Station 2 1. What does OPEC stand for? 2. What is the goal/mission of OPEC in the Middle East?

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1 AIM: How did conflict develop in the Middle East? Station 1 1. What is the nickname for the region known as the Middle East? Why? 2. Name the most prevalent natural resource available in the Middle East. 3. What is the major obstacle to development in the Middle East? Why? 4. List the major religion & ethnic group in the region. Ethnic Group: Religion: 5. Explain why the Suez Canal is so important to the Middle East. 6. What was the immediate effect of World War I on the Middle East? 1. The Middle East s designation as a cultural crossroads developed primarily as a result of the region s 1) technology 3) geographic location 2) political stability 4) religious unity 2. The Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz and the Suez Canal are strategically important because they are 1) under the control of Communist nations 2) at the center of the world s major illegal drug trade 3) the cause of friction between Israel and its Arab neighbors 4) trade routes for petroleum exports to nations around the world 3. Which of the following is not a major characteristic of the Middle Eastern political life after World War II? 1) widespread democratization 2) independence of former colonies & mandates 3) tensions between religious fundamentalism and Westernization 4) the Arab-Israeli conflict 5) the persistence of human rights abuses 5. In the Middle East, an immediate effect of World War I was the 1) unification of Arab countries against the League of Nations 2) division of large sections of the area among the Allies 3) revival of Islamic fundamentalism in Arab nations 4) creation of the state of Israel 4. A primary purpose for building the Suez Canal was to 1) encourage Jewish settlements in nearby Palestine 2) increase trade between the Middle East, Europe & Asia 3) reduce the time needed for travel between the Atlantic Ocean & Caribbean Sea 4) allow Indian merchants to reach the east coast of Africa Station 2 1. What does OPEC stand for? 2. What is the goal/mission of OPEC in the Middle East? 3. Write the political system currently used by each of the following Middle Eastern countries: * Israel: * Iran: *Pakistan: * Syria: * Iraq: *Afghanistan: * Jordan: * Turkey: * Oman/ Yemen: * Saudi Arabia: * Kuwait: 1. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed primarily to 1) give member nations more influence in world markets 2) force developing countries to abandon policies of nonalignment 3) help Middle Eastern nations form alliances with Western powers 4) allow the Soviet Union to develop greater influence in the Middle East 2. Which is a valid conclusion based on the information in the graph? (SEE GRAPH AT STATION 2!!!) 1) only Middle Eastern nations are members of OPEC 2) events in the Middle East have little effect on world oil prices 3) no major oil reserves exist in Latin America 4) members of OPEC control approximately 75% of the world s oil reserves

2 Station 3 1. How was Iran ruled prior to 1979? From which nation did Iran get much of its support prior to 1979? 2. Describe the rule of Shah Reza Pahlavi in Iran (pre-1979 Iran): 3. Who was the leader of the Iranian Revolution of 1979? What type of rule did he practice? Why did Iran reject Western ways and technology after the Iranian Revolution? 4. Why was there an Iran-Iraq War? How did it end? 5. Why did the USA support Saddam Hussein in the Iran-Iraqi War? 6. Why did George W. Bush refer to Iran, Iraq & North Korea as the Axis of Evil? 1.Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran was similar to Mustafa Kemal of Turkey in that he 1) was a democratic leader 2) proclaimed himself sultan 3) secularized his country 4) turned his country into a theocracy 5) introduced a bill of rights 2. The major goal of the Iranian Revolution & of Ayatollah Khomeini was to 1) establish closer ties with Israel 2) prevent the expansion of communism into Iraq 3) nationalize the oil industry 4) create an Islamic republic 3. In Iran, the Revolution of 1979 & the rise of Islamic fundamentalism have resulted in 1) an increase in women s rights 2) the westernization & modernization of the nation 3) a return to many traditional customs 4) introduction of a democratic form of government 4. The 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran was a reaction to Shah Reza Pahliavi for attempting to 1) modernize the nation s economy 2) meet the social and political needs of the people 3) establish political ties with Western nations 4) supply the military with advanced weapons technology 5. A major cause of the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 was the concern by Islamic leaders that 1) traditional values were being undermined by Western ideas 2) women were being denied political rights 3) Israel had lost its influence in the Middle East 4) religious leaders were becoming too powerful 7. During the 1980s, Iran & Iraq were engaged in war over 1) Iran s ties with Israel 2) territorial rights 3) Iraq s use of terrorism 4) the spread of communism 6. What is the main idea of the political cartoon? (SEE STATION 3!!!) The Ayatollah Khomeini 1) wants Iran to return to traditional Islamic values 2) ideas have been in place since the 17th century 3)is tired and resting 4) is holding on for his life to stay in control of Iran Station 4 1. Describe the political system used in Saudi Arabia? (Discuss both types of rule!) 2. Why is Saudi Arabia important to the current war on terror? 3. How does Pakistan factor in to the current political climate of the Middle East? 1. In which Middle Eastern nation did a Shiite theocracy succeed a secular, modernizing monarchy? 1) Iraq 2) Jordan 3) Syria 4) Saudi Arabia 5) Iran

