Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts"

Transcription

1 Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts Chemical bond: is an attractive force that holds 2 atoms together and forms as a result of interactions between electrons found in combining atoms We rarely deal with isolated atoms Chemical bonds are broken and formed in reactions Properties of substances often determined by bonds Bonding lowers the potential energy

2 How are Chemical Bonds Formed? We use the electronic structure of atoms to predict which of two types of chemical bonds are likely: 1)Ionic (transferring electrons) 2)Covalent (sharing electrons) Octet Rule: When atoms bond, they lose, gain, or share e - to attain filled outer level of eight e -

3 Ionic Bonds - Transfer of electrons from metal to nonmetal to form ions that come close together in sold ionic compound - Electrostatic attractions of closely packed, oppositely charged ions in a regular 3-D array - Formed when metal (that easily loses electrons) reacts with non-metal (that easily gain electrons). - No. e - lost by metal = No. e - gained by nonmetal

4 Electron Arrangements and Ion Charge Metals form cations by losing enough e - to form same configuration as previous noble gas Nonmetals form anions by gaining enough e - to from same configuration as next noble gas Completely fill outer s & p orbitals Atom Atoms Electron Config Ion Ions Electron Config Na [Ne]3s 1 Na +1 [Ne] Mg [Ne]3s 2 Mg +2 [Ne] Al [Ne]3s 2 3p 1 Al +3 [Ne] O [He]2s 2 2p 4 O -2 [Ne] F [He]2s 2 2p 5 F -1 [Ne]

5 Properties of Ionic Compounds All solids at room temperature are brittle, hard, & rigid Melting points greater than 300 C Liquid state conducts electricity, solid state does not If soluble in water then good electrical conductor Chemical formula is empirical formula - simply giving the ratio of ions based on charge balance (no separate molecules) Ions arranged in a pattern called a crystal lattice maximizes attractions between + and ions

6 Electrostatic forces and the reason ionic compounds crack

7 Electrical conductance and ion mobility Solid ionic compound Molten ionic compound Ionic compound dissolved in water

8 Covalent Bonds Atoms bond by sharing pairs of electrons Commonly found between nonmetal atoms e.g. Cl 2, O 2, N 2, H etc 2 Example H 2 : overlap of 1s orbitals 2H(g) H 2 (g) H = -432 kj Most atoms form covalent bonds by sharing enough electrons to satisfy octet rule

9 Bond Polarity Covalent bonding between unlike atoms results in unequal sharing of the electrons One end has larger electron density than other The result is bond polarity End with larger e - density gets partial - charge End that is e - deficient gets partial + charge δ+ H F δ Dipole Moment (µ)

10 Electronegativity Relative ability of bonded atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons Larger electronegativity: atom attracts more strongly Values 0.7 to 4.0 across period (left to right) on Periodic Table down group (top to bottom) on Periodic Table Larger difference = more polar bond negative end toward more electronegative atom

11 Electronegativity values for selected elements

12 Electronegativity and Bond Type Difference in electronegativity ( EN) provides a good estimate of bond type: 0 to 0.4 non-polar covalent polar covalent > 1.7 ionic

13 Comparison of Ionic vs Covalent Property NaCl CCl 4 State solid liquid Melting point ( C) Molar heat of fusion (kj/mol) Molar heat of vaporization (kj/mol) Electrical conductivity Good Poor

14 Covalent Bonds Single Bond: atoms share 2 e - (1 pair) eg., C-C bond order = 1 Double Bond: atoms share 4 e - (2 pair) eg., C=C bond order = 2 Triple Bond: atoms share 6 e - (3 pair) eg., C C bond order = 3

15 Covalent Bonds Bond Strength: Triple > Double > Single For bonds between same atoms: C N > C=N > C N Bond Length: Single > Double > Triple For bonds between same atoms: C N > C=N > C N

16 Gilbert N. LEWIS The Wayne Gretzky of chemical bonding. American chemist: Gilbert N. Lewis ( )

17 Lewis Structure (Electron Dot Symbols) - Shows how valence electrons are arranged among atoms in molecules & ions - Use symbol of element to represent nucleus & inner e - - Use dots around symbol to represent valence electrons - Reflects idea that stability of a compound relates to noble gas electron configuration - Octet Rule: Elements tend to acquire e - configuration like that of noble gases

18 Writing Lewis structures of molecules 1) Count total number of valence electrons from all atoms (add or subtract if an ion). 2) Choose the central atom. Hint: - Central atoms have the lowest electronegativity. Hydrogen is always terminal while carbon is central. 3) Attach atoms together with one pair of electrons & subtract this total. Hint: - Line is often used for bonding electrons 4) Arrange remaining electrons in pairs: Hint: For hydrogens, a max of 2 e - (duet) & all others atoms have 8 e - (octet) in total around them.

