Grammar Section. Sentence Structure

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Grammar Section. Sentence Structure"

Transcription

1 Sentence Structure Sentences are nice little packages of words that come together to express one complete thought. They make it easy to understand ideas and learn information. In order to be a complete sentence, a group of words needs to contain a subject and a verb, and it needs to express a complete thought. If a group of words is missing any of that information, it is called a sentence fragment. If you have a group of words that contains two or more independent clauses that are not properly punctuated, it is called a run-on sentence. A basic sentence consists of a subject, a verb, and an object. Teacher called the student Subject Verb Object The Four Sentence Structures 1. A simple sentence has only one independent clause. I drink coffee. An independent clause is a group of words (with a subject and a verb) that expresses a complete thought. 2. A compound sentence has at least two independent clauses. These clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon. I eat meal, and Pari eats nuts. A coordinating conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses together. 3. A complex sentence has a subordinate clause joined to an independent clause with a subordinating conjunction. I washed the dishes after I ate my meal. A subordinate clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb that cannot stand alone. 4. A compound-complex sentence has a two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. Sohail explained how to teach, and we practiced his techniques at class. Sohail Ahmed Page 1

2 Subject-Verb Agreement Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. My brother is a nutritionist. My sisters are mathematicians. Rules with examples: The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs. Everyone has done his or her homework. Somebody has left her purse. Some indefinite pronouns such as all, some are singular or plural depending on what they're referring to. (Is the thing referred to countable or not?) Be careful choosing a verb to accompany such pronouns. Some of the breads are missing. Some of the water is gone. Verbs in the present tense for third-person, singular subjects (he, she, it and anything those words can stand for) have s-endings. Other verbs do not add s- endings. He loves She loves They love I love Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really singular and require singular verbs. The news from the front is bad. Measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women. Sohail Ahmed Page 2

3 Run-On Sentences If you put two sentences (or independent clauses) together without a sufficient amount of signals (commas, semicolons, or connecting words), you have created a run-on. The first thing you need to do is identify when a sentence is a run-on. A run-on (or run-on sentence) is a sentence that really has TWO sentences (or complete ideas) INCORRECTLY combined into one. It is okay to combine two sentences into one, but you must follow some rules. Examples of Run-On Sentences: 1. Rani takes the bus to school Pari rides the Car. 2. I take tea he takes coffee. 3. People love peace they hate war. 4. She wants suit I want Shoes. How do we fix run-ons? Following are Methods: 1. Write the two independent clauses as separate sentences using periods. The girls played basketball. The boys played tennis. (Correct Sentence) 2. Use a semicolon to separate the two independent clauses. The girls played basketball; the boys played tennis. (Correct Sentence) 3. Use a comma and any one of the following connecting words: for and nor but or yet so The girls played basketball, but the boys played tennis. (Correct Sentence) Sohail Ahmed Page 3

4 4. Use a semicolon and one of the following words: therefore, thus, however, consequently, furthermore, also, nevertheless, The girls played basketball; therefore, the boys played tennis. (Correct Sentence) s A sentence fragment is a sentence that lacks a subject or lacks a verb or is not a complete idea (one reason could be because it does not have a direct object if the verb needs one). After reading Fragments sentences, the reader asks questions because he/she needs more information. Examples: Since he came to Karachi. Because my cousin loves it. Unless you watch it. Since he came to Karachi. Because my cousin loves it. Unless you watch it. The Reader Asks... Since he came, what (has he been doing)? Because the cousin loves it, (so what)? Unless you watch it. (what will happen)? How do we fix sentence fragments:? 3 ways to fix sentence fragments: Sohail Ahmed Page 4

5 Following are Methods to fix the sentence fragments: 1. Attach the sentence fragment to another sentence. That other sentence could be before or after the sentence fragment. Fixed and Now a Complete Sentence I felt much better after seeing the doctor. After seeing the doctor. -or- After seeing the doctor, I felt much better. 2. Add a subject, verb, or both to make the sentence complete. Under the bed. Fixed and Now a Complete Sentence I found my socks under the bed. 3. Take away the word or phrase that makes it a sentence fragment. (but make sure the meaning does not change) While Sahil was in Lahore. Fixed and Now a Complete Sentence Sahil was in Lahore. Sohail Ahmed Page 5

