, indicate how many acidic hydrogens are present in an acid. 2SO4 3C 6 5O7 Sulfuric acid Citric acid a diprotic acid a triprotic acid All acids that have more than one acidic hydrogen per molecule are called polyprotic acids. Polyprotic acids with two acidic hydrogens are diprotic acids. Those with three acidic hydrogens are triprotic acids Acids and Bases 485

9 Figure 14.5 Steel-Making Sulfuric acid, which is used to make steel, is an example of a diprotic acid. Chemical Reaction Shorthand You know that you can write an equation for the ionization of a specific acid. owever, it is sometimes handy to represent the formation of hydronium ions when acids dissolve in water by a general equation. In this general equation, any monoprotic acid is represented by the general formula A. Compare this general equation to the specific equation for the ionization of Cl. Cl(g) 2 O(l) ˇ 3 O (aq) Cl (aq) A 2 O(l) ˇ 3 O (aq) A (aq) Although the form of the general equation written above is the most complete, it is more convenient to use a shorthand form of the reaction. In the shorthand form, water is not shown as participating in the reaction, and the hydronium ion is represented as an aqueous hydrogen ion. A(aq) ˇ (aq) A (aq) Similar equations apply to the transfer of hydrogen ions from polyprotic acids, such as sulfuric acid, which is used in Figure Equations depicting the transfer are shown in Figure When using this convenient shorthand style, keep in mind that the water molecule is always an active participant in the reaction, even though it is not written in the equation. Figure 14.6 Ionization of Polyprotic Acids Polyprotic acids lose their acidic hydrogens one at a time. For a diprotic acid, there are two steps (A). For triprotic acids, there are three steps (B). A General: A(aq) ˇ (aq) A (aq) A (aq) ˇ (aq) A (aq) B A(aq) ˇ (aq) A (aq) A (aq)ˇ (aq) A (aq) 2 A (aq)ˇ (aq) A (aq) Example: SO (aq) ˇ (aq) SO (aq) SO (aq) ˇ (aq) SO PO 4(aq) ˇ (aq) PO 4 (aq) PO 4 (aq)ˇ (aq) PO 4 (aq) 2 PO (aq)ˇ (aq) PO (aq) Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

10 BIOLOGY Measurement of Blood Gases There are only four hydrogen ions in blood for every other ions and molecules in blood. But enzyme reactions in the body are sensitive to small changes in the concentration of hydrogen ions, so it is crucial. ydrogen ions affect acidbase relationships in body fluids. CONNECTION Interpreting acid-base status in blood When a patient is ill, the doctor s role is to diagnose the patient s condition. Sometimes, this is difficult because different conditions may have similar symptoms. One helpful tool that the physician has is a blood test that provides information about the acid-base relationships in blood. This particular blood test will provide data on acidity (p), pressure caused by dissolved carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ), pressure caused by dissolved oxygen (PO 2 ), and hydrogen carbonate concentration (CO 3 ). The normal ranges of these components are shown in the table above. Case histories To see how a physician uses acid-base relationships, it is interesting to Normal Ranges of Some Blood Components Plasma Component Normal Range CO m Eq/liter* Pco mm g Po mm g p *expressed in molar equivalents per liter consider case histories. In one case, after a pneumonia patient was put on a respirator, she failed to improve. er blood test showed the following. PCO 2 17 mm g CO 3 18 m Eq/liter PO 2 75 mm g p 7.65 The low carbon dioxide level and the high p while on the respirator were unexpected. These levels led the physician to check the settings on the respirator. The volume adjustment on the respirator had slipped. The patient was receiving twice the recommended quantity of air. This caused respiratory alkalosis, a condition of decreased acidity of the blood and tissues. When the respirator was adjusted, the blood levels returned to normal as the acid-base balance was reestablished, and the patient began to recover. Connecting to Chemistry 1. ypothesizing In a heart attack, blood flow to some parts of the heart may be stopped or greatly reduced. ow might this affect the acid-base relationship in blood in the heart muscle? 2. Applying Blood gases may fail to show major abnormalities while the patient is at rest. Suggest a way to overcome this problem if the patient is not bedridden Acids and Bases 487