3 Station 5 1. Why did the Soviets attack Afghanistan in 1979? 2. Who are the Mujadeen? Why did the USA support them during the Soviet invasion? 3. Who are the Taliban? 4. What is Al Qaeda? 5. How did the USA react to the attacks on September 11, 2001 with regard to Afghanistan? 6. What is the current status of those efforts by the USA? 1. According to the cartoon 1) the Taliban are not willing to give up Osama Bin Laden 2) The Taliban are worried more about the social structure of their society than their loyalty to Bin laden 3) The Taliban are overjoyed that the women in their society will now have the opportunity to seek higher education 4) The Taliban are worried that Osama Bin Laden will be caught Station 6 1. Describe each of the following groups of people that live in Iraq: Sunni: Shiite: 2. Why is Iraq an important nation in the Middle East? 3. Why was there a Persian Gulf War in 1991 (aka Operation Desert Storm) 4. What was the justification of the current war in Iraq? (March 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom) 5. What is the current status of the war in Iraq? 1. Base your answer on the cartoons AT STATION 6!!! 1) Football is more popular than other sports in the United States 2) George W. Bush doesn t understand the rules of the game 3) Since 9/11 the United States has changed its approach when dealing with nations and people who support terrorism 4) Saddam Hussein continues to mislead and terrorize the United States and the world community today 2. One reason the United States and other Western powers fought the Persian Gulf War was to 1) safeguard the flow of oil to international markets 2) End the civil war in Lebanon 3) Stop Israeli settlement of the West Bank 4) Assist Iraq in its war with Iran How did conflict develop in the Middle East?

4 Station 1 The Middle East is known as the cultural crossroads because of its geographic location. The most prevalent natural resource available in the Middle East is oil. Due to the large desert land that makes up the Middle East, there is little food available to its inhabitants and a scarcity of water, which is the greatest obstacle to development in the region. Islam is the major religion in the Middle East, and Arab is the primary ethnic group living in the region. The Suez Canal is the link to the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. These bodies of water are all major trade routes for petroleum exports. After World War I, the Middle East was divided amongst the winning Allied Powers into territories called mandates. However, a common history, language and culture led to nationalism in the Middle East and eventual conflict over resources, land and the right to self-determination that continues to this day. *** maps of Middle East to show geography & mandates Station 2 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was established by several countries in 1960 in order to control the price of oil. OPEC s goal is to coordinate and unify petroleum policies to secure fair and stable prices. Some of the major countries that are a part of OPEC include: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Libya and the United Arab Emirates. *** map on next page! Station 3 Prior to 1979, Iran was ruled by a shah, who was supported by the United States. Shah Reza Pahlavi was a dictator that implemented modernization, westernization and secularization (separation of religion and government). Reza Pahlavi was overthrown by Ayatollah Khomeini, the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution and 1st Supreme Ruler of Iran. The Ayatollah set a theocracy based on strict Shiite rule. Like many Islamic leaders of the time, Ayatollah Khomeini openly rejected Western ways and technology because he feared that traditional values were being undermined. In 1980, after the Ayatollah had been calling for Islamic revolutions across the Muslim World, Saddam Hussein invaded into Iran to begin the 8 year long Iran-Iraq War. The war began as a battle over resources and access to the Persian Gulf, but ended in a draw. The USA supported Saddam Hussein in the Iran-Iraq War because of the Ayatollah s role in the Iran Hostage Crisis of 1979 when Iranians attacked a US embassy and held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days. President George W. Bush referred to Iran as part of the Axis of Evil (along with Iraq and North Korea) because of three decades of distrust between US & Iran, their development of nuclear technology, and the potential danger of an extremist government.

5 (Democracy) (Dictatorship) (Theocracy) (Monarchy) (Democracy??) (Theocracy) (Islamic Republic) (Monarchy) (Military Dictatorship) (Monarchy) (Dictatorship)

6 Station 4 ETHNORELIGIOUS MAP PLUS.. Sunni: the largest denomination of Islam and ruling minority power in Iraq Shiite: the second largest denomination of Islam Iraq, one of the largest oil producing nations, invaded Kuwait in 1990 based on Saddam Hussein s accusation that Kuwait was illegally slant drilling its oil pipelines. The USA got involved in the Persian Gulf War to protect the flow of oil to international markets. Although the oil was kept flowing after the war, Hussein remained in power as a constant threat to peace in the Middle East. In March 2003, America invaded Iraq with the intention of confiscating weapons of mass destruction. Although these weapons have yet to be found, the current war in Iraq became used as a justification for removing Hussein from power. According to most of the American public the current status of Operation Iraqi Freedom is: No End In Sight. Station 5 In 1979, Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev ordered the invasion of Afghanistan. The goal was to secure a warm water port and spread communism to the region. The Mujadeen was the force that fought the Soviets during this battle. With the help of the USA, the Mujadeen stood strong against the Soviets, who eventually left without achieving their goals. The Mujadeen eventually transformed into an Islamic fundamentalist group, known as the Taliban, which ran a brutal dictatorship in Afghanistan until about 2001, when their leaders were removed from power. Many human rights violations were carried out under the Taliban, especially toward women. The Taliban are now a fugitive force that supports Al Qaeda, an international alliance of militant guerilla organizations established by Osama Bin Laden in The Taliban was officially removed from Afghanistan by the US following the terrorist attacks on September 11, American troops remain in Afghanistan today in an effort to install a democratic government and in search of Bin Laden. Station 6 Saudi Arabia was a monarchy led by the Saudi Royal Family, who sought to create a secular and modernized nation in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia later became a theocracy dominated by Shiites. US troops have been in Saudi Arabia since the Persian Gulf War. Most terrorists come from this region (either physically or financially!), making Saudi Arabia an important influence in the War on Terror. Pakistan, a military dictatorship currently facing much political upheaval, poses a nuclear threat to India and has been accused by the US of harboring terrorists, including Osama Bin Laden.

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