Major Southwest Asia Test Study Guide (ALL CONCEPTS)

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1 Name: Class: Major Southwest Asia Test Study Guide (ALL CONCEPTS) 1. What large empire broke up after World War I? The Ottoman Empire 2. What is anti-semitism? The discrimination against the Jewish people; hatred of the Jews 3. During WWII the killing of 6 million Jews was called what? Holocaust 4. When the Jews scattered throughout the world is was called what? Diaspora 5. Zionism means what? The international movement for the establishment of a Jewish national homeland 6. Which European country ruled the area of Palatine after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire? Great Britain 7. When was Israel created? Many felt that Jews deserved help because they suffered so much in the Holocaust. 8. (Short answer) How did Arabs living in Palestine feel about the new state of Israel? They rejected it and thought it was unfair to them 9. Today, a major cause of conflict in Southwest Asia is fighting between which two groups over land? Arabs and Jews over Israel (Palestine) 10. What is the United States main economic interest in Southwest Asia? Oil

2 11. Iraq invaded Kuwait and international forces joined to help Kuwait in this war: Persian Gulf War 12. Why did Iraq invade Kuwait? To gain control of oil fields and reserves. Iraq thought Kuwait was drilling on their land 13. Which country did Saddam Hussein rule? Iraq 14. When did terrorists attack the World Trade Center in New York City? September 11 th What led the US to bomb and invade Afghanistan in 2001? The US believed Afghanistan s government was offering safety to al-qaeda and Osama bin Laden. A United Nations inspection team was in Iraq from 1991 to 1998, with the purpose of finding and destroying: WMD s (Weapons of mass destruction) 12. Why did the US go to war against Iraq in 2003? The US believed Iraq was developing nuclear weapons and offering aid to terrorist groups like al-qaeda. 13. What 3 economic questions are asked when studying the similarities of traditional, command, market, and mixed economies among nations of the world? What to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce? 14. (Short answer) What is specialization? Producing goods a country can make most easily so that they can trade for goods that they can t produce locally 15. The economies of Israel, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Iran can best be described as: Mixed 16. Why has Israel specialized in the area of technology? It has few natural resources and little farmland.

3 17. Saudi Arabia specializes in the production of: Oil and natural gas 18. Why was OPEC created? To regulate the supply and price of oil 19. Where are most OPEC countries located? Southwest Asia (The Middle East) 20. What happens to the price of oil when OPEC countries decide to reduce production? Oil prices increase 21. What is the definition of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? The total value of all the goods and services a country produces in a year 22. Which Southwest Asian country s businesses are under the LEAST amount of government control? Israel 23. In 1973, Southwest Asian countries stopped exporting oil to the United States in protest against the US support of Israel. What type of trade barrier is this? Embargo 24. The relationship between the literacy rate and standard of living in Southwest Asia is. The higher the literacy rate the higher the standard of living 25. Syria has not built new factories or used new technology in many years. What is the country NOT investing in? Capital Goods 26. Which BEST describes the government of Saudi Arabia? Monarchy 27. Who makes most of the important governmental decisions in an oligarchy? The small group 28. Who is the most powerful elected official in Iran? Supreme Leader

4 29. Which Southwest Asian country is an example of a federal system of government? Israel 30. In a parliamentary system of government, how is the leader chosen? By the political party with the most members in the legislature. People pick parliament- parliament picks the Prime Minister 31. Why is Iran sometimes called a theocratic republic? The government is led by an elected parliament and powerful religious leaders. 32. The Israeli parliament is called the: Knesset 33. Who is allowed to vote in Israeli elections? Men and Women 18 and older 34. What role do the people play in Saudi Arabia s government? They have little influence. 35. In which Southwest Asian country do citizens have the most political freedom? Israel 36. Which best describes the climate of much of Southwest Asia? Hot and dry 37. The climate of Southwest Asia has led much of the region to experience a scarcity of. Water/ Rainfall 38. (short answer) explain the breakup of the Sunni and Shia Muslims They disagreed over who should lead Muslims after Muhammad s death. Sunni believed the best leader should come next (90%) Shia believed that only a blood relative should lead (10%) 39. Why is the Suez Canal so important to international shipping? It makes it possible to get from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea without sailing around Africa. 40. What are three major water problems in Southwest Asia? Water shortages, unequal distribution, and pollution

5 41. What are the three prominent religions in Southwest Asia? Judaism, Christianity, Islam 42. The oldest religion in Southwest Asia is: Judaism 43. Who is a common figure in the origins of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? Abraham 44. Which best describes the religion of Arabs? Muslim (Islamic) 45. The majority of people in Southwest Asia belong to which ethnic group? Arab 46. Today, most Iranians speak Farsi and belong to this ethnic group: Persian 47. What ethnic group lives in the mountains of Turkey and Iraq? Kurds 48. Where do most Middle Eastern Jews live? Israel 49. Written Response: After World War I, explain how and why European countries established new borders in the Middle East. (SS7H2a) You must write about portioning (what is it, why does it matter)- think about what I told you living beside the person you hate. Europe came in a moved land around everywhere not thinking about what effect it would have on the people. This must be 5 sentences to get full credit.

6 Maps: Political-> 1. Iran 2. Saudi Arabia 3. Israel 4.Turkey 5. Afghanistan 6. Iraq Physical -> 1. Suez Canal 2. Red Sea 3. Straight of Hormuz 4. Persian Gulf 5. Tigris River 6. Euphrates Rivers 7. Arabian Sea Israel Map-> 1. Gaza Strip 2. Israel 3. Jordan River

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