1 Gender-Age Marker Toolkit Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection
2 2 / About the toolkit / 3 About the toolkit What is the Gender-Age Marker toolkit? The toolkit introduces the European Commission s new Gender-Age Marker for humanitarian action. It provides an overview of the tool and its application, as well as guidance on how to integrate gender and age concerns in humanitarian action and on how to apply the marker to humanitarian projects. Who is the toolkit for and how can it be used? The toolkit addresses different audiences with varying needs and contains detailed guidance. However, it does not have to be read from beginning to end. Rather, readers are encouraged to use those parts of the toolkit that are most relevant to them. Specially marked sections introduce essential aspects of the marker, provide additional tips and practical examples (with particular symbols, text boxes or different layout). Users can focus on or skip certain parts, depending on their needs. Humanitarian workers preparing or assessing project proposals and reports for the Commission should use the chapters "Using the Gender-Age Marker" and "What to do, if?" for detailed guidance on how to mark actions. Finally, a Gender-Age Marker Assessment Card that is available at the end of the toolkit and can be printed separately can be used and carried around as an aide-mémoire that summarises the key elements to be considered under each criterion of the marker, where to insert or find relevant information in proposals or reports and how to mark. How was the toolkit developed? The toolkit was devel oped in collaboration between the European Commission Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (DG ECHO) and the INSPIRE Consortium, involving a team of independent experts. The team included a senior member of the Gender Standby Capacity Project - GenCap, a pool of experts that is responsible for disseminating the IASC Gender Marker. The team tested the new ECHO Gender-Age Marker and this toolkit in different contexts (Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Colombia as well as, in a remote mode, in the Pacific region). This pilot phase included interviews and simulations carried out with DG ECHO staff and a variety of partner organisations. The toolkit was extensively revised on the basis of the results of the pil ot exercise. Policy makers, managers and humanitarian staff, for example, can use the "Overview " section to get a basic understanding of the marker, including its most essential "need to know and remember" aspects. Champions for gender and age within humanitarian organisations can use the chapter "The operational importance of gender and age" to support their efforts at convincing colleagues, managers, partners or other relevant stakeholders that paying greater attention to gender and age is a matter of quality programming. Humanitarian workers designing, implementing or assessing actions can use the chapter "Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions" for ideas and suggestions on how to make actions more sensitive to the different needs and capacities of women and men of different ages. Users will find essential information about the criteria of the marker in this chapter.
3 4 / Table of contents / 5 Table of contents Overview: The marker in brief 7 1. Introduction: The operational importance of gender and age Criteria tip sheets: Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions Gender and age analysis and SADD 22 What is a gender and age analysis? 22 How to do a gender and age analysis? 24 Sex- and age-disaggregated data 27 Targeted actions Adapted assistance 34 What is adapted assistance? 34 How to adapt assistance? Prevent or mitigate negative effects 39 What kinds of potential negative effects are there? 39 How to assess negative effects? 40 How to prevent or mitigate negative effects? Adequate participation 45 What is participation and why is it important? 45 How to facilitate effective participation? Application: Using the Gender-Age Marker Marking step by step Assessment principles Case examples Determining the mark Where to include and find relevant information? Special guidance for urgent actions and actions funded under emergency decisions Which actions are marked "N/A"? Troubleshooting: What to do, if? 69 1 Only one dimension (age or gender) is well reflected Another important diversity dimension is missing The context makes it difficult to integrate gender and age The partner has made progress but still does not meet the criteria The action is heterogeneous There are no potential negative effects Different age brackets are used to report beneficiary data 74 Resources 76 Glossary 76 Helpful links and resources 77 Gender-Age Marker Assessment Card 82
4 6 / Overview The marker in brief Provides a concise introduction to the most important features of the Gender-Age Marker.