19 Lewis Symbols Al [Ne] 3s 2 3p 1 How many valence e - s? 3 Al F [He] 2s 2 2p 5 F

20 electron transfer IONIC BONDING e.g. NaCl The formation of ionic bonds is represented in terms of Lewis symbols. Na x + Cl [Na] + [ xcl ] Complete transference of electron to Cl - anion 20

21 COVALENT BONDING electron sharing Atoms go as far as possible toward completing their octets by sharing electron pairs Consider F 2 xx x x F x xx xx + F x x F x xx F 21

22 Lewis Structures Practice Write Lewis structures for the following: Atoms: Na, Cl, Ar Ionic compounds: Covalent compounds: NaCl, CaF 2 CH 4, C 2 H 4, C 2 H 2, CCl 2 F 2, N 2, CH 4 O, H 2 NOH

23 Building Lewis structures of molecules HCN as an example... Step 1.Count the total number of valence electrons H has 1 C has 4 N has 5 Total of 10 Step 2. Place one e - pair between each BONDED atom H C N We have 6 e - left All atoms must have an octet or duet Step 3. Add electrons to terminal atoms first The H OK it has its duet... Next... 23

24 Step 3. Building Lewis structures of molecules Add remaining electrons to terminal atoms first Add 6 electrons in pairs to give the N an octet. H C N Step 4. Add any electrons left over to central atom We have none left! Step 5. Check for an acceptable Lewis Structure Do all atoms have an octet??? IN THIS CASE 24

25 Building Lewis structures of molecules H C N No! Both C and N need an octet.. the C and N have to share more than one pair of e - bring e - pairs from outer N atom to form shared pairs to give C its octet!!!

26 Building Lewis structures of molecules Step 5. Check for an acceptable Lewis Structure bring electron pairs from outer N atom to form shared pairs to give C its octet!!! H C N Still no octet on C Do it again!!!! H C N H C N three electron pairs between the C and N 26

27 Building Lewis structures of molecules three electron pairs between the C and N H C N Lewis (electron dot) structure of HCN There is a triple bond.. Also written H C N Another possible structure is. 27

28 Another structure H N C Lets do the Lewis structure... Step 1. Count the total number of valence electrons C has 4N has 5 H has 1 Total of 10 Step 2. Place one e - pair between each atom H N C Step 3. Place remaining electrons on terminal atoms until their octet complete We get. 28

29 Another structure Step 3. Place remaining electrons on terminal atoms until their octet complete H N C Step 4. No electrons left. Step 5. Check for acceptable Lewis structure. The N does not have an octet... We bring electron pairs from outer C atom to form shared pairs to give N its octet!!! Again we need a triple bond. 29

30 Lewis structure of HNC H N C three electron pairs between the C and N this is called a triple bond.. Also written H N C How can we choose? H C N The octet rule is obeyed!!. FORMAL CHARGE.. 30

31 Formal Charge Helps predict most reasonable arrangement of atoms i.e. helps in writing Lewis structure. Hypothetical charge atom would have if the bonding electrons were shared equally. Difference between no. of valence electrons (V) on the free atom & no. assigned to atom in molecule. Formal charge = V (L + ½S) V= No. valence electrons in the free atom L = No. of nonbonding electrons S = No. of shared electrons

32 Formal Charges Formal charge = V (L + ½S) Formal charges help identify most likely arrangement if more than one is possible All formal charges of zero is best or one with lowest number of nonzero formal charges (closest to zero) (a) H N C (b) H C N FC (H) = 1-(0+1) = 0 FC (H) = 1-(0+1) = 0 FC (N) = 5-(0+4) = +1 FC (C) = 4-(0+4) = 0 FC (C) = 4-(2+3) = -1 FC (N) = 5-(2+3) = 0

33 Using formal charges determine which of these CO 2 structures are the most stable? O C O O C O FC (O-) = 6-(6+1) = -1 FC (O=) = 6-(4+2) = 0 FC (C) = 4-(0+4) = 0 FC (C) = 4-(0+4) = 0 FC ( O) = 6-(2+3) = +1 FC (=O) = 6-(4+2) = O C O O C O

34 Lewis Structures Practice (a) Assign formal charges for the following molecules: S O O O N O (b) Write Lewis structures for the following compounds: PCl 3, NO 2-, PO 4 3-, CO 3 2-

35 QUESTION Oxygen difluoride is a powerful oxidizing and fluorinating agent. Select its Lewis structure (a) F O F (b) F O F (c) F O F (d) F O F (e) None of these 35

36 Resonance Structures More than one Lewis structure that differs only in position of e - s Lone pairs & multiple bonds in different positions Actual molecule is combination (or blending) of all resonance forms (delocalized) Actual structure is average of resonance structures O S O.... O S O

37 RESONANCE We use a double headed arrow between the structures.. O O O N N N O O O O O O The electrons involved are said to be DELOCALIZED over the structure. The blended structure is a RESONANCE HYBRID 37

38 QUESTION Which of the following molecules exhibit resonance? 1 CO 2 2 ClO 3-3 O 3 4 Cl 2 CO 5 F 2 O 38

39 Exceptions to the Lewis Structure Rules Some covalent molecules have central atoms that do not have noble gas configuration because: 1) Odd No. of valence electrons (unpaired e - ) 2) Central atom has fewer e - than needed for a noble gas configuration 3) Central atom has more e - than needed for a noble gas configuration