6 Cohesive devices Cohesive devices are typically single words or phrases that basically make the text hang together. By analogy, they are much like the seams in our clothing which keep items like jackets and trousers together. Three elementary examples of cohesive devices are word repetition, synonyms and pronouns. Word repetition Synonyms Pronouns Parallel Structure Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or." Words and Phrases With the -ing form (gerund) of words: Parallel: Pari likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling. With infinitive phrases: Parallel: Sahil likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle. OR Sahil likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle. Different between Parallel and not parallel Not Parallel: Pari likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle. Parallel: Pari likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle. Sohail Ahmed Page 6

Subject- Verb Agreement

Subject- Verb Agreement Subject- Verb agreement refers to the fact that the subject and verb in a sentence must agree in number. In other words, they both must be singular or they both must be plural. You can t have a singular

More information

DGP Notes. Monday Notes (Label the Parts of Speech)

DGP Notes. Monday Notes (Label the Parts of Speech) DGP Notes Monday Notes (Label the Parts of Speech) Noun A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing; it is always capitalized. (Ex. Detroit) A common

More information

TERMS. Parts of Speech

TERMS. Parts of Speech TERMS Parts of Speech Noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, or idea (examples: Maggie, Alabama, clarinet, satisfaction, socialism). Pronoun: a word used in place of a noun (examples:

More information

Glossary

Glossary Glossary www.cartoonstock.com Action Verb An action verb describes what else? action. Distinguish action verbs from linking verbs, which do not describe an action and which link a noun or adjective back

More information

Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry

Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry (Subjects are in bold typeface and verbs are underlined) Subject-Verb Agreement means that subjects and verbs must always agree in

More information

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection 1 GRAMMAR Eight Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Noun Name or classify persons, places, things, and concepts 1. Proper Nouns: Name particular people,

More information

Ways to Achieve Clarity 1. What is one of the best ways to achieve clarity in writing and how to you achieve it?

Ways to Achieve Clarity 1. What is one of the best ways to achieve clarity in writing and how to you achieve it? Ways to Achieve Clarity. What is one of the best ways to achieve clarity in writing and how to you achieve it? Coordinating Ideas. What does it mean grammatically if ideas are coordinating?. What are the

More information

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense Chapter 7 Verb Usage 211 7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense The emphatic tenses of a verb are used to add emphasis. In addition, the emphatic tense can be used with the word not in negative sentences and to form

More information

Grammar Terms Created by: Abbie Potter Henry

Grammar Terms Created by: Abbie Potter Henry 1 Verb: A verb is a word or group of words that shows either the action or the being of the subject or subjects in a sentence. Verbs tell time by changing their form (tense) and can be more than one word.

More information

Chapter 3: Pronouns. Pronouns are a word that replaces a noun, or a group of words used as nouns. Lesson 21

Chapter 3: Pronouns. Pronouns are a word that replaces a noun, or a group of words used as nouns. Lesson 21 Chapter 3: Pronouns Pronouns are a word that replaces a noun, or a group of words used as nouns. Lesson 21 A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun, or a group of words used as nouns. Pronouns are classified

More information

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. My sister is a teacher. My brothers are engineers. 1. The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone,

More information

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense Chapter 7 Verb Usage 211 7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense The emphatic tenses of a verb are used to add emphasis. In addition, the emphatic tense can be used with the word not in negative sentences and to form

More information

B1-7

B1-7 Parts of Speech: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/definitions.htm B1-7 http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/definitions.htm#parts Identifying the Subject / Identifying the Verb: http://depts.dyc.edu/learningcenter/owl/sentences_core_parts.htm

More information

LESSON 4. PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE be + Ving

LESSON 4. PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE be + Ving LESSON 4 PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE be + Ving Use of Present Continous - To talk about present e.g. Be quite. The children are sleeping. - To talk about temporary things e.g. I am working in Ankara for the

More information

Subject and Verb Agreement

Subject and Verb Agreement Subject and Verb Agreement In order to decide correct subject verb agreement, one must first examine the following important elements in sentences. (For more information on verbs, subjects, nouns, verbals,

More information

Independent and Dependent Clauses

Independent and Dependent Clauses Independent and Dependent Clauses Definition A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. There are two kinds of clauses: 1. An independent clause is a complete thought, a sentence.

