1 ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME Ravi Dhanisetty 11/30/2007 Veterans Affairs Hospital
2 ACGME CORE COMPETENCIES Medical Knowledge Patient Care Interpersonal Skills Practice Based Learning Systems Based Learning Professionalism
3 CASE PRESENTATION xx year old male was admitted for elective right hthemi-colectomy. Outpatient screening colonoscopy showed a cecal mass - moderately differenciated adenocarcinoma. ROS: 30 lbs weight loss in 8 weeks.
4 CASE PRESENTATION PMHx: Diabetes Mellitus Coronary Artery Disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease PSHx: Removal of sharpnel from right shoulder. Home Medications: Lopressor, albuterol, atrovent Social History: Alcohol beers daily and liquor on weekends. Tobacco - 80 pack year history.
5 CASE PRESENTATION PE: /88 86 A/Ox3 Neurological: no focal deficits. RRR Clear bilaterally Abdomen - soft, no masses, obese No edema in extremities.
6 CASE PRESENTATION Laboratory values: Wbc , hgb -12.6, hct 35, platlets l Electrolytes, LFTs wnl. PT 16.6, INR 1.4, PTT 34.6 CT of abdomen & pelvis no evidence of metastatic disease.
7 CASE PRESENTATION OR Details: Episode of hypoxemia after induction of anesthesia. Responded to bronchodialators. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, right hemi-colectomy, and 2-layered hand sewn ileo- colonic anastomosis. Patient remained intubated after the case and transferred to SICU.
8 CASE PRESENTATION POD #1: Patient was successfully extubated on morning rounds. Placed on nebulizer treatments, t t thiamine, i folate, Ativan for delirium tremens prophylaxis. He remained hemodynamically stable and was out of bed.
9 CASE PRESENTATION Overnight (3:00 a.m.), patient became restless and agitated. ittd 115/75 HR: 95 sat 100% Given IM ativan (4 mg) and haldol (5 mg), soft restraints placed. (3:51 a.m.) ABG (face mask): 7.41/40.9/63.3/25.5/92.5/0.0
10 CASE PRESENTATION 4:30 a.m. Patient became unresponsive and asystolic. Code 33: Patient was intubated and resuscitated as per ACLS. 5:00 a.m (post code). : 7.16/36/119/12.4/99/- 15
11 CASE PRESENTATION POD #2: Despite discontinuation of all sedation,,patient remained unarousable. Head CT scan showed changes consistent with diffuse anoxic brain injury. No PE on chest CT No EKG changes or significant troponin elevation.
12 CASE PRESENTATION No change in patients neurological status over next several days. After consultation with neurology, palliative care, and hospital ethics committee, patient s condition was discussed with the family. POD #7: Patient s family decided to withdraw supportive care.
13 ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME Epidemiology: Common condition in inpatient setting. Symptoms developed in 8% of all general hospital admissions, 16% of all postsurgical patients, and 31% of all trauma patients. Development of alcohol withdrawal increased mortality 3 fold in post surgical patients.
14 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY O OG Alcohol withdrawal is a neurologic disorder with a continuum of progressively worsening symptoms. Secondary to effects of chronic alcohol use on the central nervous system. Exacerbated by the co-morbid conditions associated with alcoholism.
15 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY O OG Chronic alcohol consumption has profound effects on central nervous system neurotransmitters. Chronic exposure increases overactivity i in CNS especially ill sympathetic autonomic outflow GABA receptor: great inhibitor Alcohol downregulates GABA -R leading to loss of inhibition. NMDA receptor: Alcohol upregulates NMDA leading to increased excitation. This combination of increased excitation and loss of inhibition results in the clinical manifestations of autonomic excitability and psychomotor agitation.
16 CLINICAL SYNDROMES Minor Withdrawal: 6-36 hours Tremulousness, mild anxiety, headache, diaphoresis, anorexia, GI upset characterized by hypertension, tachycardia Alcoholic Hallucinosis: hours Visual, auditory, and/or tactile hallucinations Withdrawal Seizures: 6-48 hours Generalized, tonic-clonic seizures occur early, usually single with brief post-ictal period Dlii Delirium Tremens: hours Delirium, tachycardia, hypertension, agitation, fever, diaphoresis characterized by delirium and autonomic instability
17 CLINICAL SYNDROMES Alcoholic Hallucinosis 25 % of patients. Tactile (formication) and visual hallucinations No evidence of autonomic instability Not a predictor for subsequent development of DT. Withdrawal Seizures: In 10% of patients with alcohol withdrawal Self limited with rapid recovery Status epilepticus (rare) May have underlying seizure disorder Seizure with high alcohol level poor prognostic indicator.