11 Figure 14.7 Conductivity The electrical conductivities of solutions are easy to compare by using a simple circuit. The brightness of the light indicates the relative electrical conductivity of the solutions. Acid Ionization In the reaction of an acid with water, ions are formed from a covalent compound. When ions form from a covalent compound, the process is called ionization. Specifically, acids form ions in a process called acid ionization. Acids Are Electrolytes Because acids ionize to form ions in water, acidic solutions conduct electricity. As you learned in Chapter 4, substances that dissolve in water to form conducting solutions are called electrolytes. Figure 14.7 compares the electrical conductivities of water, a solution of an ionic compound, and a solution of a weak acid. Distilled water is nonconducting. 1M NaCl is an excellent conductor. 488 Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p 1M C 2 3 O 2 is a weak conductor. As opposed to solutions of ionic compounds (such as table salt), which are always excellent conductors of electricity, acidic solutions have electrical conductivities ranging from strong to weak. The range of electrical conductivities exhibited by different acidic solutions distinguishes acid ionization from ionic dissociation. The range also indicates that acids vary in their ability to produce ions. Submicroscopic Behavior of Bases The behavior of bases is also described at the molecular level by the interaction of the base with water. A base is a substance that produces hydroxide ions, O, when it dissolves in water. There are two mechanisms by which bases produce hydroxide ions when they dissolve in water.

12 Simple Bases: Metal ydroxides The simplest kind of base is a water-soluble ionic compound, such as sodium hydroxide, that contains the hydroxide ion as the negative ion. When NaO dissolves in water, for example, it dissociates into aqueous sodium ions and hydroxide ions, as shown below. 2 O NaO(s) ˇ Na (aq) O (aq) NaO is definitely a base because it produces hydroxide ions when it dissolves in water. You can predict that any water-soluble or slightly watersoluble metal hydroxide will be a base when added to water. Water plays a different role here than in the formation of hydronium ions when acids ionize in water. Water molecules do not chemically react with this type of base. The hydroxide ion is formed by simple ionic dissociation, and no transfer occurs between the base and the water molecules to form the hydroxide ions. Just as a polyprotic acid in water produces more than one hydronium ion, it is possible for a formula unit of a metal hydroxide to produce more than one hydroxide ion. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(O) 2, and aluminum hydroxide, Al(O) 3, are examples of such bases, as shown in Figure Figure 14.8 Dissociation of Some Metal ydroxides All of these compounds are bases because they produce hydroxide ions when they dissolve in water. Reversing the Transfer: Bases That Accept A few bases are covalent compounds that produce hydroxide ions by an ionization process when dissolved in water. The ionization involves the transfer of a hydrogen ion from water to the base. The most common example of this type of base is ammonia, N 3. When ammonia gas dissolves in water, some of the aqueous ammonia molecules react with water molecules to form ammonium ions and hydroxide ions, as shown in this reaction. N 3 (g) 2 O(l) N 4 (aq) O Ø (aq) Ammonia is a base. It produces hydroxide ions in water, but by a different mechanism than that in the NaO example. In the reaction with ammonia, the water molecule is an active chemical reactant. Water molecules transfer hydrogen ions to ammonia molecules. It is also helpful to have a general reaction for the ionization of a covalent base, which is represented by the letter B. Study the equation for the general reaction. B 2 O(l) B (aq) O Ø (aq) 14.1 Acids and Bases 489