More information

Chapter. The Weekend

Chapter. The Weekend Chapter 3 The Weekend T he weekend begins on Friday night and ends on Sunday night. Our weekend lives are usually different from our weekday lives. We may relax and have fun. We may also work at weekend

More information

SAT Writing Packet- Grammar Rules

SAT Writing Packet- Grammar Rules ST Writing Packet- Grammar Rules The writing section of the ST is extremely repetitive. The test makers ask the same grammar mistakes on every test. Master these grammar rules and feel confident on test

More information

Smarter Balanced Conventions Chart Updated January Grade K-1

Smarter Balanced Conventions Chart Updated January Grade K-1 Grade K-1 Use regular plural nouns correctly by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular

More information

The university writing Center 3211 HHRA Building

The university writing Center 3211 HHRA Building The university writing Center 3211 HHRA Building TERMS TO KNOW: Vital Sentence Elements SENTENCE: A group of words that names at least one person or thing and expresses a complete thought about it. (The

More information

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb. SENTENCE STRUCTURE An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb. A dependent clause cannot be a complete sentence on its own. It depends on the independent clause

More information

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns.

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns. English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the

More information

Grade K-1 Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Grammar Usage Sentence Completion

Grade K-1 Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Grammar Usage Sentence Completion Grade K-1 Use regular plural nouns correctly by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular

More information

Outline. Logistics Writing Mechanics Statement Assignment Writing Process

Outline. Logistics Writing Mechanics Statement Assignment Writing Process Outline Logistics Writing Mechanics Statement Assignment Writing Process Logistics Mechanics of writing Grammar Wikipedia In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition

More information

Basic Spelling Rules: Learn the four basic spelling rules and techniques for studying hard-to-spell words. Practice spelling from dictation.

Basic Spelling Rules: Learn the four basic spelling rules and techniques for studying hard-to-spell words. Practice spelling from dictation. CLAD Grammar & Writing Workshops Adjective Clauses This workshop includes: review of the rules for choice of adjective pronouns oral practice sentence combining practice practice correcting errors in adjective

More information

Phrase vs. Clause. Phrase: a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb. Clause: a group of words with both a subject and a verb

Phrase vs. Clause. Phrase: a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb. Clause: a group of words with both a subject and a verb Phrase vs. Clause Phrase: a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb Clause: a group of words with both a subject and a verb Types of Clauses Independent Clause (I.C.) a group of words

More information

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics Grade and Unit Timeframe Grammar Mechanics K Unit 1 6 weeks Oral grammar naming words K Unit 2 6 weeks Oral grammar Capitalization of a Name action words K Unit 3 6 weeks Oral grammar sentences Sentence

More information

DEMOCRACY PREP FIRST AND LAST NAME. Persuasion Mad Minute

DEMOCRACY PREP FIRST AND LAST NAME. Persuasion Mad Minute FIRST AND LAST NAME DEMOCRACY PREP DATE SUBJECT CLASS/HOMEROOM Persuasion 2.19 Mad Minute Suffixes Rule 1 Normally, in words that end in a silent e you must drop the e before you add a vowel suffix (i.e.

More information

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences are classified as simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. This designation is based on the clauses used to create the sentence. Clauses: Every clause

More information

A SHORT HANDBOOK OF MECHANICS, USAGE, AND GRAMMAR

A SHORT HANDBOOK OF MECHANICS, USAGE, AND GRAMMAR 1 A SHORT HANDBOOK OF MECHANICS, USAGE, AND GRAMMAR A mastery of language includes an understanding of when various levels of language are appropriate. Informal conversations and formal speeches require

More information

Ten Easy Ways to Improve your Writing

Ten Easy Ways to Improve your Writing www2.eit.ac.nz/library/ls_guides_teneasyways.html Ten Easy Ways to Improve your Writing If you would like clarification of any of these writing tips, please make an appointment to see an Academic Learning

