1 From Republic to Empire The Big Idea After changing from a republic to an empire, Rome grew politically and economically and developed a culture that influenced later civilizations. Main Ideas Disorder in the Roman Republic created an opportunity for Julius Caesar to gain power. The republic ended when Augustus became Rome s first emperor. The Roman Empire grew to control the entire Mediterranean world. The Romans accomplished great things in science, engineering, architecture, art, literature, and law.
2 Main Idea 1: Disorder in the Roman Republic created an opportunity for Julius Caesar to gain power. Many people became unhappy and were unemployed when chaos emerged in Rome s government. People rioted in the streets, while people from around the republic flooded the city. An orator and philosopher named Cicero called for change but was unsuccessful. He wanted to limit the power of generals and restore checks and balances on government.
4 Julius Caesar rose to power and became the sole ruler of Rome. Caesar, a very powerful general, formed a partnership with Pompey and Crassus. The three ruled Rome for about 10 years. Because Caesar was so popular, Pompey became jealous. This sparked a war between them that ended in Pompey s death. Caesar named himself dictator. Many people resented the way Caesar gained power. Senators did not like that he reduced their power. A group of senators led by Brutus killed Caesar because they feared him becoming king.
5 Julius Caesar rose to power and became the sole ruler of Rome. Caesar, a very powerful general, formed a partnership with Pompey and Crassus. The three ruled Rome for about 10 years. Because Caesar was so popular, Pompey became jealous. This sparked a war between them that ended in Pompey s death. Caesar named himself dictator. Many people resented the way Caesar gained power. Senators did not like that he reduced their power. A group of senators led by Brutus killed Caesar because they feared him becoming king.
7 Main Idea 2: The republic ended when Augustus became Rome s first emperor. Marc Antony and Octavian avenged Caesar s death by attacking his killers. Caesar s murderers were either killed or killed themselves. Octavian returned to Italy. Antony married Cleopatra after divorcing Octavian s sister. The divorce led to a civil war between Antony and Octavian. Antony and Cleopatra killed themselves, making Augustus (formerly called Octavian) the sole ruler. This marked the beginning of the Roman Empire.
8 Main Idea 3: The Roman Empire grew to control the entire Mediterranean world. Rome had many reasons for expansion. It wanted to control hostile neighbors. It wanted more resources. Some emperors liked fighting. Under Emperor Claudius, Romans conquered most of the island of Britain. They also controlled Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, the eastern coast of the Mediterranean, and the North African coast.
9 Main Idea 3: The Roman Empire grew to control the entire Mediterranean world. Rome had many reasons for expansion. It wanted to control hostile neighbors. It wanted more resources. Some emperors liked fighting. Under Emperor Claudius, Romans conquered most of the island of Britain. They also controlled Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, the eastern coast of the Mediterranean, and the North African coast.
10 Trade increased in Rome, both within the empire and with other people. People in Rome needed raw materials that they couldn t produce themselves. This led merchants to Rome s provinces to trade. To pay for their goods, Romans used currency, or money, which included silver and gold coins. Nearly everyone accepted Roman coins. This helped trade grow. The first 200 years of the Roman Empire was peaceful and prosperous. It was called the Pax Romana, or Roman peace.
11 Main Idea 4: The Romans accomplished great things in science, engineering, architecture, art, literature, and law. Romans made lasting achievements in science, engineering, architecture, and art. Rome s literary and legal-system influences are still found in today s world.
12 Science and Engineering The Romans tried to find knowledge that could improve their lives. Medicine Calendars Better farming methods Their practical approach to engineering can be seen in their use of cement, layered roads, and arches. Arches support much heavier weight because of their rounded shape. The Romans created aqueducts to carry water from the mountains to the cities. They combined arches to form a vault, a set of arches that supports the roof of a building.
13 Roman Architecture and Art Roman architecture was based largely on older Greek designs, such as columns and the use of marble. They moved beyond the Greeks with their use of vaults, which were used in the Colosseum, and domes. They could build much larger structures than the Greeks did because of these vaults. Artists were known for mosaics, paintings, and statues. Mosaics and painting were used to decorate buildings. Most Roman paintings were frescoes, a type of painting done on plaster. Romans tried to re-create Greek statues.
14 Art The artists of the Roman Empire were known for their mosaics and paintings, done mostly on wet plaster and called frescoes. They were also skilled at creating portraits, or pictures of people. Roman sculptors were also talented, but they mostly copied statues from older Greek works. These copies helped provide information about Greek masterpieces, however.
15 Roman Literature and Language Rome was home to many of the greatest authors of the ancient world, such as Virgil and Ovid. Romans excelled at mythology, histories, speeches, and drama. Writers used Latin, the language of Rome. Latin developed into many different languages, called the Romance languages. Latin words are still common in scientific and legal terms and in mottoes.
16 Roman law serves as a model for modern law codes around the world. Roman law was enforced throughout Europe and still existed after the empire fell apart. Roman law inspired a system called civil law, which is a legal system based on written codes of law. Most European countries today have civil-law traditions.
17 The Roman Empire and Religion The Big Idea People in the Roman Empire practiced many religions before Christianity, based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, spread and became Rome s official religion. Main Ideas Despite its general religious tolerance, Rome came into conflict with the Jews. A new religion, Christianity, grew out of Judaism. Many considered Jesus of Nazareth to be the Messiah. Christianity grew in popularity and eventually became the official religion of Rome.
18 Main Idea 1: Despite its general religious tolerance, Rome came into conflict with the Jews. Romans were accepting of the gods of the people that they conquered, and they prayed to a wide range of gods. They were not sure which gods existed and which did not, so to avoid offending the ones that did exist, they prayed to a wide range of gods and goddesses. The Romans would ban a religion if it was considered to be a political problem.