13 Meet Fe Tayag, Cosmetic Bench Chemist It pays to be a careful reader of labels. ere s a hint from Ms. Tayag, who has formulated cosmetics for more than 20 years. Many cosmetic companies find it is a good selling point to add sunscreen to their products. But unless the container specifies an SPF (sun protection factor) as a number, there probably isn t enough sunscreen to do much good. In this interview, Ms. Tayag shares other cosmetics savvy that can make you a wiser shopper. On the Job Ms. Tayag, what do you do on your job? I m in the Research and Development Department of a cosmetic laboratory. I formulate cosmetics, such as shampoos, lotions, and bubble baths, for cosmetic companies. Can you give us an idea of a typical formula for a shampoo? A simple shampoo consists of a mixture of water, sodium lauryl sulfate, and an amide to make it foam. I heat the mixture and then I have to adjust the acidity. Most shampoos are neutral. If it s more basic than that, I adjust it with a citric acid solution. Then I cool it and check the viscosity, or how it flows. I don t want it to be either water-thin or molasses-thick, so I ll adjust the viscosity by using a 20 percent sodium chloride solution. Perfume and color are added to make it smell and look good. The label on a cosmetic usually lists water as the first ingredient. Does that mean it s mostly water? Yes. Face creams have the lowest amount of water, about 60 percent. The amount of water used depends on the skin type. What colorings do you add to the cosmetics you make? I use colors approved by the Food and Drug Administration. They come in basic colors, but I can combine them to produce other colors. Green is the most popular coloring for shampoo. That color seems to be associated with freshness and cleanliness. What trends do you see developing in cosmetics? There are more cosmetics created especially for different ethnic groups. Sunscreen is being added to more and more cosmetics as people become increasingly aware of the 490 Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

14 damage that ultraviolet light can do to the skin. And, because a large part of the population is getting older, ingredients that are supposed to delay the aging effects, such as antioxidants, are becoming more popular. In addition, there s lots of interest in antiallergenic, natural cosmetics that are both unscented and uncolored. Early Influences ow did you get interested in becoming a chemist? My father was a warehouse man for a cosmetics company in the Philippines, where I grew up. e was fascinated by the process of producing cosmetics. Because he thought the job of a chemist was a very dignified one, he encouraged me to study chemistry. Our family, which included eight children, was poor, but he somehow found a way to send me to college. Personal Insights Do you consider chemistry to be a little like cooking? Yes. When I cook, I rely heavily on my senses of sight and smell. In my opinion, a keen sense of smell and a good ability to make observations are very important for a chemist, too. Some people think that cosmetics are frivolous. Do you agree? No. I think it s important for people s selfconfidence to look nice. Because people want to remain attractive and young-look ing, this is an industry that will never die out. Did you enjoy the study of chemistry in college? Not at first. I had a tough time in college and kept asking myself, Why did I take this course? I cried at exam time, but I couldn t bear to disappoint my father. I prayed a lot, and I thought of my father struggling to find money to pay my tuition. That helped me find the courage to continue. My third year of college marked a turning point, and my studies became easier for me. Were there people besides your father who influenced you in your career? CAREER CONNECTION A friend of my father helped me get a job in the cosmetics lab while I was still in school. I worked days and attended school at nights. That way, I got to see what chemistry was all about in the real world. I felt I was ahead of students who lacked practical experience. For instance, in my colloid chemistry class, I brought materials to school and demonstrated how to make a cleansing cream. These career opportunities are related to cosmetic chemistry. Food and Drug Inspector College degree plus written examinations Manufacturers Sales Representative igh school diploma Cosmetologist State-administered exam 14.1 Acids and Bases 491