5 8 / Table of contents OVERVIEW / 9 Definition The European Commission s humanitarian Gender-Age Marker is a tool that assesses to what extent each humanitarian action integrates gender and age considerations. Purpose The Gender-Age Marker aims at improving the quality of humanitarian aid actions. It fosters assistance that is more sensitive to the differentiated needs and capacities of women, girls, boys and men by creating a forum for the European Commission s humanitarian staff and partners to constructively discuss gender and age issues in humanitarian projects. Innovative aspects The Gender-Age Marker builds on lessons learned from existing markers and represents a new generation of assessment tools. This marker has the foll owing innovative characteristics: It considers gender issues and also explicitly takes age into account (the two universal determinants). It assesses proposals and project implementation. It focuses on quality criteria (to avoid a "tick-the-box" cosmetic approach to gender and age issues). It is a collaborative learning tool, engaging both partners and staff in a constructive dial ogue. This tool also tracks gender and age sensitive actions and financial allocations, allowing DG ECHO to monitor its own performance in integrating gender and age. The Gender-Age Marker, furthermore, helps to ensure coherence with the gender policy for humanitarian assistance, the Commission Staff Working Document "Gender in Humanitarian Aid: Different Needs, Adapted Assistance" (SWD(2013) 290 final).
6 10 / OVERVIEW / 11 Criteria The Gender-Age Marker uses four criteria to assess how strongly humanitarian actions integrate gender and age considerations. 3. Negative effects Does the action prevent or mitigate negative effects? 1. Gender and age analysis / SADD Does the proposal contain an adequate and brief gender and age analysis and does the final report contain sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD)? AGE % Key elements to consider in this criterion: Potential negative effects of the action on different gender and age groups identified and prevented (e.g. stigmatisation, violence or tensions between groups). Major gender- or age-related negative effects arising from the context identified and mitigated (e.g. discrimination, forced recruitment or sexual- and gender-based violence). Key elements to consider in this criterion: Gender and age analysis at proposal stage (analysis of different gender and age groups in terms of their roles and control over resources; inequality/discrimination, including in the level of access to assistance; effects of the crisis; capacities for coping with, responding to, recovering from and preparing for crises; and specific needs). SADD at final report stage. For targeted actions: Justification of the choice of the target group; information on whether the involvement of other groups is considered and, if not, what the potential consequences of not involving them are. Please provide relevant information in the Single Form sections "problem, needs and risk analysis" and "beneficiaries" 2. Adapted assistance Is the assistance adapted to the specific needs and capacities of different gender and age groups? Key elements to consider in this criterion: Systematic adaptation of assistance with concrete examples and no gaps. Measures to avoid the exclusion of certain groups from humanitarian goods and services and to ensure that all relevant gender and age groups enjoy equitable access. Please provide relevant information in the Single Form sections "problem, needs and risk analysis", "logic of intervention" or "Gender-Age Marker" 4. Adequate participation Do relevant gender and age groups adequately participate in the design, implementation and evaluation of the action? Key elements to consider in this criterion: Participatory approach involving women, girls, boys and men of different ages, adapted to the context to minimise response delays and including adequate techniques and contents (e.g. same-sex consultations, child-friendly methods). Adequate composition of humanitarian teams in terms of gender, age and experience in integrating gender and age concerns. Please provide relevant information in the Single Form section "involvement of beneficiaries" The suggested Single Form sections are indicative and information may be provided elsewhere, if appropriate. Partners can also provide additional details about each criterion in the Single Form section Gender-Age Marker. Please provide relevant information in the Single Form section "logic of intervention"
7 12 / OVERVIEW / 13 Process and scope Partner organisations assess their proposals according to the marker s criteria and propose a mark between 0 and 2 for their proposed actions in the Single Form (e-request). DG ECHO verifies and, if necessary, adjusts this initial mark at proposal stage. Furthermore, DG ECHO also marks projects at monitoring and final reporting stages. Determine the mark, depending on how many criteria are met NUMBER of criteria met mark meaning All types of humanitarian actions funded by DG ECHO are marked. However, partners and DG ECHO staff mark urgent actions and actions funded under emergency decisions for gender and age only once the final report is submitted. For those few humanitarian actions that do not only deal directly with affected populations such as logistics or emergency telecommunications the marker is considered as "not applicable" (N/A). To apply the marker Assess whether the action meets the four criteria of the marker The action does not deal directly with affected populations N/A The action meets none or only 1 criterion 0 The action meets 2 or 3 criteria 1 The action meets all 4 criteria 2 The marker is not applicable The action barely integrates gender and age The action integrates gender and age to a certain extent The action strongly integrates gender and age Gender and age analysis / SADD Yes Not sufficiently Adapted assistance Yes Not sufficiently The above overview gives a snapshot of the Gender-Age Marker. The following sections of this toolkit provide more detailed guidance on its application. Prevent or mitigate negative effects Yes Not sufficiently Adequate participation Yes Not sufficiently
8 14 / Table of contents / 15 1 Introduction: The operational importance of gender and age Presents arguments and examples demonstrating that humanitarian aid is of higher quality and more effective if it integrates issues related to gender and age.