More information

CAHSEE ELA Problem of the Day --Week 10

CAHSEE ELA Problem of the Day --Week 10 Week & Day: Week 10 Day 1 Concept/Skill: Combining Sentences Written Conventions 1.2: Understand sentence construction (e.g., parallel structure, Materials: Student Handout (CAHSEE Released Items, Question

More information

NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM 2014 SUBJECT AREA: Writing

NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM 2014 SUBJECT AREA: Writing NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM 2014 SUBJECT AREA: Writing Year 1 write sentences by: saying out loud what they are going to write about composing a sentence orally before writing it sequencing sentences to form

More information

Lesson 11. Quantifiers. much. some. any. many. a few. a little. a lot of

Lesson 11. Quantifiers. much. some. any. many. a few. a little. a lot of Lesson 11 Quantifiers some a few any a little much many a lot of Quantifiers 1 Some Any 2 A lot of 3 Many Much 4 A few A little Quantifiers some, any 1 Some - Any We use some and any for a number (more

More information

SESSION 2 USING THE GERUNDS AND CLAUSES WITH BECAUSE

SESSION 2 USING THE GERUNDS AND CLAUSES WITH BECAUSE SESSION 2 USING THE GERUNDS AND CLAUSES WITH BECAUSE I. CONTENTS: 1. Gerunds. 2. Short responses showing agreement or disagreement. 3. Clauses with because. II. OBJECTIVES: At the end of the class, students:

More information

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar

More information

Contents 1 Nouns: plurals, countable versus uncountable, etc Genitive: the possessive form of nouns 3 Inde fi nite article ( a / an

Contents 1 Nouns: plurals, countable versus uncountable, etc Genitive: the possessive form of nouns 3 Inde fi nite article ( a / an Contents 1 Nouns: plurals, countable versus uncountable, etc.... 1 1.1 verb agreement... 1 1.2 uncountable nouns 1... 2 1.3 uncountable nouns 2... 3 1.4 uncountable nouns 3... 4 2 Genitive: the possessive

More information

6. Two hours (is/are) a long time to wait to get into the Ohio State House.!

6. Two hours (is/are) a long time to wait to get into the Ohio State House.! WRITING PROCESS -- KNOW YOUR MUGS -Subject-Verb Agreement (Let s Review) 1. A verb must agree in number with its subject. She talks. They talk. He dances. They dance. (NOTICE THAT THE SINGULAR FORM OF

More information

Grammar: Grades 5 6. Table of Contents

Grammar: Grades 5 6. Table of Contents Grammar: Grades 5 6 Common Nouns...4 Proper Nouns...5 Concrete and Abstract Nouns...6 Singular and Plural Nouns...7 Plural Nouns...8 Possessive Nouns...10 Subject and Object Pronouns...11 Possessive Pronouns...12

More information

California Treasures, Scope and Sequence: Grammar. California Treasures Grammar/Usage/Mechanics Scope and Sequence K-6

California Treasures, Scope and Sequence: Grammar. California Treasures Grammar/Usage/Mechanics Scope and Sequence K-6 California Treasures Grammar//Mechanics Scope and Sequence K-6 Grade K Unit 7, Week 1 Unit 7, Week 2 Unit 7, Week 3 Unit 8, Week 1 Unit 8, Week 2 Unit 8, Week 3 Unit 9, Week 1 Unit 9, Week 2 Unit 9, Week

More information

Fragments and Run-on Sentences

Fragments and Run-on Sentences Academic Support Center Writing Center Fragments and Run-on Sentences Fragment Refer to The LB Brief Handbook 5 th edition, pgs. 285-290. A fragment occurs when one or more of the key elements of a sentence

More information

NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM. SUBJECT AREA: Writing

NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM. SUBJECT AREA: Writing NEW NATIONAL CURRICULUM SUBJECT AREA: Writing End of year expectations: Year 1 Write sentences by: saying out loud what they are going to write about composing a sentence orally before writing it sequencing

More information

SECTION 3.0 PUNCTUATION, STYLE, AND GRAMMAR

SECTION 3.0 PUNCTUATION, STYLE, AND GRAMMAR SECTION 3.0 PUNCTUATION, STYLE, AND GRAMMAR 3.1 Punctuation 3.1.1 Apostrophes An apostrophe is not necessary when making numerals or acronyms plural (eg., 1990s, VOCs) unless omitting it would cause confusion.