15 Figure 14.9 Bases as Electrolytes The electrical conductivity of 1M NaO is greater than that of 1M N 3. These differences show that aqueous solutions of bases may be strong or weak electrolytes, based on whether many or few ions are in solution. Bases Are Electrolytes Because a base in water produces ions, you can predict that aqueous solutions of bases will conduct electricity. Figure 14.9 compares the conductivity of a 1M NaO solution with that of a 1M N 3 solution. As with acids, the ability of basic solutions to conduct electricity varies, depending upon the base. This variability is evidence that differences exist in the ability of different bases to produce ions. Why does water transfer to bases? Think back to why acids transfer hydrogen ions to water. The same model can be used to explain why water molecules lose hydrogen ions to covalent bases when they dissolve in water. Consider the example of ammonia. Ammonia is a polar molecule because it contains polar covalent N bonds. The nitrogen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge, and the hydrogen atoms each have a slight positive charge. A lone pair of electrons is also on the central nitrogen. Look at Figure to see what happens when polar ammonia molecules dissolve in polar water molecules. Other Acids and Bases: Anhydrides Two related classes of compounds do not fit the previous models of acids and bases, but they still act as acids or bases. These compounds are both oxides, which are compounds containing oxygen bonded to just one other element. These oxides are called anhydrides, which means that they contain no water. Anhydrides differ, depending upon whether the oxygen is bonded to a metal or a nonmetal. Nonmetal oxides form acids when they react with water and are called acidic anhydrides. Metal oxides, on the other hand, react with water to form bases and are called basic anhydrides. In both of these reactions, water is an active reactant. Now, examine some examples of anhydrides. 492 Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

16 Figure Forming Ammonium and ydroxide Ions Because an aqueous solution of ammonia contains ammonium ions and hydroxide ions, such a solution is commonly referred to as ammonium hydroxide. A Ammonia has a trigonal pyramid geometry and is a polar molecule. C The bonds to the N in N 3, using the lone pair of electrons on the N to form a fourth N bond and a stable ammonium ion, N 4. N O N O N O N O Acidic Anhydrides and Acid Rain B The hydrogen bond that forms between the N end of N 3 and the end of 2 O is strong enough to pull an completely away from 2 O. The two electrons in the broken O bond remain as a lone pair on the O. The result is a stable hydroxide ion, O. Probably the most familiar acidic anhydride is carbon dioxide, CO 2. Water that has had carbon dioxide bubbled through it turns blue litmus to red, indicating that CO 2 and water form an acid, carbonic acid, 2 CO 3. A solution of CO 2 also has a slightly sour taste, which is one of the reasons that carbonated water is such a refreshing beverage. Carbon dioxide is a minor component in Earth s atmosphere and an important component in the carbon cycle. Because CO 2 is always in the atmosphere, when it rains, CO 2 dissolves in rainwater, forming carbonic acid, 2 CO 3. The result is that rain is always slightly acidic. If rain is always acidic, why is increased acidity in rain such an environmental concern? The acidity of normal rain does not damage the environment. owever, other nonmetal oxides such as sulfur oxides are sometimes present in the atmosphere. Also, levels of carbon dioxide are sometimes higher than normal. The major source of sulfur oxides in the atmosphere is the burning of sulfur-containing coal in power plants. As this type of coal burns in a furnace, sulfur dioxide gas, SO 2, is produced. The SO 2 escapes into the atmosphere, where it reacts with more oxygen to form sulfur trioxide, SO 3. D The electron dot structures show that these ions are stable. Each atom in the dot structures has a stable number of valence electrons Acids and Bases 493

17 At room temperature, the reaction between nitrogen, N 2, and O 2 is slow and insignificant. At the high temperatures in an automobile engine, the reaction between N 2 and O 2 goes quickly, and large amounts of nitrogen oxides are produced in exhaust, Figure When sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and increased amounts of carbon dioxide dissolve in rain, they undergo acid-forming reactions and produce what is commonly referred to as acid rain. Examples: SO 2 (g) 2 O(l) ˇ 2 SO 3 (aq) SO 3 (g) 2 O(l) ˇ 2 SO 4 (aq) 2NO 2 (g) 2 O(l) ˇ NO 3 (aq) NO 2 (aq) CO 2 (g) 2 O(l) ˇ 2 CO 3 (aq) Acid rain has been significantly reduced over the past decade as new mechanisms for trapping nonmetal oxides before they get into the atmosphere have been developed. Read the Chemistry and Society feature for more information about this type of air pollution. Figure Nitrogen Oxides The major source of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere is automobiles. Basic Anhydrides and Making Your Garden Grow Unlike nonmetal oxides, which are covalent compounds, metal oxides are ionic compounds. When metal oxides react with water, they produce hydroxide ions. Gardeners sometimes use lime to treat their soil, as shown in Figure Lime is the common name for the chemical compound calcium oxide, CaO. When CaO is spread on soil, it reacts with water in the soil to form calcium hydroxide, Ca(O) 2. This compound then forms calcium and hydroxide ions. CaO(s) 2 O(l) ˇ Ca(O) 2 (aq) Ca(O) 2 (aq) ˇ Ca 2 (aq) 2O (aq) A similar reaction was used historically to produce an important commodity, soap. Early soap makers used the basic properties of metal oxides. When wood burns, the metal atoms in the wood form solid metal oxides in the burning process. These metal oxides are predominantly those of sodium, potassium, and calcium. These metal oxides are ionic so they are solids, even at the high temperature of a roaring fire. They are the major component of the ash that is left when the fire burns out. Figure Making Soil More Basic Adding lime to soil makes the soil less acidic and more favorable for growing many types of plants. Because Ca(O) 2 is only slightly water soluble, it provides a longer-lasting source of base than provided by more soluble ionic hydroxides. 494 Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