19 Jews and Romans clashed over religious and political ideas. Religious Reasons The Romans worshipped many gods, whereas the Jews had only one God. Some Romans thought the Jews were insulting their gods by worshipping only one God. Political Reasons The Jews rebelled against Roman rule twice and were defeated. Emperor Hadrian banned the practice of some rituals in the hope of ending the desire for independence. The Jews rebelled again, so Hadrian destroyed Jerusalem and forced the Jews out after the Romans built over it.
20 Main Idea 2: A new religion, Christianity, grew out of Judaism. Before the Jews rebelled, a new religion appeared in Judea. This religion was based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It was rooted in Jewish ideas and traditions.
21 The Messiah Messiah means anointed in Hebrew. The Jews believed that the Messiah would be chosen by God to lead them. The Jews believed that if they followed the laws closely, a descendant of King David would come to restore the kingdom. A prophet named John the Baptist announced that this leader, the Messiah, was coming soon.
22 Main Idea 3: Many considered Jesus of Nazareth to be the Messiah. The limited knowledge about Jesus s life is contained in the Bible, the holy book of Christianity. The Bible is made up of two parts. The Old Testament tells the history and ideas of the Hebrew people. The New Testament tells about the life and teachings of Jesus.
23 Main Idea 4: Christianity grew in popularity and eventually became the official religion of Rome. Christians spread their beliefs throughout the Roman Empire but were challenged at times. They distributed parts of Jesus s message, including the Gospels. Within a hundred years after Jesus s death, thousands of Christians lived in the Roman Empire. Some people were arrested and killed for their religious beliefs.
24 The Birth of Jesus According to the Bible, Jesus was born in Bethlehem to Mary and Joseph. Jesus probably studied carpentry and Judaism. Stories of his teachings and actions make up the beginning of the New Testament.
25 Persecution To prevent unrest in the empire, some emperors banned Christianity, leading to periods of persecution. Persecution means punishing a group because of its beliefs. Christians were often forced to meet in secret. In the early 300s the emperor Constantine became a Christian and removed the ban on the religion.
26 The End of the Empire The Big Idea Problems from both inside and outside caused the Roman Empire to split into a western half, which collapsed, and an eastern half that prospered for hundreds of years. Main Ideas Many problems threatened the Roman Empire, leading one emperor to divide it in half. Rome declined as a result of invasions and political and economic problems. In the eastern empire, people created a new society and religious traditions that were very different from those in the west.
27 Main Idea 1: Many problems threatened the Roman Empire, leading one emperor to divide it in half. At its height the Roman Empire included all the land around the Mediterranean Sea. The empire became too large to defend or govern efficiently. Emperor Diocletian divided the empire to make it more manageable.
28 Problems in the Empire Emperors gave up territory because they feared the empire had become too large. Yet new threats to the empire were appearing. Because so many people were needed for the army, no one was left to farm the land. Disease and high taxes threatened Rome s survival.
29 Division of the Empire Emperor Diocletian divided the empire because it was too big for one person to rule. Emperor Constantine reunited the two halves shortly after he took power. He moved the capital east, into what is now Turkey. The new capital was called Constantinople. Power no longer resided in Rome.
30 Main Idea 2: Rome declined as a result of invasions and political and economic problems. In the late 300s, a group called the Huns invaded Europe. They were from Central Asia. The Goths fled from the Huns into Rome. They moved into western Roman territory. Additional attacks by more invaders made the empire weak.
31 The Sacking of Rome The Huns pushed a group called the Goths into Rome. The Goths had nowhere else to go. The Goths destroyed Rome after Rome quit paying them not to attack. The Goths sacked, or destroyed, Rome in 410.
32 The Empire in Chaos The Goths victory encouraged other groups to invade the western half of the empire. The Vandals invaded Spain, crossed into northern Africa, and destroyed Roman settlements. Led by Attila, the Huns raided most of the Roman territory in the east. Roman emperors became weak, and military leaders took power. They did not protect the empire, however. A Barbarian general overthrew the last weak emperor in Rome and named himself king in 476. This event is considered the end of the western Roman Empire.
33 Many factors contributed to Rome s fall. The large size of the empire made it hard to govern. Barbarian invasions weakened the empire. Corruption, or the decay of people s values, in politics led to inefficiency in government. Bribes and threats were used to achieve goals. Wealthy citizens began to leave Rome, making life more difficult for those who remained.
34 Main Idea 3: In the eastern empire, people created a new society and religious traditions that were very different from those in the west. The eastern empire grew in wealth and power. People created a new society that was different from society in the west.
35 The people of the eastern empire created a new society that was very different from society in the west. Eastern society was called the Byzantine Empire. Eastern people studied Greek, not Latin. People in the east and west began to interpret elements of Christianity differently. Eastern priests could get married, but western priests could not. Religious services were performed in Greek in the east and in Latin in the west. The east broke away from the west and formed the Eastern Orthodox Church.
36 Justinian Justinian wanted to reunite the old Roman Empire. He conquered Italy and much land around the Mediterranean. He examined Rome s laws and organized them into a legal system called the Justinianic Code. Removed out-of-date and unchristian laws Simplified Roman law to give fair treatment to all He made two enemies who would have run him out of Constantinople if his wife, Theodora, had not convinced him to stay. Theodora was smart and powerful, and she advised Justinian on how to end the riots.
38 The Empire after Justinian After his death, the eastern Roman Empire began to decline. Later emperors lost all the land Justinian had gained. In 1453 a group called the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and ended the eastern Roman Empire. The 1,000-year history of the eastern Roman Empire came to an end.
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