More information

Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word

Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Regular plural noun suffixes s or es [for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes], including the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of

More information

Pronouns. A pronoun takes the place of a noun. Example: Joe washed his clothes. She hasn t driven her car.

Pronouns. A pronoun takes the place of a noun. Example: Joe washed his clothes. She hasn t driven her car. English!!!!!! Last, First Name! Period!!!!!!!!! Date! Pronouns WHAT IS A PRONOUN? A pronoun takes the place of a noun. Pronouns agree in gender (male or female). Example: Joe washed his clothes. She hasn

More information

past simple basic use

past simple basic use past time past simple basic use Use past simple for finished events in the past which have a definite time. In 7969 the first men landed on the Moon. in narrative. The door opened and two boys came into

More information

English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI]

English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI] English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI] Session 5 Grammar Quiz Quick question from Session 4 If a simple sentence has one independent clause, how do you define a compound sentence? Grammar: two

More information

1. We decided to go ice skating, but it turned out that no one could get a ride to the rink.

1. We decided to go ice skating, but it turned out that no one could get a ride to the rink. ACT Pretest Item Inventory Each numbered item contains a single error or no error at all. Correct each error. There may be more than one way to correct an error. Circle the number of each item that does

More information

TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Tense. Verb Tense

TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Tense. Verb Tense TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Verb Introduction Every sentence has a subject and a main verb. Verbs describe what the subject is doing. To be able to show exactly what the subject does at any time, verbs

More information

Summary of Basic Grammar

Summary of Basic Grammar Page 1 of 8 Summary of Basic Grammar Prepared by Marjorie D. Lewis Part of Speech Noun = naming words Forms that can function as nouns: Common noun: names a thing (house), person (man), or concept (love)

More information

For the Grammar Nazi in you. Grammar 101

For the Grammar Nazi in you. Grammar 101 For the Grammar Nazi in you Grammar 101 A Sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. has two basic parts: a subject and a predicate The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about

More information

Year 1 Punctuation and Grammar Expectations

Year 1 Punctuation and Grammar Expectations Year 1 and Grammar Expectations I can make a noun plural by adding a suffix e.g. dog dogs, wish wishes. I can add a suffix to a verb where I don t need to change the root word e.g. helping, helped, helper.

More information

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL CONTENTS. How to Use this Book xv

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL CONTENTS. How to Use this Book xv CONTENTS How to Use this Book xv Section One Grammar 1 1. the noun 2. types of nouns 3. the pronoun 4. personal pronouns 5. Do you know your personal pronouns? 6. reflexive, demonstrative, and interrogative

More information

English Grammar Practice

English Grammar Practice ENG Name: Date: Pg. English Grammar Practice NOUNS Lesson 1: Noun Types A. On your answer sheet, write each noun. Then write C or P beside it to show whether it is a Common or Proper noun. B. On your answer

More information

Stage V: 9-12 Pre-Emergent - Basic ELL LANGUAGE

Stage V: 9-12 Pre-Emergent - Basic ELL LANGUAGE Standard English Conventions Standard The student will identify and apply conventions of standard English in his or her communications. B-1,2: Define and classify singular, as well as plural common and

More information

Ropsley C of E Primary School Progression of objectives to be covered for Punctuation and Grammar

Ropsley C of E Primary School Progression of objectives to be covered for Punctuation and Grammar Ropsley C of E Primary School Progression of objectives to be covered for Punctuation and Grammar Year Autumn 1 Autumn 2 Spring 1 Spring 2 Summer 1 Summer 2 Year 1 To leave spaces between To leave spaces

More information

Compound Sentences and Coordination

Compound Sentences and Coordination Compound Sentences and Coordination Mary Westervelt Reference: Ann Hogue (2003) The Essentials of English: A Writer s Handbook. New York, Pearson Education, Inc. When two sentences are combined in a way

More information

Understanding the six basic tenses allows one to re-create much of the reality of time in his writing.