18 Chemistry and Atmospheric Pollution The air you breathe is literally a matter of life and death. Atmospheric oxygen is taken into your body and, during respiration, reacts with glucose to produce the energy required for all the life processes that keep you going. Unfortunately, the same air, at times, may contain materials that cause respiratory diseases and bring about other harmful effects. Air is often polluted with chemicals produced by human activity. Even Earth itself coughs up some of the same air pollutants during volcanic eruptions. Introducing the major air pollutants The major chemicals that pollute the air are carbon monoxide, CO; carbon dioxide, CO 2 ; sulfur dioxide, SO 2 ; nitrogen monoxide, NO; nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 ; hydrocarbons; and suspended particles. In addition, pollutants form under the influence of sunlight when oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons react. These reactions produce ozone, O 3, and aldehydes such as formaldehyde, C 2 O. Why are pollutants a problem? Acid rain What do the salmon and the pine trees in the photos have in common? Both have succumbed to the acid environment in which they live. They are two of the many victims of acid rain. Unpolluted rain is not harmful. owever, many industrial and power plants burn coal and oil. The smoke produced may contain large quantities of sulfur oxides, suspended particles, and nitrogen oxides. Automobiles also contribute to the problem by emitting similar oxides. These chemicals react with water in the air to form acids, such as sulfuric acid. These acids reach the surface of Earth in fog, rain, snow, and dew. Acid rain can have a disastrous effect when it reaches bodies of water and waterways. But if a lake has a high limestone content, it is able to somewhat neutralize the acid. Smog Large cities with many automobiles may have another problem with airborne pollutants. It is called smog, which is a haze or fog that is made harmful by the chemical fumes and suspended particles it contains. A type of smog known as photochemical smog frequently occurs in large cities in sunny, dry climates. When the pollutants from automobile exhaust enter the air and are exposed to sunlight, they interact to produce photochemical smog. This type of smog is generally worse on hot days and between 11 A.M. and 4 P.M. when exhaust has accumulated in the air. Analyzing the Issue 1. Acquiring Information Read the November 1993 issue of Scientific American, pages ow might the issue of free trade influence the problems of air pollution in this country? 2. Thinking Critically Older-model cars are responsible for the greatest amount of air pollutants being vented into the atmosphere. old a debate on whether these cars should be banished from the highways Acids and Bases 495

