(Psychology) Bozhok N.O. National University of Food Technologies Psychological peculiarities of frustration tolerance formation in adolescence

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1 (Psychology) Bozhok N.O. National University of Food Technologies Psychological peculiarities of frustration tolerance formation in adolescence Annotation: In the article, the age category of adolescence with the crisis of «identity» and the phenomenon of «frustration tolerance» are considered. The process of frustration tolerance formation in adolescence is analyzed. The psychological peculiarities of adolescence, under the consideration of which the process of frustration tolerance of future specialist will be the most effective, are determined. Key words: late adolescence, crisis of identity, frustration tolerance. I. Introduction The period of late adolescence represents a major step in the journey to the adulthood. In this period young people realize their place in life, make their first steps in the career, establish personal relations, develop meaningful values and form new ways of self-actualization and self-realization. Adolescence is also a period of blossom of creativity, cognitive and intellectual abilities and logical ways to solving difficult situations. At the same time, transition to the adulthood is also viewed as a period of emotional upheaval and turmoil. The overall development of adolescence has been thought to include an increase in the intensity of emotions, the experience and expression of emotional lability or mood swings, contradictions of self-image and an increase in experiencing valenced emotions, frustrations and stresses. The keynote to coping with emotional turmoil, frustrations and stresses in student s age is the formation of psychological tolerance (frustration tolerance) which is based on the positive self-image, the ability to challenge frustrating situations and express flexibility in the approaches of overcoming difficult circumstances. The level of frustration tolerance can change according to the age stage. There is some sort of optimum amount of frustrations that an individual experiences at a particular developmental level in order to attain maximal frustration tolerance. In

2 the process of forming frustration tolerance in adolescence it should be required to take into account the peculiarities of psychological development and the norm crisis of the mentioned age category. II. Statement of problem The main objective of the article is to determine the peculiarities of the frustration tolerance formation in adolescence. The process of optimal formation of frustration tolerance depends on the certain variables, including the age characteristics. Singling out the particular peculiarities of adolescence influencing the formation of mentioned phenomenon will lead to the successful formation of frustration tolerance in student s age. The scientific methods to be used in the article include theoretical and methodological analysis and method of synthesis. III. Results The phenomenon of frustration tolerance (resistance to stress and frustrations) in adolescence is analyzed in the scientific works of Ukrainian and Russian scientists such as M.V.Vovk, Y.V.Popuk, L.S.Aseykina and L.M. Mitina. The pshychological aspects of frustration tolerance in adolescence is highlighted with a particular relevance in the conception of rational-emotive behavioural therapy which is represented by such scientists as A. Ellis, J. Brodis, D. Wilde, W. Knaus, W. Dryden. The scientists Y.V.Popuk and L.M. Mitina define the frustration tolerance as the psychological resistance to the frustration which is based on the ability to adequately assess the frustrating situation and predict the way-out of it [1]. We absolutely share the opinion of N.D. Levitov and L. Asseyakina that the most constructive and desirable is the psychological state charactersized, despite frustration, by thoughtfulness, prudence, willingness to use a stressful situation as a life lesson and rewarding experience. This variability, flexibility of thinking and creative approach to frustrating situations can turn a problem into an opportunity and challenge for finding something new. Tarabrina links frustration tolerance with the adaptive function of individual experiencing frustration without losing psychobiological adaptation. It should be

3 noted another definion of frustration tolerance which refers to the psychological resistance to frustration on the basis of ability to evaluate frustrating situation adequately with anticipation of finding way out of it (Tarabrina 1977, 7). Russian researcher L. Aseykina referred the mentioned phenomenon to the competence ( L. Aseykina, 2005, 1). Russian Researcher I.B. Grinshpun in determining frustration tolerance draws attention to the person s regulatory function and interpersonal interconnections of people in difficult circumstances and characterizes the mentioned phenomenon as the individual property determined by the ability to maintain self-control over frustrating frustrating effects of the environment. We have already mentioned that the phenomenon of frustration tolerance is in the focus of investigation of the representatives of rational emotive-behavioral therapy such A. Ellis, J. Brodi, D. Wilde, W. Knaus, W. Dryden. We would like to analyze this approach more precisely. This complex approach reveals the emotional and behavioral aspects of person s functioning in frustrating circumstances and focuses attention on the importance of mental component in their coping. According to E. Ellis, the essential premise of rational emotive behavioral therapy is that people cause themselves distress and dysfunction by their habitual irrational beliefs and these maladaptive thinking patterns can be changed, with resultant improvement in emotional states and functioning. So, the mentioned above approach is based on the scientific method. According to this method, thoughts, beliefs and values directly affect our senses and perception. The concept of rational-emotive behavioral therapy differentiates the high and low frustration tolerance. High frustration tolerance is regarded as the ability to deal with frustration by recognition of the problem and readiness for coping with it. The keynote to finding the way out of it lies in the application of the flexibility of cognitive thinking. A. Ellis also emphasizes the importance of unconditional self-acceptance on the way to the high frustration tolerance development. By unconditional self-acceptance, A.Ellis understands the person s willingness to take responsibility of himself and his