9 16 / 1 / The operational importance of gender and age / 17 The operational importance of gender and age Humanitarian assistance responds to the needs of people in emergencies. Women, girls, boys, men, young children, adolescents and older people are affected in different ways by crises and emergencies and have different capacities for coping with and preparing for these situations. Quality humanitarian assistance needs to take these differences into account. At the same time, humanitarian situations can expose people to age- or gender-specific negative effects, such as sexual- and gender-based violence, forced recruitment and sexual exploitation and abuse. Humanitarian assistance needs to address these negative effects. In some situations, humanitarian assistance also benefits from a window of opportunity created by the crisis for tackling vulnerabilities by challenging discrimination and inequalities based on gender and age. Integrating gender and age into humanitarian programming is therefore essential. This does not mean doing different things but rather doing things differently. It renders humanitarian assistance more effective as greater sensitivity to gender and age helps to: better meet the specific needs of different gender and age groups; ensure that all relevant groups enjoy equitable access to humanitarian goods and services; better target assistance to the most vulnerable; better protect young and old, male and female population groups from negative effects created by the context, crisis or emergency; better recognise and prevent harm that the action itself could do to women, girls, boys and men; better involve women and men of relevant ages in the design and implementation of humanitarian actions, empowering different population groups to contribute to recovery efforts and making assistance more efficient. The following examples demonstrate how integrating gender and age makes a difference to the quality of humanitarian assistance. Some key messages from DG ECHO's Gender Policy* Natural disasters and human-made crises are not gender neutral they have a different impact on women, girls, boys and men. Thus, in order to respond effectively to the differentiated needs of various gender-related groups, humanitarian assistance supported by the European Union must take considerations of gender into account. The systematic integration of a gender approach into humanitarian aid is an operational requirement for effective quality programming, as well as a matter of compliance with the EU humanitarian mandate and international law and commitments. Gender-insensitive operations are less effective because they may not reach a large part of the affected population often the most vulnerable or may fail to respond adequately to their specific needs. Moreover, they can expose beneficiaries to serious negative effects (even life-threatening ones), such as sexual- and gender-based violence. [...] Without a gender-sensitive approach, humanitarian projects risk being off-target, failing to meet their objectives, inadvertently doing harm and being in breach of the humanitarian mandate and principles. Strengthening the gender approach within the European Union's (EU) humanitarian aid is a commitment made in the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid, which highlights the need to integrate gender considerations, to promote the active participation of women in humanitarian aid and to incorporate protection strategies against sexual- and gender-based violence. In most countries around the world, gender inequalities repeatedly make women and girls more vulnerable and disadvantaged. However, women are not simply victims. They can also play an active and important role in contributing to peace and resilience. [...] Indeed, different gender-related groups have particular capacities, knowledge, and perspectives, which they can use to contribute to recovery, build peace, promote resilience and foster disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction (DRR). * Excerpts from the Commission's Staff Working Document on Gender in Humanitarian Aid: Different Needs, Adapted Assistance (SWD(2013) 290 final)
10 18 / 1 / The operational importance of gender and age / 19 Example 1 - Hygiene awareness targeting women and men In Niger there is an NGO that provides water, sanitation and hygiene ("WASH") services in a camp for internally displaced persons (IDPs). In most families, women are responsible for the hygiene of the children and the homestead. The NGO therefore recruits and trains a group of women to go from house to house to provide hygiene education. In the following months, however, the NGO notices that diarrhoea remains as prevalent as before and that hygiene practices have not changed much. The local women explain that their husbands control the household resources. The men are often not willing to invest in additional water storage containers for drinking water, and they sell the soap distributed by humanitarian agencies on the market. Another humanitarian organisation analysed who within households controls resources and makes decisions, as part of its gender and age analysis. The organisation also recruited male hygiene educators for its hygiene promotion campaign and deployed them to the fields where many men work during the day. As a result of the increased awareness among men and women, there was a greater change in hygiene practices and the number of deaths caused by diarrhoea declined significantly. Example 2 - Respect for privacy needs of women and girls 1 The massive earthquake in Pakistan in 2005 mostly affected communities that actively practised purdah (women s seclusion from men). Understanding this practice and the restrictions it induced for women was necessary from the start in order to develop an effective and culturally appropriate response. For instance, in a project led by Oxfam, beneficiaries were consulted, and gender and culturally sensitive toilet and bathing blocks for men and women were rapidly designed, with additional screening to ensure the privacy of such facilities for women and girls. Oxfam also incorporated special menstruation units that allowed women and girls to clean their cloths without feeling exposed. Example 3 - Livelihood opportunities for older people 2 When camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Northern Uganda were phased out starting in 2007, many of those remaining in camps or transit sites were older people and young children. Like most IDPs, older people had lost their livelihoods due to the displacement. Nonetheless, most support programmes focused on the young and able bodied. For this reason, one NGO started consulting with older people, who were predominantly