19 Figure Making Soap Lye was produced by collecting wood ashes and soaking them in water. After several days, the highly basic solution was separated from the undissolved ash and combined with animal fat. The lye reacted with the fat to make soap. For more practice with solving problems, see Supplemental Practice Problems, Appendix B. This early soap-making process is shown in Figure The reaction of water and sodium oxide, Na 2 O, one of the metal oxides in wood ash, is similar to that shown for lime and water. Na 2 O(s) 2 O(l) ˇ 2NaO(aq) NaO(aq) ˇ Na (aq) O (aq) The Macroscopic-Submicroscopic Acid-Base Connection As you have discovered, the properties of acids and bases are determined by the submicroscopic interactions between the acid or base and the solvent water. For example, Cl and C 2 3 O 2 both interact with water to cause a transfer of hydrogen ions from the acid to water molecules to form hydronium ions. Both solutions turn blue litmus red. Even though these properties are the same for both acids, remember that the conductivity of a 1M Cl solution is much greater than that of a 1M C 2 3 O 2 solution. A base interacts with water molecules to form hydroxide ions either by ionic dissociation or by the transfer of a hydrogen ion from a water molecule to the base. Consider a 1M NaO solution and a 1M N 3 solution. Both solutions are basic. They each turn red litmus to blue. But the NaO solution shows strong electrical conductivity, while the N 3 solution is only weakly conducting. Why do different acids have some properties in common and yet differ in other properties? Why is the same thing true for bases? Section 14.2 will explain these differences. SECTION REVIEW Understanding Concepts 1. Make a table that compares and contrasts the properties of acids and bases. 2. Use a chemical equation to show how aqueous NO 3 fits the definition of an acid. 3. Consider the oxides MgO and CO 2.For each oxide, tell whether it is a basic anhydride or an acidic anhydride. Write an equation for each to demonstrate its acid-base chemistry. Thinking Critically 4. Applying Concepts Chemists often call a hydrogen ion a proton. Explain why an acid is sometimes called a proton donor, and a base is sometimes called a proton acceptor. Applying Chemistry 5. Using Soap After using soap to wash dishes by hand, it is sometimes difficult to keep your hands from remaining slick. Explain why rinsing your hands in lemon juice would make them less slick. 496 Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

20 Strengths of Acids and Bases SECTION 14.2 From reading Section 14.1, you know that all acids have a sour taste, but they may differ in how readily they react with another substance. You wouldn t hesitate to use the acetic acid in vinegar on a salad, but you certainly wouldn t use hydrochloric acid, which may be used to clean brick, on any type of food. All bases also share some properties but differ in others. You would readily use a dilute ammonia solution as a cleaner, but you certainly wouldn t let sodium hydroxide, which is used in drain cleaners, come in contact with your skin. These two bases differ greatly in how they react. Strong Acids and Bases What s going on? You know that when acids and bases are mixed with water, they form ions. Much of the behavior of acids and bases depends on how many ions are formed by a particular acid or base in water. The degree to which bases and acids produce ions depends on the nature of the acid or base. Acids and bases are classified into one of two categories depending upon their strength, which is the degree to which they form ions. The strong category is reserved for those substances, such as NaO and Cl, that completely dissociate or ionize and produce the maximum number of ions when dissolved in water. All other acids and bases are classified as weak because they produce few ions when dissolved in water. SECTION PREVIEW Objectives Relate different electrical conductivities of acidic and basic solutions to their degree of dissociation or ionization. Distinguish strong and weak acids or bases by their degree of dissociation or ionization. Compare and contrast the composition of strong and weak solutions of acids or bases. Relate p to the strengths of acids and bases. Key Terms strong base strong acid weak acid weak base p Strong Bases Sodium hydroxide, NaO, is a strong base because when NaO dissolves in water, all NaO formula units dissociate into separate sodium and hydroxide ions. The dissociation of the base is complete. The strength of a base is based on the percent of units dissociated, not the number of O ions produced. Some bases, such as Mg(O) 2, are not very soluble in water, and they don t produce a large number of O ions. owever, they are still considered to be strong bases because all of the base that does dissolve completely dissociates Strengths of Acids and Bases 497