Understanding the six basic tenses allows one to re-create much of the reality of time in his writing. Verb Tenses Understanding the six basic tenses allows one to re-create much of the reality of time in his writing. Simple Present: They walk Simple Past: They walked Future: They will walk Present Perfect:

More information

Developing the Complete Sentence

Developing the Complete Sentence A complete sentence has a subject and a verb. It is also called a clause. Subjects and verbs do specific things in sentences. Persons Subjects (nouns) Places do an action in a sentence. Things Verbs a)

More information

THE OSU LIMA WRITING CENTER PRESENTS BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS

THE OSU LIMA WRITING CENTER PRESENTS BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS THE OSU LIMA WRITING CENTER PRESENTS BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS I can already put sentences together. I don t need to learn about grammar. While everyone learns basic sentence structure and grammar,

More information

Analytical Grammar Pre/Post Test

Analytical Grammar Pre/Post Test Analytical Grammar Pre/Post Test Name Season One: 1. In the following sentence: I really enjoyed the basketball game. What part of speech is the word BASKETBALL? a. verb b. adjective c. noun d. article

More information

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Page 1 of 5 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Agreement is a basic rule of grammar. Subjects and verbs must agree in person and number. The rules below will help you avoid subject-verb agreement errors. 1. In the

More information

2. Vague pronoun reference. [See APA grammar and usage section, Chapter 3.20] 9.8% of total errors, ranked # 4 based on errors marked by teachers.

2. Vague pronoun reference. [See APA grammar and usage section, Chapter 3.20] 9.8% of total errors, ranked # 4 based on errors marked by teachers. Most Commonly Occurring Errors Written by Karen Gocsik, Last modified: Tuesday, 12-Jul-2005 11:27:36 EDT Copyright 2004 Dartmouth College. Retrieved from www.dartmouth.edu/~writing/materials/student/ac_paper/grammar.shtml

More information

The Writing Center Directed Learning Activities

The Writing Center Directed Learning Activities The Writing Center Directed Learning Activities Subject-Verb Agreement AmLa and English 67 Student Name: Date: Instructor: Course: IMPORTANT NOTE: All the activities (3) in the DLA must be completed in

More information

Section 9 infinitives and -ing forms

Section 9 infinitives and -ing forms Section 9 infinitives and -ing forms page 119 English uses -ing forms not only as parts of verbs (e.g. It s raining) and as adjectives (e.g. a falling leaf), but also rather like nouns, as subjects or

More information

Days. Grammar. Ten. Subject/Verb and Pronoun/ Antecedent Agreement. by Cheryl Miller Thurston. Teacher s Pet Publications

Days. Grammar. Ten. Subject/Verb and Pronoun/ Antecedent Agreement. by Cheryl Miller Thurston. Teacher s Pet Publications Ten Days to A+ Grammar Subject/Verb and Pronoun/ Antecedent Agreement by Cheryl Miller Thurston 1 Teacher s Pet Publications P.O. Box 658 Clayton, DE 19938 Tel: 1.800.932.4593 Web site: www.tpet.com Copyright

More information

Grammar Kinds of Sentences

Grammar Kinds of Sentences Kinds of Sentences There are four kinds of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory. 1. A declarative sentence makes a statement. It tells something, states a fact or opinion,

More information

Strand 1 Different ways to construct sentences

Strand 1 Different ways to construct sentences Strand 1 Different ways to construct sentences As we have seen above, sentences can be simple (single clause) structures, or they can be built up to include two or more (multi) clauses. These can be created

More information

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word Pupil SPAG Card 1 1 I know about regular plural noun endings s or es and what they mean (for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes) 2 I know the regular endings that can be added to verbs (e.g. helping, helped,

More information

Grammar Workshop Series

Grammar Workshop Series Grammar Workshop Series Unit 5 Subject-Verb Agreement Agreement Pre-Test Choose the best option to complete the sentence. The best part of being an Art History student the grammar classes. A) is B) are

More information

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Plurals in English Grammar To make a noun plural, we add s Singular: girl Plural: girls To make a verb plural, we take away the s. Singular: he talks Plural: they talk Watch the

More information

Hake Grammar and Writing Curriculum. Scope and Sequence

Hake Grammar and Writing Curriculum. Scope and Sequence Hake Grammar and Writing Curriculum Scope and Sequence Writing Grade: 4 5 6 7 8 The Paragraph... The Topic Sentence... Supporting Sentences... Examples, Facts, Definitions... Anecdotes, Arguments, Analogies...