40 1. Odd No. of valence electrons (unpaired e-) Molecules that contains one or more unpaired electrons are paramagnetic or radicals. Elements in 2 nd period have only 4 orbitals in valence shell and can t have > 8 e - around them. Try to write the Lewis structure for NO N O

41 2. Electron-deficient Few molecules contain central atoms that don t have filled valence shell (incomplete octet) B & Be are often octet deficient with outer atoms of hydrogen or other atoms that do not readily form multiple bonds (BeH 2 ) These are very reactive

42 3. Molecules with Extra Electrons Elements in 3 rd & higher periods (n > 2) have more than 4 valence orbitals & can share more than 4 pairs of electrons with other atoms Expanded octet: Empty d orbitals available & able to expand to 10, 12 or more e - Examples include PCl 5, SF 6, ICl 5

43 Elements in rows 3 and following can exceed the octet rule: SF 6 F F F S F F F F F F S F F F SF 6 looks like this. F F F S F F How do we get Lewis Structure??? F 43

44 Chapter 8: Shapes of Molecules 3-D arrangement of atoms in molecule Structure is described by bond angle & bond distance Bond angle: angle between any 2 bonds that includes common atom (degrees) Bond distance: distance between nuclei of 2 bonded atoms (Å or pm) Look at formaldehyde (H 2 CO)

45 VSEPR Theory Valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is used to predict molecular geometry by examining no. of bonds & unshared electron pairs KEY: Most stable arrangement is one where valence electrons around central atom are as far away from each other as possible Minimizes repulsions

46 Predicting Molecular Geometry Shape around central atom(s) can be predicted by assuming that areas of electrons (bonding & nonbonding) on central atom will repel each other. Each bond counts as 1 area of electrons. single, double or triple all count as 1 area Each lone pair counts as 1 area of electrons Even though lone pairs are not attached to other atoms, they occupy space around central atom Look at CO 2

47 Bonds (shared e - s) and lone pairs of e - s are as far away from each other as is possible O C O Electron-group geometry is linear (AX 2 ) where A is the central atom and X are the terminal atoms H H C H H The electron-group repulsions force the groups as far apart as possible Tetrahedral AX 4

48 H H N H NH 3 has 4 electron groups and has a tetrahedral electrongroup geometry but it s actual molecular shape (molecular geometry) is not tetrahedral but rather trigonal-pyramidal VSEPR notation - AX 3 E where E is the lone pair of electrons Angle of Electron-group geometry deals with the distribution of the electron groups Molecular geometry deals with the molecular shape of the molecule

49 Electron Group Geometry & Molecular Geometry The electron-domain geometry is often not the shape of the molecule, however. The molecular geometry is defined by the positions of only the atoms in the molecules, not the nonbonding pairs.

50 Table 8.1

51 Electron-Pair Geometry Trigonal bipyramidal (5 regions) Equatorial or axial AX 5 (trigonal bipyramidal 90, 120 ) AX 4 E (seesaw 90, 120 ), AX 3 E 2 (T-shaped 90 ), AX 2 E 3 (linear 180 ) hosphorus%20pentafluoride.jpg

52 Octahedral (6 regions) AX 6 (octahedral, 90 ) - AX 5 E (square pyramidal 90 ) - AX 4 E 2 (square planar 90 ) m/boron%20pentafluoride% 20cloud%20pred.jpg

53 VSEPR All regions of high electron density are not same Certain high density electron areas want more room. Lone pair e - s generally spread out more than bonding e - s, affects bond angle structure looks a little different than expected. Order of repulsive forces: lone pair-lone pair > lone pair-bond pair > bond pair-bond pair

54 Why is the top structure incorrect?

55 Electron-pair geometry vs molecular geometry Electron-pair geometry: Includes all electron pairs (this is what we just looked at) Molecular geometry: Includes only placement of atoms in molecule Same when there are no unshared electron pairs around central atom Look at methane (CH 4 ) vs ammonia (NH 3 )

56 Molecular Geometry Trigonal Bipyramidal: 2 distinct positions (i) axial: smaller (ii) equatorial: larger Unshared pairs always occupy equatorial positions Linear 2 areas of electrons around central atom, both bonding Or two atom molecule is a trivial case

57 Predicting a VSEPR Structure 1. Draw Lewis structure. 2. Count number of regions of high e - density (unshared pairs and bonds) around central atom. 3. Identify electron-pair geometry. 4. If more than one arrangement is possible, choose one that minimizes unshared pair repulsions.

58 Multiple Covalent Bonds Predict the electron geometry and molecular geometry of SO 2 S S O O O O

59 Molecules With More Than One Central Atom What is the electron-group geometry of methyl isocyanate, CH 3 NCO? Ans: Draw the best fit Lewis structure Valence e - s: C = 8 N = 5 O = 6 H = 3 Total = 22 H H C H H N C O H C H N C O

60 H N C H 180 o C O 120 o H 109 o

61 Practice Predict electron-pair & molecular geometries for following: SiCl 4, H 3 O +, SF 4, XeF 4, CH 3 OH, NH 2 CH 2 COOH

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8)

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) End of Chapter questions: 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18, 23, 27, 28, 32, 33, 39, 43, 46, 67, 77 Chemical reaction valence electrons of atoms rearranged (lost,

More information

Chemical Bonds stable octet

Chemical Bonds stable octet Chemical Bonds Elements form bonds to be in a lower energy state 1. Ionic Bonds transfer of electrons, between metal and nonmetal 2. Covalent Bonds sharing of electrons, between two nonmetals 3. Metallic

More information

Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures

Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures Lewis Dot structures are also known as electron dot diagrams These diagrams illustrate valence electrons and subsequent bonding A line shows each shared electron

More information

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

Unit Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Unit Ionic and Covalent Bonds Unit 6 --- Ionic and Covalent Bonds Electron Configuration in Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonds Bonding in Metals Valence Electrons Electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element s atoms Examples

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing.

