Use this guide to help check your students Reading Notes answers and to help them construct their timelines.

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1 Use this guide to help check your students Reading Notes answers and to help them construct their timelines. Section 1 1. Introduction Resource U: Upon returning to England after signing the Munich Agreement, Neville Chamberlain spoke triumphantly. He claimed to have achieved peace for our time. Example summary: In the 1920s and 1930s, Great Britain and France tried to prevent another World War, especially by appeasing Hitler s demands for territory. Section 2 2. The Rise of Militarism in Japan Resource K: Between 1931 and 1940, Japan invaded Manchuria as well as a substantial portion of China further south. They also seized French Indochina. Example summary: Japan pursued a policy of militarism and territorial expansion throughout the 1930s. 3. Militarists Expand Japan s Empire Resource C: Japan s sphere of influence was in Manchuria, a region in northeastern China that was rich in natural resources. In 1931, Japan s army seized the entire region. Example summary: Between 1930 and 1941, Japan took territory in Manchuria, China further south, French Indochina, and Formosa. 4. Testing the League of Nations Resource AA: Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 as part of a quest to construct a new Roman Empire under Mussolini. Example summary: The League of Nations proved to be a weak organization when it was unable to stand up to Japanese, Italian, and German aggression. 5. Britain and France Appease Hitler Resource M: With the Anschluss, Hitler took control of Austria and furthered his goal of uniting all ethnic Germans in the German Reich. Example summary: When Hitler invaded Austria and part of Czechoslovakia, Britain and France followed a policy of appeasement, and allowed Hitler to take the territory. 6. U.S. Neutrality Resource Q: The U.S. Congress passed several Neutrality Acts in the 1930s. These acts were designed to keep the country out of conflicts brewing in Europe. Example summary: In the 1930s, the United States followed policies of neutrality and isolationism. Teachers Curriculum Institute World War II 1

2 Section 3 7. Germany Reduces the Soviet Threat Resource H: In their 1939 non-aggression treaty, Hitler promised Stalin a part of Poland and guaranteed Russia a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. In return, Stalin pledged not to attack Germany. Example summary: Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with Stalin so he could be assured of Russian neutrality when war began. 8. The War Begins Resource X: Students should shade in the areas around Poland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Denmark, and Norway. Example summary: By using Blitzkrieg tactics, the Germans were able to quickly conquer a large part of the European continent. 9. The Battle of Britain Resource P: During the Battle of Britain, RAF pilots defended the nation against German bombing attacks. When Germany began targeting cities, Londoners called this period the Blitz. Example summary: Britain, the last holdout against Hitler in Europe, successfully defended itself in the Battle of Britain. 10. The United States Prepares for War Resource F: The United States began sending arms to Great Britain under the Lend-Lease Act. Example summary: The United States tried to remain neutral, but they got involved in the war when they sent weapons to the Allies and began a military draft. 11. The United States Enters the War Resource Y: The United States entered the war after Japan bombed the naval base at Pearl Harbor. Example summary: Hitler hoped to keep the United States out of the war, but Japanese aggression drew them in. Section Nazis Invade the Soviet Union and North Africa Resource G: The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union was successful at first, as the Germans used brutal blitzkrieg tactics to drive into Russia. However, they were stopped by the Russian winter. Example summary: The Nazis invaded the Soviet Union and North Africa to secure oil supplies. 13. Nazis Begin to Persecute the Jews Resource B: As part of the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews, millions of people were sent to be killed or worked to death in death/concentration camps. Example summary: The Nazis began to systematically exterminate the Jews of Europe. Teachers Curriculum Institute World War II 2

3 Teacher s Guide 14. The Allies Debate War Strategies Resource Z: U.S. President Franklin D Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met in Washington in December 1941 to plan how to win the war in Europe. Example summary: Roosevelt and Churchill decided to first invade North Africa, which could serve as a gateway to Europe. 15. Allied Gains in North Africa and Italy Resource O: Allied forces launched a final offensive in North Africa in May 1943, forcing Axis resistance to collapse. Example summary: Allied forces, which now included American soldiers, successfully invaded North Africa and then Italy. 16. The Battle of Stalingrad Resource T: The Battle of Stalingrad involved firebombs, fierce street-by-street battles, and a fight to the death in the bitter winter cold. It was a Soviet victory that forced the Germans to retreat. Example summary: After bitter fighting, the Soviet army forced the Germans to retreat from the territory they had taken in the Soviet Union. 17. Allied Bombing Campaigns Resource S: The British bombed German cities to try to weaken civilian morale. The German city of Dresden was firebombed into absolute ruin. Example summary: Allied forces bombed Germany to weaken civilian morale and disrupt its ability to supply its army. 18. The Allies Liberate France Resource N: Students should draw an arrow from southern England to northern France. Example summary: The Allies landed in Normandy on D-Day, and took France from the Nazis. 19. The Horror of the Holocaust Resource BB: The Nazis murdered 6 million Jews, or one-third of the world s Jewish population. This terrible slaughter was called the Holocaust. Example summary: As Allied troops advanced into German territory, they uncovered evidence of the atrocities committed by the Nazis. 20. The War in Europe Ends Resource E: Germany s last offensive of the war was the Battle of the Bulge in Belgium. Example summary: After their last offensive failed, German forces surrendered and the war in Europe came to an end. Teachers Curriculum Institute World War II 3

4 Section The Pacific War Begins Resource I: To protect Australia from Japan, the United States fought the battle of the Coral Sea, which was fought entirely by carrier-based aircraft. It was the first naval battle in which the enemies warships never saw each other. Example summary: Using aircraft carriers, U.S. forces prevented Japanese expansion in the South Pacific. 22. The Allies Stop Japanese Expansion Resource W: The U.S. victory at the Battle of Midway stopped Japanese expansion in the Central and South Pacific. Example summary: U.S. victory at Midway stopped Japanese expansion and put them on the defensive. 23. The Allies Turn the Tide Resource D: Students should copy the arrows shown on the War in the Pacific, map in the Student Text. Example summary: By using the strategy of leapfrogging, the Allies began a successful offensive against Japan in the Pacific. 24. The Allies Push Toward Japan Resource L: The defensive perimeter the Japanese had established around Japan disappeared after the Allies captured the key islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa in early Example summary: The Allies captured Iwo Jima and Okinawa, which gave them a staging ground for an invasion of the Japanese mainland. 25. Developing the First Nuclear Weapon Resource V: The U.S. government established a top-secret program to develop an atomic weapon. Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer directed the Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico where it was developed. Example summary: By 1945, a top-secret team of scientists in the United States had developed the atomic bomb. 26. The U.S. Decides to Drop the Bomb Resource J: U.S. President Harry S. Truman had the difficult decision about whether to drop an atomic bomb on Japan or to launch an invasion. Example summary: President Truman had to decide the best strategy to bring about Japan s unconditional surrender. 27. Two A-bombs End the War in the Pacific Resource A: The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan surrendered after the United States dropped the bomb on Nagasaki. Example summary: After the United States completely destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bombs, the Japanese surrendered. Teachers Curriculum Institute World War II 4

5 Teacher s Guide 28. The Cost of World War II Resource R: As many as 60 million people died in World War II about half of them civilians. More than 20 million Europeans were made homeless by the fighting. Example summary: World War II caused terrible destruction and loss of life throughout Europe and Asia. 29. War Crimes Trials and Restructuring Resource CC: After the end of the war, the Americans put General Douglas MacArthur in charge of Japan. Example summary: When the war ended, Germany and Japan were occupied by the Allies, and their leaders faced trial for war crimes. Teachers Curriculum Institute World War II 5

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