More information

Correlated to State Standards

Correlated to State Standards Correlated to State Standards Visit www.teaching-standards.com to view a correlation of this book s activities to your state s standards. This is a free service. What? A comprehensive resource for grammar,

More information

Common Writing Errors

Common Writing Errors Common Writing Errors Confusing Words 1. Affect v. Effect: Most of the time, affect is a verb, and effect is a noun. There are a few exceptions, but they are rare. 2. Lie v. Lay: a. The sermon affected

More information

Fragments, Comma Splices, Run-ons: How to make them go away!

Fragments, Comma Splices, Run-ons: How to make them go away! Fragments, Comma Splices, Run-ons: How to make them go away! Sentence fragments, comma splices and run-on sentences are some of the most common writing errors. In order to avoid these three common problems,

More information

Glossary. apostrophe. abbreviation

Glossary.  apostrophe. abbreviation [ Glossary a abbreviation An abbreviation is a shortened form of phrase or word. apostrophe An apostrophe has two uses: to show that two words have been shortened to make one (called a contraction ) and

More information

Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word

Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Word Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation Years 1 to 6 ** Please note that the table shows when concepts will be introduced first, not necessarily when they should be completely understood. Year 1: Detail of

More information

Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation

Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation Year 1 Word Stucture Sentence Structure Text Structure Punctuation Terminology Terminology to be intro- regular plural noun suffixes -s or -es (e.g. dog, dogs; wish, wishes) suffixes that can be added

More information

Pyramids. nouns adjectives adverbs. Here are some definitions of the words that we will look at in this lesson:

Pyramids. nouns adjectives adverbs. Here are some definitions of the words that we will look at in this lesson: Pyramids The pyramid is another metaphor (an analogy) that can help you understand the use of one-word nouns, noun phrases and noun clauses; one-word adjectives, adjective phrases and adjective clauses;

More information

Phrases & Clauses. Source URL: Saylor URL:

Phrases & Clauses. Source URL:  Saylor URL: Phrases & Clauses Source URL: http://serrano.wikispaces.com/chapter+4+and+5,+clauses+and+phrases Saylor URL: www.saylor.org/courses/k12ela007#7.4.1.2 Attributed to: WikiSpaces www.saylor.org Phrases a

More information

Scope and Sequence Chart DRAFT

Scope and Sequence Chart DRAFT Work with Vocabulary Early A B C D E F G H Words that Rhyme Syllables Synonyms Antonyms Homophones Base Words Root Words Prefixes Suffixes Contractions Compound Words Denotation and Connotation Effective

More information

English Skills: Structuring Sentences Workshop 6. Promoting excellence in learning and teaching.

English Skills: Structuring Sentences Workshop 6. Promoting excellence in learning and teaching. English Skills: Structuring Sentences Workshop 6 After successful completion of this workshop you will be able to: ü Write simple, compound and complex sentences confidently ü Use active voice and avoid

More information

Year 1. Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar Progression

Year 1. Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar Progression Year 1 Terminology for pupils leave spaces between words; join words and join clauses using and; begin to punctuate sentences using a capital letter and a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark;

More information

Sentence Basics A few definitions will help:

Sentence Basics A few definitions will help: If you have glanced through the Writing Center s resources, you can see that there are a lot of things to know about grammar, and a lot of mistakes that students can make with grammar. However, the most

More information

Language Usage VIII Grade Level 8

Language Usage VIII Grade Level 8 Language Usage VIII Language Usage VIII introduces students to a variety of topics including: identifying and using nouns, verbs, contractions, conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs in sentences

More information

Grammar for year olds

Grammar for year olds Grammar for 6 11 year olds Singular and plural General questions Indefinite article Simple present Present continuous The time Do..Does ( Plus verb ) Saxon genitive Adjectives Possessive adjectives Can