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing. CHAPTER EIGHT BNDING: GENERAL CNCEPT or Review 1. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the

More information

Section 8.3 Molecular Structures

Section 8.3 Molecular Structures Section 8.3 Molecular Structures List the basic steps used to draw Lewis structures. Explain why resonance occurs, and identify resonance structures. Identify three exceptions to the octet rule, and name

More information

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure There are three types of strong bonds: Ionic Covalent Metallic Some substances contain both covalent and ionic bonding or an intermediate. 4.1 Ionic bonding Ionic

More information

Unit 3: Chemical Bonding

Unit 3: Chemical Bonding Unit 3: Chemical Bonding Listed below are the learning objectives that you will be taught. At the conclusion of each lesson, check one of the four boxes to indicate your level of understanding for each

More information

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

More information

7.1 The Covalent Bond. 7.2 Strengths of Covalent Bonds

7.1 The Covalent Bond. 7.2 Strengths of Covalent Bonds Chapter 7: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure (7.1-7.7, 7.9, 7.11, 7.12) Chapter Goals: Be Able to: Predict which compounds are ionic and which are molecular. Use the periodic table to predict which

More information

Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding

Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chapter 12 Review p.373 - Key Terms bond (12.1) bond energy (12.1) ionic bonding (12.1) ionic compound (12.1) covalent bonding (12.1) polar covalent bond (12.1) electronegativity

More information

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Atoms in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) bond in a specific orientation which defines the shape of the molecule. The molecules pack in a crystal, photographed

More information

CHEMICAL BONDS. Chemical Bonds:

CHEMICAL BONDS. Chemical Bonds: CHEMICAL BONDS Chemical Bonds: The strong electrostatic forces of attraction holding atoms together in a unit are called chemical bonds (EU 2.C). Reflect a balance in the attractive and repulsive forces

More information

Chemical Bonding Honors Chemistry Lesson

Chemical Bonding Honors Chemistry Lesson Chemical Bonding Honors Chemistry Lesson 12.15 Linus Pauling: Bonding: Measurement of force of attraction between 2 atoms. A bond has a lower potential energy than when separate. + 0 Valence electrons

More information

Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Covalent Bonding Part II Molecular Geometry

Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Covalent Bonding Part II Molecular Geometry Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Covalent Bonding Part II Molecular Geometry The purpose of this lab is to use molecular models to help you understand the theoretical concepts of covalent bonding

More information

Lewis Structure Exercise

Lewis Structure Exercise Lewis Structure Exercise A Lewis structure shows how the valence electrons are arranged and indicates the bonding between atoms in a molecule. We represent the elements by their symbols. The shared electron

More information

Chapter 9. Ionic and Covalent Bonding. the chemical bond: the force that holds atoms or ions together as an aggregate unit

Chapter 9. Ionic and Covalent Bonding. the chemical bond: the force that holds atoms or ions together as an aggregate unit Chapter 9 Ionic and Covalent Bonding the chemical bond: the force that holds atoms or ions together as an aggregate unit bond energy (or bond dissociation enthalpy, HBDE): energy required to break a chemical

More information

Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding of Chemical Mr. Matthew Totaro Legacy High School AP Chemistry Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions. Covalent Sharing of electrons. Metallic Metal atoms

More information

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 9. Chemical Bonding I: The Lewis Model. Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 9. Chemical Bonding I: The Lewis Model. Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: The Lewis Model Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University HIV-Protease HIV-protease is a protein synthesized by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

More information

Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts. Valence Electrons. Representative Elements & Lewis Dot Structures

Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts. Valence Electrons. Representative Elements & Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts Valence Electrons 8.1 Chemical Bond Formation 8.2 Covalent Bonding (Lewis Dot Structures) 8.3 Charge Distribution in Covalent Compounds 8.4 Resonance 8.5 Molecular Shapes

More information

Chapter 3. Compounds Putting Particles Together

Chapter 3. Compounds Putting Particles Together Chapter 3 Compounds Putting Particles Together MODIFED BY Dr. Radu Outline 3.1 Electron Arrangements and the Octet Rule 3.2 In Search of an Octet, Part 1: Ion Formation 3.3 Ionic Compounds Electron Give

More information

Slide 1 of 44. Chapter 3. Bonding: General Concepts

Slide 1 of 44. Chapter 3. Bonding: General Concepts Slide 1 of 44 Chapter 3 Bonding: General Concepts Slide 2 of 44 Electrostatic Attractions and Repulsions Slide 3 of 44 Energy of Interaction AB A B A B A B Electronegativity Electronegativity (EN, expressed

More information

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Why do TiCl 4 and TiCl 3 have different colors?... different chemical properties?... different physical states? Chemical Bonding and Properties Difference in

More information

Unit 5 Chemical Bonding

Unit 5 Chemical Bonding Unit 5 Chemical Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding Ionic Compounds Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds. Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically

More information

Chapter 6, Section 6.1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding. Objectives. ii) Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds.