4 actions, his desire to be the master of his own destiny and to accept himself and his weaknesses. This enables the individual to cope with stressful life situations and to accept and adapt to the ones that can not be changed. On the other hand, such scientists as W. Dryden, W. Froggat define low frustration tolerance (LFT) as the state when an individual gets very frustrated, very easily and has an unwillingness or inability to tolerate the necessary short-term discomfort that is sometimes required for long-term gain. In our opinion, the Ukrainian and Russian scientists consider the phenomenon of frustration tolerance in terms of resistance which is defined as an integral individual s characteristic, property, competence, ensuring his stability in frustration and stressful circumstances (.V.Popuk, L.S.Aseykina and L.M. Mitina), adaptive (Tarabrina, Rozenzveig) and regulatory (I.B. Hrinshpun) functions. At the same time, the foreign scientists A. Ellis, J. Brodi, D. Wilde, W. Knaus, W. Dryden investigate the frustration tolerance in the light of mental component s importance and in the concept of unconditional self (others,life) acceptance. We define the frustration tolerance as a psychological resistance which is based on the rational thinking, unconditional self (others, life) acceptance, will power, selfregulation and self-control which lead to the individual s ability to evaluate the situation and anticipate way out of it. After analyzing the phenomenon of frustration tolerance, we would like to define more precisely the psychological characteristics of adolescence and frustration tolerance development in that period. According to E. Erikson, student s age has its age limitations from 17 to years and is accompanied with the period of youth crisis. The mentioned age period is characterized as the stage of physical, sexual puberty, personal and professional realization, and development of self-consciousness, achievement of social maturity. In other words, L. Bozhovych defines the adolescence as «the combination of individual processes linked with somatic changes which require adaptation and coping and social reactions». The scientific investigations have shown that in late adolescence young people experience the further psychological development, the complex

5 restructuring of psycho functions, in particular, in the intellectual sphere. There can be also changes in the structure of personality in the connection of acquiring new, different social roles (I. Zumnya, G. Piaget, E. Erikson). The main tumors in this age group are opening own self-image, the development of reflection, awareness of own peculiarities, the appearance of life s plan and gradual entrance in various life spheres. Foreign researchers P.Blos and E.Erickson single out the most important psychological aspects of adolescence: processes of separation and individualization. The mentioned scientists emphasize that the processes of separation and individualization include the ability to adapt to new changes in life and become independent from parents (although parents continue to play a significant role), take social responsibility and make own choices in life. Kon and G. Zuckerman consider adolescence as a special stage of the spiritual life of a young person which is associated with the creation of his own systems of beliefs, self-determination and own uniqueness [5, 9]. V. Frankl, J. Frome, I.Kon emphasize that existential questions about the sense of life are of great importance in student s age [5,7,8]. On the other hand, such researchers as V. Popelskyy and V. Frankl indicate the possibility of blocking sense of life exist in adolescence, which in turn can lead to a state of existential frustration associated with the loss of meaning in life and the internal conflicts of the individual [7]. According to Erickson, adolescence is accounted for the fifth stage in the life cycle and is considered as a very important period in the psychosocial development of the individual. An adolescent is no longer a child but he is not an adult yet (from to years). A young person faces new social demands and increasing responsibility for his choices. Thus, young people undergo the revolution of physiological maturity, which is accompanied by the feelings of uncertainty in acquiring adult roles and attempts to create their own subculture. But, in fact, all this is about identity formation of young people. Youth synthesizes childhood identities into new structures of identity, new awareness of itself, trying to find its own way in

