Solitary Semi-social Eusocial (Social)

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1

2 Solitary Semi-social Eusocial (Social)

3 Single: Red Velvet Ants Aggregate: Cicada Killers Miner/Digger Bees Carpenter Bees Mud Daubers Leaf-Cutter Bees Mason Bees

4 European Hornets Yellow Jackets Bumble Bees Guinea/Paper Wasps

5 Honey Bees

6 Ground-dwelling Visible nests Cavity-dwelling

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11 Usually ground-dwelling but can inhabit cavities. Cause most problems for honey bees due to mis-identification. Very defensive and may have multiple entrances Mated queen hibernates over winter and founds new colony in spring Cold usually kills old colony

12 Mate in fall and new female queens hibernate over winter May grow to have up to adults and over 200 cells for larvae Cells are constructed of pre-digested wood pulp with no shell New queens will not re-inhabit their old nest the next year Will sting if necessary but not highly defensive

13 Many types Common ones in our area: black and yellow, organ-pipe, and blue mud daubers Overwinter as immatures in the nest and emerge in spring to mate and build colonies. Black and yellow as well as organ-pipe mud daubers will not usually reuse old tubes. Blue mud daubers do not build tubes - they take over old nests of black and yellow mud daubers w/primary prey being black widow spiders.

14 The Red Velvet Ant is actually a female wasp. The male is winged, the female is wingless Adult female red velvet ants consume nectar Females force their way into the homes of ground-dwelling bees and other stinging insects then tear open a hole and lay their eggs inside the cocoons of developing pupae Sometimes they will stay within the colony they have invaded for several days They have very thick skins, hard to pierce They get their name from the painful intensity of their sting and will sting if they feel threatened, even if carefully picked up.

15 Paper nests are usually formed in hollowed out trees, attics, etc. Related to yellow jackets Can grow to hold adults Nests are usually brown in coloration versus the gray of bald-faced hornets and yellow jackets Young adults mature, mate, queens overwinter and start a new colony in spring European hornets can fly at night

16 Highly defensive and can have adults in the colony Females mate in the fall and hibernate, starting a new colony in the spring Usually colony is exposed, with a gray paper shell covering comb with entrance on the bottom but have been known to inhabit cavities

17 Solitary but aggregate in leks. Fairly large insect Males can t sting but will guard the nesting site and mate when possible Females paralyze cicadas and carry back to burrow, lay eggs on them, then seal. Overwinters in a cocoon, pupates in spring, then emerges and mates mid-summer, right before the cicadas emerge

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19 Build galleries and aggregate In fall, young adults male and female - mature, feed on nectar, then go back to the tunnel, hibernate over winter, then emerge and mate in spring They will enlarge the area every year

20 Feral colonies take over mouse and bird nests and construct colonies within them Queens emerge and mate in the fall, hibernate overwinter as adults, then build a new nest the next spring. Some species are managed for pollination, especially in greenhouses.

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23 Honey bee or not??? The Scopa: Pollen carrying structure on the ventral abdomen of some bee species. Grants a higher pollination rate The Corbicula: Pollen carrying device is located on the hind leg of the honey bee the honey bee does not possess a scopa.

24 Male cells are closest to entrance of tube, female eggs are laid nearer to the back Leaf-cutter bees mate once they have emerged from cell but, if born in fall, will hibernate in the larval state during winter You can have two generations in a season Typically, the bees circular chew holes in leaves but will use other materials to line their cells if leaves are unavailable Some people manage them for pollination.

25 Over 140 species of mason bee in the US all have different appearances. Active in springtime Prefer pre-existing cavities Overwinter as adults Mate in spring Can be managed and used for pollination Must have access to mud Can encourage in your area using reeds or straws

26 Usually active in our areas only during months of April/May sometimes known as blueberry bee Solitary but will aggregate in sandy/claylike soil these areas of aggregation can become quite large Though quite active, they are generally docile Moist soil will deter

27 Books: Pollination with Mason Bees Dr. Margriet Dogterom Bumblebee Economics Bernd Heinrich Field Guide to Insects & Spiders National Audubon Society Befriending Bumble Bees Elaine Evans, Ian Burns, Marla Spivak Attracting Native Pollinators The Xerces Society Guide The Hive and the Honey Bee Websites for pictures: large.jpg er_bee_by_bernhard_plank.jpg Bee on finger courtesy of Deborah Sasser dsc5096.jpg

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