Chapter 6, Section 6.1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding. Objectives. ii) Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. Chapter 6, Section 6.1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding i) Define chemical bond. Objectives ii) Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. iii) Describe ionic and covalent bonding. iv) Explain why most

More information

CHAPTER 10: CHEMICAL BONDING

CHAPTER 10: CHEMICAL BONDING CHAPTER 10: CHEMICAL BONDING Problems: 1-10, 13-48, 49(skip c), 50(b,c), 51, 52(a,d), 55-58, 61-64, 65(a-c), 66(c,d), 67-68, 69(b-d), 71, 75-80, 83-89, 90(skip b), 91(b,d), 92(c,d), 95-96, 98-99, 101 10.1

More information

Chemical Bonding. There are three types of bonding:

Chemical Bonding. There are three types of bonding: Chemical Bonding What is a chemical bond? If a system has a lower energy when the atoms are close together than when apart, then bonds exist between those atoms. A bond is an electrostatic force that holds

More information

Chemical Bonding: Chapter 7. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline

Chemical Bonding: Chapter 7. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline Chemical Bonding: Chapter 7 Chapter Outline Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Ionic Bonding Formation of Ionic Compounds Covalent Bonding Formation of Covalent Bonds Lewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic

More information

PART 3 Chemical Bonds, Valence Bond Method, and Molecular Shapes. Reference: Chapter 9 10 in textbook

PART 3 Chemical Bonds, Valence Bond Method, and Molecular Shapes. Reference: Chapter 9 10 in textbook PART 3 Chemical Bonds, Valence Bond Method, and Molecular Shapes Reference: Chapter 9 10 in textbook 1 Valence Electron Valence Electrons Define: the outer shell electrons Important for determination of

More information

Chapter 7 Chemical Bonding

Chapter 7 Chemical Bonding Chapter 7 Chemical Bonding 7.1 Ionic Bonding Octet rule: In forming compounds atoms lose, gain or share electrons to attain a noble gas configuration with 8 electrons in their outer shell (s 2 p 6 ), except

More information

Chapter 8. Homework. Valence Electrons. Molecular Structure & Bonding. Example of Lewis Dot Symbols

Chapter 8. Homework. Valence Electrons. Molecular Structure & Bonding. Example of Lewis Dot Symbols Homework Chapter 8 Bonding and Molecular Shapes: Fundamental Concepts Chapter 8 21, 23, 31, 35, 39, 47, 51, 57, 61, 65, 71, 73, 81, 83, 89, 105, 109, 113 Molecular Structure & Bonding Structure Refers

More information

Bonding. Chapter 8. Sep 4 9:04 AM

Bonding. Chapter 8. Sep 4 9:04 AM Chapter 8 Sep 4 9:04 AM Ionic : The bonding forces that result from the electrostatic attractions of the closely packed. oppositely charged ions. Ionic Compounds: When a metal reacts with a nonmetal Properties:

More information

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity

More information

Chapter 8. Chemical Bonding. Introduction. Molecular and Ionic Compounds. Chapter 8 Topics. Ionic and Covalent. Ionic and Covalent

Chapter 8. Chemical Bonding. Introduction. Molecular and Ionic Compounds. Chapter 8 Topics. Ionic and Covalent. Ionic and Covalent Introduction Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding How and why to atoms come together (bond) to form compounds? Why do different compounds have such different properties? What do molecules look like in 3 dimensions?

More information

Bonding Theories. Why Do Atoms Bond? Principles of Chemistry: Chapter 9 Chemical bonding. A Molecular Approach, 1 st Ed.

Bonding Theories. Why Do Atoms Bond? Principles of Chemistry: Chapter 9 Chemical bonding. A Molecular Approach, 1 st Ed. Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1 st Ed. Nivaldo Tro Chapter 9 Chemical bonding Bonding Theories Explain how and why atoms attach together why some combination of atoms are stable and others

More information

Ex. 1) F F bond in F = 0 < % covalent, no transfer of electrons

Ex. 1) F F bond in F = 0 < % covalent, no transfer of electrons #52 Notes Unit 7: Bonding Ch. Bonding I. Bond Character Bonds are usually combinations of ionic and covalent character. The electronegativity difference is used to determine a bond s character. Electronegativity

More information

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic compounds. Chemical bonds are electrostatic forces; they

More information

Chapter 8 Covalent bonding

Chapter 8 Covalent bonding Chapter 8 Covalent bonding A metal and a nonmetal transfer electrons An ionic bond Two metals just mix and don t react An alloy What do two nonmetals do? Neither one will give away an electron So they

More information

LEWIS STRUCTURES. 1. For the A-group elements, the number of valence electrons of an atom is equal to the group number.

