LRFD FOUNDATION DESIGN

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1 LRFD FOUNDATION DESIGN Ching-Nien Tsai, P.E. LADOTD Pavement and Geotechnical Services

2 Why Change?

3 WHAT IS LRFD? Load and Resistance Factor Design Load FS Reliability based design Not a new concept f(x) Zone of Failure Resistance x

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10 LRFD vs. ASD Load Factors & Resistance Factors Combined to determine the reliability of the design instead of one FS for ASD Separate component risk levels vs. one lumped FS Calibrated resistance factors vs. empirical FS Deep Foundations Shallow Foundations Retaining Wall and Abutment

11 RESISTANCE FACTORS Current Resistance Factors Deep foundation static calculation from calibration Others use resistance factors that fit the current practices Stability 0.7 (FS=1.5) Load test 0.7 (FS=2.0 with LF=1.5) Dynamic load test 0.65 (FS=2.25 with LF=1.5) Site variability not calibrated Future Resistance Factors Site variability Calibration

12 Determining Geotechnical Resistance of Piles Field methods Static load test Statnamic/Fundex Load Test Dynamic load test (PDA) Driving Formulae Static analysis methods

13 Geotechnical Resistance Factors for Piles Method Site Variability φ Low Static Load Medium Test High Site Variability Defined in NCHRP Report 507 Range of Values of Resistance Factors Depends on Number of Static Load Tests AASHTO Table

14 Geotechnical Resistance Factors for Piles Method φ (LADOTD) Wave Equation only 0.4 FHWA-Modified Gates (EOD) ENR 0.1 φ AASHTO Table

15 Geotechnical Resistance Factors for Piles Method φ (LADOTD) φ Dynamic Test w/signal Matching (e.g., PDA + CAPWAP) 0.53 (>14 days) 0.65 Test 1% to 50% of Production Piles, Depending on Site Variability and Number of Piles Driven Site Variability Defined in NCHRP Report 507 AASHTO Table & 3

16 Geotechnical Resistance Factors Pile Static Analysis Methods Method φ Comp φ Ten α - Method 0.4/ β - Method λ - Method Nordlund-Thurman 0.45/0.45 SPT CPT 0.45/ Group

17 Table Resistance Factors for Driven Piles CONDITION/RESISTANCE DETERMINATION METHOD Driving criteria established by static load test(s); quality control by dynamic testing and/or calibrated wave equation, or minimum driving resistance combined with minimum delivered hammer energy from the load test(s). For the last case, the hammer used for the test pile(s) shall be used for the production piles. RESISTANCE FACTOR Values in Table 2 Nominal Resistance of Single Pile in Axial Compression Dynamic Analysis and Static Load Test Methods, ϕ dyn Driving criteria established by dynamic test with signal matching at beginning of redrive conditions only of at least one production pile per pier, but no less than the number of tests per site provided in Table 3. Quality control of remaining piles by calibrated wave equation and/or dynamic testing Wave equation analysis, without pile dynamic measurements or load test, at end of drive conditions only 0.40 FHWA-modified Gates dynamic pile formula (End Of Drive condition only) 0.40 Engineering News Record (as defined in Article ) dynamic pile formula (End Of Drive condition only) 0.10

18 Drilled Shaft Resistance Total Resistance Resistance A D Side Resistance Tip Resistance B C R P R S Displacement R R = φr n = φ qp R p + φ qs R s

19 External Failure Mechanisms Sliding Failure Overturning Failure Bearing Failure Deep-Seated Sliding Failure

20 Shallow Foundation Geotechnical Resistances ASD Failure Modes Overall Stability Bearing Capacity Settlement Sliding Overturning

21 Nominal Shallow Foundation Geotechnical Resistances LRFD Service Limit State Overall Stability Vertical (Settlement) and Horizontal Movements LRFD Strength Limit State Bearing Resistance Sliding Eccentricity Limits (Overturning)

22 Service Limit State Global Stability Stabilize Destabilize

23 Resistance Factors ASD Factors of Safety Soil Parameters and Ground Water Conditions Based On: In-situ or Laboratory Tests and Measurements Slope Supports Abutment or Other Structure? Yes No No Site-specific Tests LRFD

24 Stability Wrap-Up Unfactored loads Service Limit State Applied stress must be limited Footings supported in a slope φ 0.65 (FS 1.5) Stress criteria for stability can control footing design

25 Service Limit State Design Settlement Cohesive Soils Evaluate Using Consolidation Theory Cohesionless Soils Evaluate Using Empirical or Other Conventional Methods Hough Method

26 Use of Eccentricity and Effective Footing Dimensions Service Limit State Nominal Bearing Resistance Limited by Settlement Strength Limit State Nominal Bearing Resistance Limited by Bearing Resistance Prevent Overturning All Applicable Limit States

27 Applied Stress Beneath Effective Footing Area L B M L P M B e B e L q B L

28 Stress Applied to Soil Strip Footing

29 Strength Limit State Resistance Factors Bearing Resistance METHOD/SOIL/CONDITION φ All methods, soil and rock RESISTANCE FACTOR 0.45 Plate Load Test 0.55 Sliding φ τ Precast concrete placed on sand Cast-in-Place Concrete on sand φ ep Clay 0.85 Soil on soil 0.90 Passive earth pressure component of sliding resistance 0.50

30 LRFD vs. ASD All modes are expressly checked at a limit state in LRFD Eccentricity limits (0.25B) replace the overturning Factor of Safety

31 Settlement vs. Bearing Resistance q a, ksf N=30 N=25 N=20 N=15 N=10 N= B, ft

32 Load Factors for Conventional Walls β β 1.25 DC 1.00 WA V 1.50 EHsin(β+δ) 1.50 EHsin(β+δ) 1.35 EV β+δ 1.50 EHcos(β+δ) 0.90 DC 1.50 EH 1.50 EH 1.00 WA V 1.00 EV β+δ 1.50 EHcos(β+δ) 1.00 WA H 1.00 WA H Load Factors for Bearing Resistance Load Factors for Sliding and Eccentricity

33 Conventional Walls - Summary Use resistance factors for spread footings or deep foundations, as appropriate (Section 10.5) Eccentricity limited to: e/b < 0.25 for soil (compare to ASD 0.167) e/b < for rock (compare to ASD 0.25)

34 Resistance Factors Bearing Resistance Passive Resistance Flexural Resistance Section Code allows increase in Resistance Factors for temporary walls but specific guidance is not provided

35 Non-gravity Cantilevered Walls Below excavation line, multiply by 3b on passive side of wall and 1b on active side of wall for discrete elements Look at forces separately below excavation line on passive side and active side (because different load factors)

36 Pressure Diagrams Discrete Elements ASD LRFD

37 Non-gravity Cantilevered Walls Factor embedment by 1.2 for continuous wall elements Do not factor embedment for discrete wall elements (conservatism of 3b assumption)

38 Recommended AEP for Sands H 1 2 /3 H 1 H 1 2 /3 H 1 H T h1 p 2 /3 (H-H 1 ) 1 /3 H T h1 T h2 T hn H n+1 H n H 2 p 2 /3 H n+1 R R p = TOTAL 2 3 LOAD H K A γh p = TOTAL LOAD H H1 3 Hn+ 1 (a) Walls with one level of ground anchors (b) Walls with multiple levels of ground anchors

39 Next Exploration and Testing Impact

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