women, and offered support for running market stalls and selling kitchen garden produce. The intervention helped to legitimise their position as stall workers and protected them from harassment. It also allowed them to increase their income, reinvest some profits in kitchen gardens and better support the grandchildren left in their care. Example 4 - Health messages targeting men 3 During the 2011 cholera outbreak in Haiti, mortality rates disaggregated by sex and age revealed that more men than women were dying of the disease. Indeed, few men were going to Cholera Treatment Centres. Humanitarian actors consulted with affected communities and discovered that men did not have accurate information about the symptoms of cholera, mistaking its symptoms for those of HIV. Due to the social stigma surrounding HIV, men did not want to seek medical care and were as a result dying. In response to these findings, humanitarian workers developed targeted health messages for men, which led to a decrease in their mortality levels.
11 20 / Table of contents / 21 2 Criteria tip sheets: Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions Supports humanitarian workers in making actions more sensitive to gender and age issues.
12 22 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / 23 Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions This chapter elaborates on how to integrate gender and age into humanitarian programming. It provides guidance on the four criteria of the Gender-Age Marker: (1) how to conduct a gender and age analysis and use SADD; (2) how to adapt humanitarian assistance to the specific needs and capacities of women, girls, boys, men, older people, young children and infants; (3) how to prevent or mitigate negative effects; and (4) how to ensure adequate participation of all relevant gender and age groups. 1. Gender and age analysis and SADD Key elements to consider in this criterion: Gender and age analysis SADD Justification of target group Please include the gender and age analysis in the Single Form section "problem, needs and risk analysis" and the sex- and agedisagregated data and selection criteria for beneficiaries in the section "beneficiaries". Guiding questions for a gender and age analysis What roles do women, girls, boys, men and older people traditionally play and who controls resources in the household and the society? Do any gender or age groups in the society face discrimination including in their ability to access humanitarian assistance and are particularly vulnerable? How does the crisis or emergency affect different gender and age groups and their roles in different ways? What capacities do different population groups have for coping with, responding to, recovering from and preparing for future crises? What specific needs do women, girls, boys and men of different ages have for assistance and protection? Are there any specifically vulnerable groups or groups with particular needs that should be targeted for certain types of assistance? If the action intends to target only one or a few specific gender and age groups, what other groups might need to be involved as well and what would be the consequences of not involving them (e.g. tensions, stigmatisation, failure of objectives, etc.)? What is a gender and age analysis? A gender and age analysis is the necessary basis for making humanitarian assistance more sensitive to gender and age. It helps humanitarian organisations to deconstruct "the affected population" and better understand what specific needs and capacities women, girls, boys, men and older people affected by an emergency have and what specific threats they face. This understanding is a precondition for providing assistance that is well targeted to the specific needs of the different groups. That is, a gender and age analysis is the basis for a more effective humanitarian response that creates less unintended negative effects. A gender and age analysis should even if brief provide answers to the following key guiding questions:
13 24 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / 25 How to do a gender and age analysis? Examples of adapted questions in needs assessments A few pragmatic steps can furnish humanitarian partners with adequate information, while ensuring that the required effort and time for conducting the gender and age analysis are reasonable. Integrate gender and age aspects into needs assessments First, humanitarian organisations should integrate gender, age and other diversity dimensions into their needs assessments. This means adapting who asks, who is asked, how questions are asked and what is asked. Who asks? Men often feel more at ease revealing information to men and women to women. Needs assessment teams should include male and female members and in most cases, preference should be given to same-sex interviews or discussions. Who is asked? Men, women, children and older persons often have different perceptions of needs, priorities and negative effects or threats. Needs assessments should try to gather the views of members of different groups. How questions are asked? Special methodologies and facilitation techniques have been developed to gather input from specific groups, to ensure otherwise marginalised voices are being heard and to gather information on sensitive issues. They include for example child-friendly facilitation techniques, the use of pictorials in communication and confidential consultations. What is asked? Standard needs assessment questions can be adapted to put greater emphasis on gender, age and other dimensions of diversity. The table below provides practical examples. Sample question for interviews or direct observation Name of interviewee Are there latrines at the site? Is there a queue at the main water point? Were school-aged children observed out of school? What are the main safety issues people in your community face? How many meals did people in this household eat yesterday? Adapted question Name, age and sex of interviewee Are there separate, lockable and well-lit latrines at the site? Is there a queue at the main water point and who is in the queue? Were school-aged children observed out of school? Boys or girls? Of what ages? What are the main safety issues that women and men of different ages face? How many meals and what kind of food did infants, girls, boys, women, men and older people in this household eat yesterday? Has there been an increase in a specific disease lately in this community? Has there been an increase in a specific disease lately in this community? Whom does it affect? What are the most important concerns in this community? What are the most important concerns in this community for children? (For women? For older people? Etc.)