LEWIS STRUCTURES. 1. For the A-group elements, the number of valence electrons of an atom is equal to the group number. Revised 12/2015 LEWIS STRUCTURES Chemistry 1104 L The purpose of this experiment is to gain practical experience of drawing lewis structures and to use molecular models to represent the three-dimensional

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonding

Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic Bond is a chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions. Covalent Bond is a chemical bond that is sharing electrons between two

More information

Chemical Bonding. Example with NaCl: You already know 2 types of bonding Ionic Covalent There are really 2 categories of bonding:

Chemical Bonding. Example with NaCl: You already know 2 types of bonding Ionic Covalent There are really 2 categories of bonding: Chemical Bonding You already know 2 types of bonding Ionic Covalent There are really 2 categories of bonding: 1) intramolecular (inside molecules) Ionic, covalent and polar covalent 2) intermolecular (between

More information

Drawing Lewis Structures

Drawing Lewis Structures Drawing Lewis Structures 1. Add up all of the valence electrons for the atoms involved in bonding 2. Write the symbols for the elements and show connectivity with single bonds (2 electrons shared). a.

More information

Chapter 7. Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Ionic Bonds. Types of Bonds. Quick Review of Bond Types. Covalent Bonds

Chapter 7. Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Ionic Bonds. Types of Bonds. Quick Review of Bond Types. Covalent Bonds Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds Chapter 7 Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure Intermolecular forces (much weaker than bonds) must be broken Ionic bonds must be broken 1 Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds

More information

Section 12.1 Chapter 12 Characteristics of Bonds and Structures Objectives

Section 12.1 Chapter 12 Characteristics of Bonds and Structures Objectives Objectives 1. To learn about ionic and covalent bonds and explain how they are formed - what holds compounds together? 2. To learn about the polar covalent bond are all covalent bonds equal? 3. To understand

More information

Chemistry: Chapter 6

Chemistry: Chapter 6 Ellen Duong, Jake Macneal, Mikelanxhelo Novruzaj, Enxhi Rrapi, Weijia Wang Chemistry: Chapter 6 Vocabulary Chemical bond: mutual electrical attraction between nuclei and valence electrons of different

More information

8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table

8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 11 Review PERIODIC Table Recall, Mendeleev and Meyer organized the ordering the periodic table based on a combination of three components: 1. Atomic Number

More information

Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule.

Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule. Covalent Bonds The bond formed when atoms share electrons is called a covalent bond. (Unlike ionic bonds, which involve the complete transfer of electrons). A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

More information

Lewis Structures. Molecular Shape. VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory)

Lewis Structures. Molecular Shape. VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory) Lewis Structures Molecular Shape VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory) PART 1: Ionic Compounds Complete the table of Part 1 by writing: The Lewis dot structures for each metallic and

More information

3s 2 3p 4. 2s 2 2p 1. Ionic Compounds. Chemical bonds. Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols

3s 2 3p 4. 2s 2 2p 1. Ionic Compounds. Chemical bonds. Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols Chemical bonds Chemical bond -- a strong attractive force between atoms that binds them together to form chemical compounds There are three classes of chemical bonds: Ionic bonds -- electrostatic forces

More information

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the

More information

Chemical Bonding. Chemical Bonds: Attractive forces between nuclei and electrons that hold atoms together in compounds.

Chemical Bonding. Chemical Bonds: Attractive forces between nuclei and electrons that hold atoms together in compounds. Chemical Bonding In nature, most elements are not found as individual atoms. How are most elements found? Chemically combined with other elements in compounds. These atoms are held together by: Chemical

More information

EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory

EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory Materials: Molecular Model Kit INTRODUCTION Although it has recently become possible to image molecules and even atoms using a high-resolution microscope,

More information

II. Electron Sharing. B. Isomers and Resonance

II. Electron Sharing. B. Isomers and Resonance COVALENT BONDS I. Introduction- A. Polar Bond: When nonmetals bond covalently with a large difference in electronegativity, a polar bond is formed. A polar bond has a partial separation of charges. Polar

More information

Models of Chemical Bonding

Models of Chemical Bonding Models of Chemical Bonding Bonds are forces holding atoms or ions together Bonds form as a result of lowering of the total energy (energy of separated species is higher than that of bonded species) 9.1

More information

Effect of unshared pairs on molecular geometry

Effect of unshared pairs on molecular geometry Chapter 7 covalent bonding Introduction Lewis dot structures are misleading, for example, could easily represent that the electrons are in a fixed position between the 2 nuclei. The more correct designation

More information

Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding

Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding Reading Assignment C16! 1. Read C16 pp. 436-469 and while reading, continue building your science vocabulary table that includes all terms in bold face type and all terms you

More information

Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Previous Chapter Table of Contents Next Chapter Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Section 9.1: Molecular Geometry and the VSEPR Model Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional

More information

!"#$%&'()(!*+,-./0(1* (

!#$%&'()(!*+,-./0(1* ( (!"#$%&'()(!*+,-./0(1*-.23-.4( ( ( (!"#"$%&'()$*%#+,'(-(.+/&/*+,%&(01"2+34$5( 6%#+,"(!/$75#38+(92+41( CHAPTER 4: molecules Learning Objectives:! Define covalent bonding and difference between it and ionic

More information

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonds Three types: Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms Ionic Bonding

More information

Chapter 8: Covalent Bonding

Chapter 8: Covalent Bonding Chapter 8: Covalent Bonding Section 8.1 Section 8.2 Section 8.3 Section 8.4 Section 8.5 The Covalent Bond Naming Molecules Molecular Structures Molecular Shapes Electronegativity and Polarity Review Vocabulary

More information

UNIT 6 - CHEMICAL BONDING

UNIT 6 - CHEMICAL BONDING INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL BONDING I. Types of Chemical Bonding A. : mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence e- of different atoms that binds the atoms together B. Why do atoms bond together?