6 life and be recognized in social context [6,14]. Interaction of biological processes and social expectations are characteristics of the process of identity in late adolescence [6,14]. The sixth stage of psychosocial development defines the formal beginning of adulthood (from 20 to 25 years). Overall, this is a period of romantic relationships and early marriages. During this period, young people make their choice in profession and start their job careers. The definition of ego-identity and beginning of work are the crucial features of early adulthood which appear to be the foundation for the successful adaptation to adulthood and development of interpersonal relations [6]. Thus, «the process of identity» has become the important requirement to the successful entrance into adulthood and defines the ability of young person to find his place in life and adapt there. That s why, it is so important for students to actualize the decision regarding the identity at this period of time [14]. Identity crisis is not a certain deviation from the norm, it is absolutely normative crisis, characterized by fluctuations in the integrity of the self-image. If an adolescent goes through it successfully, it can lead to a rapid growth of his personal potential [6,14]. Optimum identity is defined as a person s feeling of psychosocial well-being. The main components of this phenomenon is the person s feeling of comfort in his body, his positive correspondence with his self-image, his awareness of his own life orientation and his inner assurance in the recognition by other important persons [6]. According to Erikson, an identity crisis solution lies in the interaction of adolescents with other important people. Behavior and reactions of other important and influential people for adolescents are a mirror which reflects how they look in the eyes of others and who they should be. All information above confirms the fact that the young person forms his identity, but at the same time the society identifies the youth [6]. Finally, the acceptance of the person his own unique life cycle and people who are part of his life means renewed attitudes and understanding of himself, other people

7 and life [6]. Growing up and getting more mature, a young person begins to adapt to successes and failures and the generator of this process is the successful integration of elements of identity. Attribution of integration is awareness of self-importance and integrated structure of self-image which refer to the emotional integration of past with the leading positions of the present resulting in the awareness of future which defines the direction of individual life course. Optimal overcoming an identity crisis in adolescence lies in the integration of elements of identity in a single unit by the means of a psychosocial moratorium which includes the opportunity for a young person to try himself in different social and professional roles before making his final career choice in life. Thus, in many societies psychosocial moratorium is a conditional deferral provided for certain categories of young people who are unable to take adult roles and make career choices [6]. As a consequence, without period of moratorium, an adolescent can t take into account various options and alternatives in education and career and experiment with different roles before choosing the one in which he is able to fully realize himself [6]. Summarizing all mentioned above, we can stress that the process of identity is defined in three approaches: 1) The first approach considers changes in selfperception; 2) the second approach focuses on self-esteem, namely, how positively or negatively a person evaluates himself; 3) the third approach considers changes in the sense of identity. It deals with the person s awareness of his place in life and in which direction he makes his way. There is also another approach, which links the process of identity in adolescence with the context of adaptation processes. According to this approach, the individual adaptation is considered as an adaptation of adolescence to the social context. Foreign researches relate the concept of adaptation of young people to the social context from the point of view of identity capital. By identity capital they mean investing visible as well as invisible personal resources to society. Visible capital is represented by the academic performance, membership in any organizations and so on. Invisible

8 capital includes individual characteristics and cognitive abilities used to overcome life barriers and reveal the opportunities of self-realization within the social context [15]. Entering into adulthood, one the one hand, is determined by adaptation and self (other, life) perception, and, on the other hand, by creativity and self-realization. Weather successfully or not adolescents go through the process of identity defines their self-esteem, self-control and self-adaptation in a positive or negative direction. One should take into account the peculiarities of adolescence in the process of formation of students frustration tolerance. In the focus of our analysis are the characteristics of adolescence to be considered in forming of future specialist s frustration tolerance. We can define the frustration tolerance as the psychological resistance to the frustration which is based on the ability to adequately assess the frustrating situation and predict the way-out of it [1]. It is quite natural that adolescence has its problematic aspects and not all young people have the prevailing optimum level of frustration tolerance. As a result, young people are more prone to aggressive or depressive behaviour patterns than adults. According to Rozenzweig, frustration tolerance increases with maturity. The scientist stresses that adults have more experience in life and show greater variety in revealing frustration tolerance. On the other hand, the foreign scientific studies confirm effects of frustration tolerance on self-control and coping strategies of the individual. Thus, the earlier young people form their frustration tolerance, the easier they exercise control over their lives and find way-out of difficult situations and are prepared to enter into adulthood with an important resource as frustration tolerance [12]. The phenomenon of frustration tolerance in adolescence is highlighted with particular relevance in the conception of rational-emotive behavioural therapy which is represented by such scientists as A. Ellis, J. Brodis, D. Wilde, W. Knaus, W. Dryden. Foreign researchers A. Ellis, W. Knaus, D. Wilde emphasize that the individual characteristics of adolescence defines the choice of approaches to the formation of