14 26 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / 27 Pragmatically adapt the approach to circumstances How detailed a gender and age analysis can and should be depends on the situation. When an emergency is new and acute and humanitarian actors are arriving in the country, it may be challenging to immediately elaborate a very detailed gender and age analysis. Nevertheless, partner organisations should strive from the very beginning to identify the key vulnerabilities, needs and capacities of young and old, women and men. Where partners have been engaged over a longer period of time, they should implement a more detailed analysis. Make use of existing knowledge about the affected society In addition to the data generated through needs assessments, a gender and age analysis requires a good understanding of the context and society. Especially when humanitarian workers arrive on the ground, they should actively draw on existing sources, such as colleagues who have been working in the context for a long time. Simply asking them what special characteristics one needs to be aware of can go a long way. Analyse capacities too, not only needs Humanitarian organisations are steadily getting better at understanding the differences between vulnerabilities and needs of different gender and age groups. Still, it has not yet become standard practice to also look at the capacities of these groups to cope with, respond to, recover from and prepare for future crises. A gender and age analysis cannot be complete without an assessment of capacities. The capacities of highly vulnerable groups, such as older people or female headed households, tend to be especially underestimated. Example 7 - Routine assessment of capacities An NGO working with refugees in Bangladesh developed a simple yet effective practice for assessing capacities. Its standard assessment templates do not only ask affected populations to describe where the most acute needs lie. For each subject, they also enquire what the communities or individuals are doing to address the problem and what further solutions they would suggest. Example 5 - Fear of honour killings in Pakistan 4 When rescue teams arrived in the Northern Rocky Highlands in Pakistan following the 2005 earthquake, even critically injured women refused to board the helicopters. Although most of them were Pakistani nationals, the all-male rescue teams did not know that some communities practiced honour killings and that women risked being killed if they boarded a male staffed helicopter on their own. Challenge assumptions It is essential that humanitarian workers continue to critically assess the assumptions they make about a situation or society. Do assumed social practices actually correspond to reality? Are those groups that we assume to be the most vulnerable actually the most vulnerable? Example 6 - Community care for older persons in DRC Respect for older persons is very important in many African communities. Some members of an IDP community in Eastern DRC claimed that community solidarity mechanisms would ensure that older persons are looked after. Humanitarian NGOs providing services to this community therefore assumed that no special provisions were needed for older persons. However, targeted questions during a site visit revealed that the solidarity mechanisms had broken down and that many older people were suffering from severe neglect, with little access to food or water. Sex- and age-disaggregated data Sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) are an important component of a gender and age analysis. Such data help to take the analysis beyond a simple count of households and their average number of members or the total number of beneficiaries. A more indepth understanding of an affected community s sex and age profile and of the people accessing humanitarian services leads to a more accurate and effective response, by making individuals and their distinct gender- and age-related needs more visible. Example 8 - SADD for undernutrition of older people 5 During the 2012 Sahel food crisis, HelpAge International carried out a nutrition survey of older people in Haraze Albiar. The survey found a rate of global acute malnutrition of 6.1% among older people. Risk factors significantly associated with undernutrition were related to aging, having disabilities (poor eyesight and poor hearing), not attending health facilities when sick and being bedridden. The survey clearly shows the importance of understanding the impact of health on older people s nutrition situation. The analysis reveals important implications for the design and delivery of services and assistance within and beyond nutrition interventions.