More information

Chapter 8: Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8: Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8: Concepts of Chemical Bonding Learning Outcomes: Write Lewis symbols for atoms and ions. Define lattice energy and be able to arrange compounds in order of increasing lattice energy based on

More information

Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds

Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together. Chemical bonds form by the attraction between the positive nucleus of one atom and the negative electrons

More information

Outline Covalent Bonds. Covalent Bonds

Outline Covalent Bonds. Covalent Bonds Outline 5.1 Covalent Bonds 5.2 Covalent Bonds and the Periodic Table 5.3 Multiple Covalent Bonds 5.4 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 5.10 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds 5.11 Characteristics of Molecular Compounds

More information

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment.

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment. Molecular and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland ommunity ollege for the use of this experiment. Objectives To construct molecular models for covalently bonded atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions

More information

Easter School Physical Sciences Grade 11. Chemical Bonding 31 March 2013

Easter School Physical Sciences Grade 11. Chemical Bonding 31 March 2013 Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Bonding Covalent bonding Electronegativity in covalent bonding Shapes of molecules Polar covalent substances Bond

More information

Oxidation Numbers: Rules

Oxidation Numbers: Rules Oxidation Numbers: Rules 1) The oxidation number of the atoms in any free, uncombined element, is zero 2) The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a compound is zero 3) The sum of the oxidation

More information

Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding

Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding I. Introduction to Chemical Bonding A. A Chemical Bond is a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together.

More information

Hydrogen Oxygen. Chlorine. Chloride ion

Hydrogen Oxygen. Chlorine. Chloride ion Chapter 2. Molecular structure and bonding Lewis structures 2.1 The octet rule Lewis structures: a review Lewis Theory 3.1 The octet rule All elements except hydrogen ( hydrogen have a duet of electrons)

More information

LOCALIZED ELECTRON (LE) THEORY

LOCALIZED ELECTRON (LE) THEORY I. LEWIS STRUCTURES LOCALIZED ELECTRON (LE) THEORY A. Background. Lewis structures (named for G.N. Lewis) provide a two-dimensional picture of bonding in covalent compounds. They are based on the theory

More information

Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules. Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana.

Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules. Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana. Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana www.slpsorg.com Chemical Bond: The force of attractions which holds atoms or ions together is called chemical bonds.

More information

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms The atoms in vitamin C (ascorbic acid) bond together in a very specific orientation to form the shape of the molecule. The molecules collect

More information

Molecular Models: The shape of simple molecules and ions

Molecular Models: The shape of simple molecules and ions Molecular Models: The shape of simple molecules and ions Background The shape of a molecule is very important when investigating its properties and reactivity. For example, compare CO 2 and SO 2. Carbon

More information

Chemical Bonding -- Lewis Theory (Chapter 9)

Chemical Bonding -- Lewis Theory (Chapter 9) Chemical Bonding -- Lewis Theory (Chapter 9) Ionic Bonding 1. Ionic Bond Electrostatic attraction of positive (cation) and negative (anion) ions Neutral Atoms e - transfer (IE and EA) cation + anion Ionic

More information

Name: Date: Period: Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 1

Name: Date: Period: Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 1 Name: Date: Period: Guided Notes Chemical Bonding Part 1 Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds A is the force that holds two atoms together. Chemical bonds form by the attraction between the positive nucleus

More information

Covalent Bonding. Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides. Exit

Covalent Bonding. Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides. Exit Covalent Bonding Section 8.1 The Covalent Bond Section 8.2 Naming Molecules Section 8.3 Molecular Structures Section 8.4 Molecular Shapes Section 8.5 Electronegativity and Polarity Click a hyperlink or

More information

MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS FORMATION. Distance. Potential Energy BOND LENGTH. BOND ENERGY bond and. form neutral PROPERTIES. Page 1 of 9

MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS FORMATION. Distance. Potential Energy BOND LENGTH. BOND ENERGY bond and. form neutral PROPERTIES. Page 1 of 9 CHEMICAL BONDS Covalent Bonding MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules indicates the relative numbers of

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Valence Electrons. core and CHAPTER 9. Introduction. Bonds - Attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds

Valence Electrons. core and CHAPTER 9. Introduction. Bonds - Attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds Structure and Molecular Bonding CAPTER 9 1 Introduction Bonds - Attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds Valence Electrons - The electrons involved in bonding are in the outermost (valence)

More information

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING 12.1 THE CHEMICAL BOND CONCEPT CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING octet rule: In forming compounds atoms lose, gain or share electrons to attain a noble gas configuration with 8 electrons in their outer shell.