9 conditions of frustration tolerance during psycho sessions. For example, adolescence in the contrast to the childhood requires a differentiated approach in planning strategies of pshyco correctional programs [11,13,16]. According to J. Wilde, the most important difference in different age groups is the ability to understand and use the rational thinking to overcome the stress and frustration in the adolescence. Thus, the level of development of higher mental functions such as thinking in adolescence should be taken into account in forming frustration tolerance. J. Wilde identified the following controversial features of adolescence that should be taken into account in the formation of frustration tolerance in the adolescence: 1. Young people are more focused on their inner world and the things in life must be as they wish. Most of them don t have enough experience to appreciate other views which are different from them. 2. Even if adolescents are unsure of their skills and abilities; they desperately try to hide their insecurities and use the defense mechanisms. 3. Young people are emotional and prone to mood swings. 4. Adolescents pay much attention to their identity and therefore how they look. On the other hand, they don t like being too separated from other peers, in this sense, they have their zone of comfort. 5. Young people tend to idealize all in their life and are prone to think how the things should be rather than they actually are. 7. Adolescents sometimes have unrealistic ideas regarding their self-images [16]. The crisis of identity and unrealistic ideas about own image in the adolescence is closely related to the self-esteem, self (other and life) - perception and the processes of adaptation. Foreign researcher V. Knaus emphasizes the relationship between frustration tolerance with self-esteem. Young people with low self-esteem have difficulty with adequate analysis and understanding of frustrating situations. Depression and even suicidal tendencies are correlated with low-esteem. Self-esteem as a part of self-

10 conception is very important essence of personality. Persons with high-esteem are flexible and able to adapt to frustrating situations. They can solve personal and social problems, have high levels of effective execution of things and better motivated to achieve goals. Thus, it is reasonable to consider the processes of identity and characteristics of the self-image in the formation of frustration tolerance in adolescence as well as the meaning of self-esteem is essential for the formation of this phenomenon. Taking into account the adaptive function of frustration tolerance, we can stress that characteristics of adaptation process is another important condition for the formation of frustration tolerance. IV. Conclusions In the system of education the formation of student s frustration tolerance taking into account the characteristics and problems of adolescence is the tool that allows to maintain a positive self-concept, to determine the optimal identity and enhance adaptive capacity in student s age. In a conclusion, we emphasize that the formation of frustration tolerance in adolescence will be the most effective and constructive when taking account all psychological factors and conditions affecting the mentioned phenomenon, including the peculiarities of adolescence. The scientific novelty of the article is in determining the main peculiarities of adolescence influencing the formation of frustration tolerance. The further investigation will be focused on defining the correlation of willpower and thinking process with frustration tolerance in adolescence. References: 1.Асейкина Л.С. Формирование фрустрационной толерантности у иностранных студентов на начальном этапе обучения с позиции компетентносного подхода / Л.С. Асейкина // Толерантное сознание и формирование толерантных отношений (теория и практика): сб. научно - методич.ст. / РАН Моск.психол.Социальный ин-т. М: Воронеж: Мод ЭК, 2005 С Бернс Р. Развитие Я-концепции и воспитание/ Берне Р.// Пер. с англ.

11 М.: Прогресс, с. 3. Божович Л.И. Этапы формирования личности в онтогенезе.//вопросы психологии, 1979, 4, с Зимняя И.А. Педагогическая психология. М. Логос, с. 5.Кон И. С. Психология ранней юности. М: Просвещение, с. 6.Эриксон Э. Идентичность: юность и кризис / Пер. с англ. М.: Прогресс, с. 7.Франкл В. Человек в поисках смысла / Пер. с англ. и нем. М.: Прогресс, с. 8.Фромм Э. Психоанализ и этика/ Пер. с англ. М., с 9.Цукерман Г. А. Психология саморазвития: задача для подростков и их педагогов. М.: Интерпакс, с. 10.Тарабрина Н. В. Экспериментально психологические и биохимические исследования фрустрации и эмоционального стресса при неврозах/ Тарабрина Н.В.// Дис.канд психол. наук Ленинград с. 11. Ellis A., Bernard M. Emotive behavioral approaches to childhood disorders: Theory, Practice and Research. The U.S.A: Springer Science + Business Media Inc., p Eileen M. Leuthe. The Development and maintenance of perceived control and active coping in children of alcoholics. Thesis (Ph.D) Arizona State University., 2008, - p Knaus W. Rational Emotive education.: [electronic sources] : http : // Kroger J. Identity Development:Adolescence through adulthood.oaks,calif.: Sage Publications, p Smetana J. G. Adolescents, Families, and Social Development: How Teens Construct Their Worlds. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K. ; Malden, Mass. : Wiley- Blackwell, p Wilde J. Treating the BIG Three (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) in Children and Adolescents. Washington, D.C., Accelerated Development,

12 p Wolman B. Adolescence: Biological and Psychosocial Perspectives. Westport, Conn. [u.a.] : Greenwood Press, p 138.

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