15 28 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / 29 That said, it may be difficult in certain circumstances to collect SADD. Those circumstances might include the very first stages of a primary emergency, insecure environments or settings with limited humanitarian space. When this is the case, partners should note the absence of SADD and provide an estimation of the proportion of women and men within the different age groups, including infants and young children, children, adults and older people. Estimates can build on national statistics, data gathered by other humanitarian actors or small sample surveys. The Single Form requests that partners provide disaggregated beneficiary data in proposals as well as final reports. However, SADD only counts towards the Gender-Age Mark at final reporting stage. This means that to respect criterion 1, proposals must include an adequate gender and age analysis. The final report in addition needs to provide SADD. Please see chapter 4.7 of this toolkit for guidance on what to do if partners use different age brackets to record beneficiary data. for one specific group would overall not count as targeted. Individual results that are relevant only for the specific group, however, would be targeted. An action in which three of five individual results are targeted, with these results accounting for just under half of the total budget would count as targeted. Involvement in other groups Partners should also explain whether they are involving any other groups in the design and implementation of the action. The cooperation of other groups may be essential for the assistance to be effective. Targeted assistance also risks creating or increasing tensions within communities or households as it privileges one group over others and affects power relations. It is therefore crucial to explain the selection criteria on which the target group was chosen and to involve other relevant groups in the project design so as to increase their acceptance and ownership. As an example, demobilisation and reintegration programmes for ex-combatants need to engage both with traditional community leaders and with women and girls to get their perspectives on potential negative effects and possibilities. Targeted actions Certain actions exclusively target a specific gender or age group, rather than providing assistance to most or all members of a community. Targeted actions can focus for example on boys at risk of forced recruitment by armed groups, infants with special nutritional needs or women and girls at risk of sexual abuse and rape. It is assumed sometimes that these actions are automatically sensitive to gender and age. In reality, they run the risk of being based on stereotypical assumptions about gender and age roles. A proper gender and age analysis is particularly important for targeted actions to ensure that the action responds to actual needs, rather than to organisational mandates. Example 9 - Sexual- and gender-based violence response Actions targeting sexual- and gender-based violence (SGBV) risk being based on assumptions rather than evidence. Since women and girls are more often victims of SGBV than men and boys, humanitarian actions in this field sometimes exclusively target females. As men are often perpetrators of SGBV, however, they need to be included in any SGBV prevention or response programme. In addition, boys and men can also be victims of SGBV, for example where armed groups systematically rape civilians, including boys and men, as part of their conflict strategy. As in other types of actions, the gender and age analysis for targeted actions identifies the distinct needs, concerns and capacities of women, girls, boys and men of all ages to inform a more effective response. It is the analysis of the differentiated needs and capacities of these groups that serves to justify why the target group was chosen. The Single Form requests partners to indicate whether or not their action targets a specific group. Partners need to specify this for each individual result as well as for the action as a whole. They should designate the action as a whole as targeted, if the majority of activities exclusively target one or a few specific groups. For example, an action in which 70% of the budget is used to serve communities as a whole and 30 %
16 30 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / 31 Example 10 - Nutrition Pregnant and lactating women and children under five years of age have special nutritional requirements and suffer severe consequences from undernutrition. Many nutrition actions therefore focus exclusively on this group. Experience has shown, however, that other groups need to be involved in nutrition programmes as well to ensure that assistance for women and children is effective. In many societies, older women (e.g. grandmothers) and male family members (e.g. fathers or uncles) have a strong influence on the feeding practices and eating habits of mothers and children. They also influence the healthcare practices and beliefs of mothers and other caregivers. The effectiveness of nutrition programmes can therefore depend on the active involvement of these groups. In other situations, moreover, other gender or age groups may also be severely affected by undernutrition and should be included in nutrition programmes. Older persons without family support, for example, may not physically be capable of transporting food and collecting fuel for food preparation. Cases have also been recorded in which a disproportionate number of male adolescents were acutely affected by undernutrition. They were demobilised fighters, separated from their families, and did not know how to prepare food. Needs assessments should be comprehensive and use the appropriate methods to measure undernutrition in each group. Gender and age analysis good practice example The following example of a gender and age analysis included in the needs and risks analysis section of the Single Form would satisfy criterion 1 of the Gender-Age Marker. The