More information

Merced College Prep2Test Workshop

Merced College Prep2Test Workshop Merced College Prep2Test Workshop Prep2Test The purpose of this presentation is to provide future students a brief review before taking the Merced College Accuplacer test. This presentation is not designed

More information

Level 5 Homeschool Teacher s Manual iii

Level 5 Homeschool Teacher s Manual iii Chapter 1 Pages 1-10 STUDY SKILLS (Long-term Goals and Short-term Goals) Beginning setup plan for homeschool SKILLS (Synonyms, Antonyms), Six-Step Vocabulary Plan, VOCABULARY #1 WRITING (Journal), STUDY,

More information

CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION This chapter presents about the findings and the research discussion of subject verb agreement error analysis. The data is about subject verb agreement error made by English

More information

Cohesion, organisation and presentation

Cohesion, organisation and presentation Cohesion, organisation and presentation Introduction This chapter builds on the work done in Year 5. The early parts of this chapter cover cohesive devices. Later parts deal with layout and organisational

More information

BUSEL WRITING BOOKLET FOR STUDENTS

BUSEL WRITING BOOKLET FOR STUDENTS BUSEL WRITING BOOKLET FOR STUDENTS (ELEMENTARY) 2015-2016 ACADEMIC YEAR 1 P a g e APPROACH TO WRITING AT THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL By the end of the Elementary level, the students are expected to: use correct

More information

2. What kind of phrase is the underlined. 4. Which of the following is a complex

2. What kind of phrase is the underlined. 4. Which of the following is a complex Name Date 1. Choose the correct word in parentheses. You have (all ready, already) learned some strategies for playing chess. A. all ready B. already 2. What kind of phrase is the underlined group of words?

More information

Abbreviation: A shortened form of a word. Abbreviations begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Example: Dr. is an abbreviation for Doctor.

Abbreviation: A shortened form of a word. Abbreviations begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Example: Dr. is an abbreviation for Doctor. Abbreviation: A shortened form of a word. Abbreviations begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Example: Dr. is an abbreviation for Doctor. Action verb: A verb that describes an action. The

More information

The baby cried. This is a sentence because it tells us what someone (subject the baby) does (verb cried).

The baby cried. This is a sentence because it tells us what someone (subject the baby) does (verb cried). Sentence Types 1 The Simple Sentence When we write, a complete thought is called a sentence. A sentence must contain a complete subject (person, place, or thing) and a verb (what the subject is doing)

More information

Daily Grammar Practice DGP Notes. Day 1 Parts of Speech

Daily Grammar Practice DGP Notes. Day 1 Parts of Speech Daily Grammar Practice DGP Notes Name Day 1 Parts of Speech Part of Speech Definition/Types/Examples Abbreviation Noun Pronoun Adverb Adjective Preposition Conjunction Verb Person, place, thing, idea Common

More information

Definition of parts of speech The parts of speech and their basic functions

Definition of parts of speech The parts of speech and their basic functions Page 3 Introduction to English Grammar Pages 8-11 Parts of Speech: An Introduction Page 12 Nouns Pages 13-30 Definition of English Grammar The seven basic units of English Grammar: letter, syllable, word,

More information

GRAMMATICAL TERMS AND EXPLANATIONS

GRAMMATICAL TERMS AND EXPLANATIONS www.gmatlessons.pro GRAMMATICAL TERMS AND EXPLANATIONS The Eight Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech in English: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and

More information

Antecedent. Pronouns. Plural indefinite pronouns both few many several. Indefinite pronouns = not specific

Antecedent. Pronouns. Plural indefinite pronouns both few many several. Indefinite pronouns = not specific Pronouns replace nouns (or other pronouns) so you do not have to repeat them. Tina let me borrow Tina s coat. Tina let me borrow her coat. You met Mark. Mark is my cousin. You met Mark. He is my cousin.

More information

Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences. Fragments Although he wanted to go to the meeting. Whoever goes to the meeting.

Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences. Fragments Although he wanted to go to the meeting. Whoever goes to the meeting. Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences A sentence is a group of words that names something and makes a statement about what is named. A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence because it lacks a subject,

More information