21 Table 14.2 Common Strong Acids and Bases Strong Acids Perchloric acid, ClO 4 Sulfuric acid, 2 SO 4 ydriodic acid, I Strong Bases Lithium hydroxide, LiO Sodium hydroxide, NaO Potassium hydroxide, KO ydrobromic acid, Br Calcium hydroxide, Ca(O) 2 ydrochloric acid, Cl Strontium hydroxide, Sr(O) 2 Nitric acid, NO 3 Barium hydroxide, Ba(O) 2 Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(O) 2 Figure Some Common Weak Acids Some common weak acids vary in their structures. Increasing Strength Formic Ascorbic (vitamin C) Benzoic Acetic The strong bases shown in Table 14.2 are all ionic compounds that contain hydroxide ions. NaO and KO are the most common strong bases you will encounter. A 1M solution of NaO and a 1M solution of KO will each contain 1M O because both compounds completely dissociate. Strong Acids Cl is a strong acid because no Cl molecules are in a water solution of Cl. Because of the strong attraction between the water molecules and Cl molecules, every Cl molecule ionizes. A 1M Cl solution contains 1M 3 O and 1M Cl. Similarly, a 1M NO 3 solution contains 1M 3 O and 1M NO 3. As before, the labeling of a solution as 1M NO 3 is not particularly descriptive of the submicroscopic composition of the solution. Table 14.2 lists common O strong acids and bases. Because they are used so often, C O it is helpful to memorize their names and formulas. They all O completely dissociate or ionize into ions when they dissolve in O O C C 2 O water. If an acid or base is not C C listed in this group, it is considered to be a weak acid or C C O O base. owever, the terms strong and weak are not absolute. Strength of acids and C C O bases covers a wide range from extremely strong to extremely C C C weak. Notice that the strongest C C O bases are all hydroxides of Group I, the alkali metals, and Group II, the alkaline earth metals. Alkali is a term frequently O used to refer to mate- C 3 C O rials that have noticeably basic properties. CO 2 2 C 6 6 O 6 C 7 5 O 2 C 2 3 O Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

22 Weak Acids and Bases The weak category of acids and bases contains those with a wide range of strengths. This is the category into which most acids and bases fall. Instead of being completely ionized, weak acids and bases are only partially ionized. Weak Acids Acetic acid, C 2 3 O 2, is a good example of a weak acid. In a 1M C 2 3 O 2 solution, less than 0.5 percent of the acetic acid molecules ionize, and 99.5 percent of the acetic acid molecules remain as molecules. Another way to think of this is to consider 1000 acetic acid molecules in a water solution. On the average, only five of the 1000 molecules transfer their single hydrogen ion to a water molecule. The molarity of hydronium ion produced in a 1M C 2 3 O 2 solution is much less than 1M due to this partial ionization. Other common weak acids include phosphoric acid, 3 PO 4, and carbonic acid, both of which are found in soft drinks. The molecular structure of a weak acid determines the extent to which the acid ionizes in water. Figure shows the variety of structures of some common weak acids. Figure uses a graph format to show the dramatic difference in degree of ionization between a solution of a weak acid and one of a strong acid. A solution of weak acid contains a mixture of un-ionized acid molecules, hydronium ions, and the corresponding negative ions. The concentration of the un-ionized acid is always the greatest of the three concentrations. Concentration before ionization Equilibrium concentrations after ionization A O 3 + A Strong acid, such as Cl 100% ˇ ionization A A Weak acid, such as CO 2 Partial ˇ ionization O 3 + A Figure Strong and Weak Acids The composition of an acidic solution depends upon the strength of the acid. A A Very weak acid, such as C O % ˇ ionization 14.2 Strengths of Acids and Bases 499