analysis covers all crucial elements: It discusses the roles of different gender and age groups and their control over resources; it analyses discrimination and differential access to humanitarian assistance; it assesses the effects of the crisis on different gender and age groups; it details the capacities of these groups to cope and respond to the crisis; and it identifies the specific needs of young and older women and men. Please note that this is just an example to illustrate what a gender and age analysis includes, not a blueprint. Needs and risk analysis In 2013, country Z experienced very severe floods, affecting 20 million and displacing over 7 million people. [A general analysis of the humanitarian situation and its effects, as well as the current level of assistance provided would appear here.] Example 11 - Child protection Child protection seeks to prevent and respond to abuse, neglect, exploitation of and violence against children in emergencies. This includes trafficking, recruitment by armed groups and harmful traditional practices, such as child marriage, which may be prompted or worsened by the crisis. A gender and age analysis is important to challenge assumptions made about the children s gender roles, responsibilities and protection risks. For example, it may be wrongly assumed that all children recruited into armed groups or participating in demobilisation actions are boys, or that all children who experience sexual violence or exploitation are girls. The analysis will also help to understand differences among children who may be assumed to be homogenous, such as "street children" or "unaccompanied children", and to adapt the assistance to the specific experiences and needs of younger and older boys and girls. Assessment results and specific needs Host communities and displaced groups identified clean drinking water, sanitation facilities and medical services, infrastructure, food and cash/employment as their most immediate needs. While men emphasised water, infrastructure and cash/ employment, women prioritised water and sanitation, medical services and food. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) is a priority need for all communities. Over 80% of villagers do not boil their daily drinking water, people often resort to open defecation and many women and girls collect water from unprotected sources or distant locations, which increases their vulnerability to physical violence. As a result, water-related diseases like fever, diarrhoea (especially for children), scabies, other skin diseases and eye infections are the most common health problems. Many households headed by women are still in need of proper shelter, WASH supplies and food as they are often not accepted by host communities. Female doctors and other staff are not available to provide health services to pregnant women. In the communities, the notion of modesty is crucial. Women of all ages have been bathing in unclean water while fully dressed and need other clothes and the privacy to remove them.
17 32 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / 33 Among older people, 71% said that their health had been negatively affected. They complained of problems with mobility and sight, making it difficult for them to access aid. Older women, in particular, lack access to food distributions. All of the older people we interviewed directly after the floods lacked and needed access to basic sanitation, such as functioning latrines. Roles and control of resources Country Z is a male-dominated society. Men traditionally are the traders and take most decisions within the family and community, including the marriages of their daughters. Women and girls tend to have a lower educational status, have limited ownership rights and are often neglected by the family and the society. The areas of health and hygiene are an exception, where the role of women is accepted and they are usually allowed by their husbands or fathers to take part in community groups. Women and girls are therefore among the most vulnerable groups in the society, have very limited opportunities for being active members of the community and for claiming their rights. Capacities and coping mechanisms Affected communities have tried different strategies to recover their previous income generating activities, but have not made much progress due to the lack of financial support. Young and adult men frequently ask for support to recover their crops and livestock to be able to trade again in the market. Young, adult and older women demonstrated their willingness to collaborate as social mobilizers or promoters of women s health. Children have expressed a strong desire to go back to school, as most of them had been regularly attending school before the floods. This has an effect on the capacities of individuals and households to cope with and recover from the crisis. Traditionally, the communities made a living from growing crops, livestock, brewing and trading. Before the floods, trading an exclusively male role - was the first or second source of income for most households, but it has since dropped to fourth or fifth place. Most households reduced their meals from three to two per day and the quality of meals has deteriorated, especially for girls and women who eat last. Today, most households cannot afford basic goods/ services such as education, health and clothing and this scarcity disproportionately affects children, women and older people. The dropout rate for schoolchildren has increased from an average of 10% to an estimated 25% among boys and 50% among girls. Men are particularly affected by the destruction of crops and loss of income generation activities based on trade. Most of the young and adult men are seeking work and many have migrated to fishing areas, or areas with alternative opportunities for agricultural employment, such as sugar cane plantations. During their absence, some women have started to trade the few livestock products they can produce. This is creating tensions when the men return.