More information

Chemical Bonding. Introduction to Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding. Introduction to Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonding Introduction to Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonds A chemical bond is a mutual attraction between nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together. A chemical

More information

Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories

Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 1 0 P a g e 1 Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories Homework: Read Chapter 10: Work out sample/practice

More information

The Lewis electron dot structures below indicate the valence electrons for elements in Groups 1-2 and Groups 13-18

The Lewis electron dot structures below indicate the valence electrons for elements in Groups 1-2 and Groups 13-18 AP EMISTRY APTER REVIEW APTER 7: VALENT BNDING You should understand the nature of the covalent bond. You should be able to draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for any atom, molecule, or polyatomic ion.

More information

COVALENT BONDING. [MH5; Chapter 7]

COVALENT BONDING. [MH5; Chapter 7] COVALENT BONDING [MH5; Chapter 7] Covalent bonds occur when electrons are equally shared between two atoms. The electrons are not always equally shared by both atoms; these bonds are said to be polar covalent.

More information

Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification

Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification Elements of the Lewis Theory Chemical Bonding Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification 1. Valence electrons play a fundamental role in chemical bonding 2. Sometimes bonding involves the TRANSFER

More information

5/26/2015. Chapter 10 Structures of Solids and Liquids. VSEPR Theory. Two Electron Groups. Shapes of Molecules. Two Electron Groups with Double Bonds

5/26/2015. Chapter 10 Structures of Solids and Liquids. VSEPR Theory. Two Electron Groups. Shapes of Molecules. Two Electron Groups with Double Bonds Chapter 10 Structures of Solids and Liquids 10.2 Shapes of Molecules and Ions (VSEPR Theory) VSEPR Theory In the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR), the electron groups around a central

More information

Section 6-2 Covalent Bonding

Section 6-2 Covalent Bonding Section 6-2 Covalent Bonding Molecule A neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. A single molecule is an individual unit that can exist on its own. Molecular Compound A chemical compound

More information

Chem 11 Practice Questions for Ch. 8

Chem 11 Practice Questions for Ch. 8 Chem 11 Practice Questions for Ch. 8 1. Atoms having equal or nearly equal electronegativities are expected to form A) no bonds B) polar covalent bonds C) nonpolar covalent bonds D) ionic bonds E) covalent

More information

Section #2. Downloadable at:

Section #2. Downloadable at: Section #2 Downloadable at: http://tekim.undip.ac.id/staf/istadi 1 Compounds: Introduction to Bonding The noble gases - helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn) occur

More information

George Mason University General Chemistry 211 Chapter 10 The Shapes (Geometry) of Molecules

George Mason University General Chemistry 211 Chapter 10 The Shapes (Geometry) of Molecules Acknowledgements George Mason University General Chemistry 211 Chapter 10 The Shapes (Geometry) of Molecules Course Text Chemistry the Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 7 th edition, 2011, McGraw-Hill

More information

EXPERIMENT - 1. Molecular Geometry- Lewis Dot structures

EXPERIMENT - 1. Molecular Geometry- Lewis Dot structures EXPERIMENT - 1 Molecular Geometry- Lewis Dot structures INTRODUCTION Although it has recently become possible to image molecules and even atoms using a high-resolution microscope, most of our information

More information

Geometry of Covalent Compounds

Geometry of Covalent Compounds Geometry of Covalent Compounds Introduction: In order to utilize lab time and use the molecular model kits most effectively, we recommend completing as many of the Lewis Dot Structures as you can before

More information

Chem1028/ (Please note that you have to attend lectures to complete this set of notes please use your molecular model kits.

Chem1028/ (Please note that you have to attend lectures to complete this set of notes please use your molecular model kits. Chem1028/9 2012 MOLECULAR GEOMETRIES AND BONDING THEORIES (Please note that you have to attend lectures to complete this set of notes please use your molecular model kits.) Mrs Meirim / Room C103 1 BONDING

More information

Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding

Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding 6-1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding 1. A chemical bond is a mutual between the nuclei and electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together. 2. By bonding with each

More information

Chapter 9-10 practice test

Chapter 9-10 practice test Class: Date: Chapter 9-10 practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which one of the following is most likely to be an ionic compound?

More information

ch9 and 10 practice test

ch9 and 10 practice test 1. Which of the following covalent bonds is the most polar (highest percent ionic character)? A. Al I B. Si I C. Al Cl D. Si Cl E. Si P 2. What is the hybridization of the central atom in ClO 3? A. sp

More information

Lewis Structures. Sections Learning goals:

Lewis Structures. Sections Learning goals: 1 Lewis Structures. Sections 3.3-3.7 Learning goals: (1) Writing valid Lewis structures for the constitutional structure of molecular substances for a given composition. (2) Predicting molecular geometry

More information

Chapter 12. Chemical Bonding

Chapter 12. Chemical Bonding Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Fig. 12-CO, p. 358 p. 359 Chapter 12 Table of Contents 12.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 12.2 Electronegativity 12.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 12.4 Stable Electron Configurations

More information