18 CLINICAL SYNDROMES DELIRIUM TREMENS: hours Severe autonomic instability along with: Disturbance of consciousness or Change in cognition (such as memory deficit, disorientation, language disturbance) 5-37% mortality. Increased mortality if other co-morbidities: pulmonary disease, liver disease, temperature > 104 F.
19 RISK FACTORS for DEVELOPMENT OF SEVERE ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL Strongest predictor: history of prior episodes or family history. Age >30 History of sustained drinking. Biochemical markers: homocysteine levels, liver function tests, t alcohol l level l Several studies done with contradictory results and no clear correlation.
20 Clinical i l Institute t Withdrawal Assessment Score objective scoring system to quantify the severity of alcohol withdrawal. ihd Kosten, TR T.R et al. Management of fdrug and Alcohol Withdrawal. NEJM 2003: 348:
21 MANAGEMENT Alcohol withdrawal seizures: Slfli Self limitedi Benzodiazepines are the preferred agent and prevent recurrence. Dilantin multiple trials show does not prevent recurrence. Most likely secondary to its inability to regulate GABA or NMDA receptors.
22 MANAGEMENT: Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Autonomic instability could place significant physiological stress. ABC All patients with chronic alcohol use have vitamin (especially Thiamine) and volume depletion. DVT prophylaxis and aspiration precautions. Correct electrolyte deficiency.
23 MANAGEMENT Drug of Choice Landmark study: randomized prospective study. 547 patients in acute alcohol withdrawal were randomized to 1 of 4 drugs or placebo. Chlordiazepoxide Chlorpromazine Hydroxyzine y Thiamine Patients receiving chlordiazepoxide had the lowest incidence of both delirium tremens and alcohol withdrawal seizures. BENZODIAZEPINES - first-line agent for treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. Kaim SC, Klett CJ, Rothfeld B: Treatment of the acute alcohol withdrawal state: A comparison of four drugs. Am J Psychiatry 1969;125:
24 MANAGEMENT Drug of Choice Diazepam (valium): Prefered agent for moderate to severe AWS Rapid onset of action (avoids oversedation) Long half-lifelife secondary to active metabolite Chlordiazepoxide (librium): most commonly used Lorazepam (ativan) No active metabolites, better tolerated in patients with compromized liver function
25 MANAGEMENT Drug of Choice Phenobarbital and propofol are other options that t can be given in addition to benzodiazepines. Beta- blockers and central acting alphaagonists (clonidine) as adjuncts.
26 MANAGEMENT Severe alcohol withdrawal / delirium tremens. Initial management: titration with intravenous benzodiazepine to achieve sedation and normal vital signs. May need admission to ICU or stepdown unit for autonomic instability / respiratory depression Repeated reassesment and administration of boluses in a symptom-triggered fashion.
27 SUGGESTED CRITERIA for ICU ADMISSION Age >40 Cardiac disease Hemodynamic instability Marked acid-base disturbances Severe electrolyte defects Respiratory insufficiency Potentially serious infections (wounds, pneumonia, trauma, urinary tract infection) Signs of gastrointestinal pathology (pancreatitis, GI bleeding, hepatic insufficiency, suspected peritonitis) Persistent hyperthermia (T >39ºC [103ºF]) Renal insufficiency or increased fluid requirements A history of prior alcohol withdrawal complications Need for frequent or high doses of sedatives or an intravenous infusion to control symptoms Carlson, RW, Keske, B, Cortez, D, J Crit Illness 1998; 13:311.
28 MANAGEMENT: Symptom-triggered Randomized, double-blinded study: 101 patients t randomized d to either fixed (with boluses as required) or symptom triggered regiment. Severity of symptoms quantified by using Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment score. Saitz R, Mayo-Smith MF, Roberts MS, et al: Individualized treatment for alcohol withdrawal. A randomized double-blind blind controlled trial. JAMA 1994;272:
29 MANAGEMENT: Symptom-triggered Results: Shorter duration of treatment. Decreased amount of benzodiazepine used. No significant differences in the severity of withdrawal during treatment No difference in the incidence of seizures or delirium tremens between two groups Saitz R, Mayo-Smith MF, Roberts MS, et al: Individualized treatment for alcohol withdrawal. A randomized double-blind controlled trial. JAMA 1994;272:
30 CONCLUSIONS Alcohol withdrawal is a complex neurological disorder. Physiologic process involving both neuronal excitation and reduced inhibition leading to autonomic excitability that can lead to altered mental status and seizures. Treatment includes supportive care and sedation with benzodiazepines in a symptom triggered fashion.
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