23 Weak Bases Ammonia is a weak base because most of its molecules don t react with water to form ions. In a 1M aqueous solution of ammonia, only about 0.5 percent of the ammonia molecules react with water to form ammonium and hydroxide ions. About 99.5 percent of the ammonia molecules remain as intact molecules. The molarity of hydroxide ions in a 1M ammonia solution is much less than 1M. The major dissolved component in a weak base solution is the un-ionized base. Other examples of bases that produce so few O ions that they are considered to be weak bases are Al(O) 3, and Fe(O) 3. Weak Is Not Insignificant Although most acids and bases are classified as weak, their behavior is extremely significant. Most of the acid-base chemistry in living systems occurs through interactions between weak acids and bases. For example, amino acids, the small molecules that serve as the building blocks of proteins, have properties of both weak acids and weak bases. The amino portion of the molecule acts as a base when it comes into contact with a strong acid, and the acid part of the molecule acts as a weak acid when exposed to a base. The coiling of the DNA into a double helix is also due to the interactions between weak acids and bases. Weak does not mean insignificant. Figure Developing the p Scale The Danish biochemist S.P.L. Sørenson developed the p scale in 1909 while working on brewing beer. p is an abbreviation in French for pouvier d hydrogene or, in English, the power of hydrogen. Strength Is Not Concentration Although the terms weak and strong are used to compare the strengths of acids and bases, dilute and concentrated are terms used to describe the concentration of solutions. The combination of strength and concentration ultimately determines the behavior of the solution. For example, it is possible to have a concentrated solution of a weak acid or weak base or a dilute solution of a weak acid or weak base. Similarly, you can have a concentrated solution of a strong acid or strong base, as well as a dilute solution of a strong acid or strong base. The p Scale Because of the range of solution concentration, the range of possible concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in solutions of acids or bases is huge. For example, a 6M solution of Cl has an 3 O molarity of 6M, but a 6M solution of C 2 3 O 2 has an 3 O molarity of 0.01M. In most applications, the observed range of possible hydronium or hydroxide ion concentrations spans M to 1M. This huge range of concentrations presents a problem when comparing different acids and bases. To make this range of possible concentrations easier to work with, the p scale was developed by S.P.L. Sørenson, Figure Chapter 14 Acids, Bases, and p

24 Balancing p in Cosmetics With so many shampoos available, you may find it hard to know which type is best for your hair. Advertisements for each type tell you that their shampoo has more to offer than any other shampoo. ow can you know which one to choose? Cosmetic chemists have many tools for determining the effect of their products on different hair types. Using one technique, developed by NASA, they place a hair under a microscope connected to a TV screen that is hooked up to a computer. The computer evaluates the hair before and after treatment with the shampoo. Working with different types of hair allows these chemists to determine the best treatment for each type of hair. Shampoos and p balance The clear, outer layer of a strand of hair is the cuticle, which consists of the protein keratin. The cells of the cuticle are arranged like overlapping shingles. Shampoos that have a high p make the entire hair shaft swell and push the cells of the cuticle away from the rest of the shaft. arsh basic substances in solutions for permanents and hair coloring dissolve some of the cuticle, damaging the hair. air can also be damaged by the sun and excessive blow drying. Damaged hair is dull and dry. In contrast, acidic substances in shampoos of low p make the hair shaft tight and smooth by shrinking it and causing the cells of the cuticle to lie flat. Low-p shampoos help restore damaged hair to its original condition and make it shine again. They also strengthen the keratin and increase the flexibility and elasticity of the hair. People with coarse, curly hair can benefit from using alkaline or high-p shampoos. These products soften and relax the hair, making it softer and less curly. Why balance p in skin products? The outer layer of skin has a keratin structure just as hair does. Products aimed at making the skin look brighter and clearer have a higher p. Their purpose is to Chemistry remove the top layer of keratin, which may consist of dead cells. The new cells underneath look fresh and vibrant. Occasional use of these products may be helpful, but regular use damages healthy skin by removing too many layers of cells. Another problem with basic skin products is related to an acid mantle that bathes the top layer of the skin, the epidermis. This fluid composed of oil, sweat, and other cell secretions is a natural defense against bacterial infections. Strongly basic soaps can neutralize the protective acid mantle. People with acne or oily skin must be careful not to remove the acid mantle. Exploring Further 1. Inferring If you live in an area where the water is hard, your hair may look dull. Why would rinsing with water to which lemon juice has been added help? 2. Thinking Critically Why would a person with acne use skin products that are p-neutral or mildly acidic? CEMISTRY To learn more about the chemical reasoning behind commercial beauty tips, visit the Glencoe Science Web site. science.glencoe.com 14.2 Strengths of Acids and Bases 501

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