18 34 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / Adapted assistance How to adapt assistance? Key elements to consider in this criterion: Systematic adaptation of assistance with concrete examples and no gaps Equitable access to humanitarian assistance Concrete examples of how assistance is adapted to the specific needs and capacities of different gender and age groups and how the action ensures that all relevant groups enjoy equitable access to the assistance should be included in the Single Form section "logic of intervention". Additional details, as well as measures that would have been appropriate but were not implemented, can be provided in the section "Gender-Age Marker". What it means to adapt assistance to the specific needs of different gender and age groups depends on both the context and the sector of operation. The table below includes a set of examples. Humanitarian organisations should not use these examples as blueprints but rather conduct their own analysis as the basis for adapting their assistance. Sector Example of adapted assistance Actively involve men in hygiene promotion activities, for example by deploying male volunteers to sites where men work during the day. What is adapted assistance? Partners should not just make rhetorical commitments to gender and age, for instance by stating generally that the action is sensitive to the needs of women and men without providing concrete examples of how this has been done. Partners need to build activities on the results of the gender and age analysis. This means adapting the assistance provided to the specific vulnerabilities, needs and capacities of women, girls, boys, men, infants, adolescents, adults and older people. Actions that effectively adapt their assistance share two characteristics: A systematic adaptation of assistance is evidenced throughout proposals and reports, which provide concrete examples and show no gaps. Adapting assistance to the specific needs and capacities of different groups can mean adapting what is provided to affected populations, to whom goods and services are provided, how they are provided and when they are provided. Proposals or reports need to contain concrete examples of how this is done, such as the examples of adapted assistance provided below. Moreover, partners and DG ECHO staff need to make sure that no important measures for adapting assistance are missing. WASH Explore flexible models for recruiting mixed teams able to address female and male members of the community for hygiene education. This may require for example recruiting female volunteers even if they are not literate and teaming them up with literate volunteers. Offer targeted water and hygiene training to single male-headed and child-headed households. Provide jerry cans of adequate size that children, women and older people can carry easily or other water transportation means. Offer water transportation support for child-headed households and single older persons (e.g. community owned wheelbarrow). Ensure latrines are accessible for people with restricted mobility, for example by creating broader doors and access ramps for wheelchairs or by allowing extra space for carers. Ensure that distributions of non-food items include culturally acceptable hygiene and sanitary items. All relevant groups enjoy equitable access to humanitarian goods and services. Well adapted actions ensure that different gender and age groups can access assistance in accordance with their needs and capacities and that no vulnerable group is excluded from them.
19 36 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / 37 Health Ensure that medical services meeting the priority needs of the most vulnerable groups are offered. This can include sexual and reproductive health services, the clinical management of rape or the treatment of diseases that are typical for older people, such as hernias, diabetes or other chronic diseases. Provide additional training to community health workers in areas related to health, hygiene and care of infants, young children and older people. FOOD ASSISTANCE In cases when women do not have identification documents, issue distributions cards. Ensure that the names of the husband and wife (or wives) appear on the card and that cards are also issued to households headed by women or children. Display criteria and entitlements in writing and through the use of pictures. If culturally necessary, form separate queues for men and women. Allot specific times when vulnerable groups such as older people, pregnant women or young children are given priority for consultations and treatment in healthcare facilities. Arrange local transportation systems (e.g. donkey-cart ambulances) to assist medical referrals of people with restricted mobility, including older people. Provide shelter and seating to accommodate pregnant women, older people or people with disabilities, and arrange separate food distribution lines for older people, people with disabilities, pregnant women and caregivers of children to reduce their waiting times. Package food rations in containers that are not too heavy, so that women, children and older people can transport them, while ensuring that they receive full rations and that there are no other negative effects. Monitor who receives distributions. Shelter Provide child- and women-headed households and older people with support in erecting shelter. Ensure that shelters are accessible for people with limited mobility. Ensure that unaccompanied children have access to adequate shelter. Arrange delivery for people with restricted mobility, and allow food distributions to be provided to proxies designated by recipients unable to collect their rations themselves. Check whether all recipients are able to prepare food (e.g. male youths). Establish child-friendly spaces in settlements and camps. Nutrition Cater for the specific nutritional requirements of infants, older people, pregnant and lactating women and HIV/AIDS patients. Provide secluded spaces for breastfeeding, especially in crowded locations or camps. Disaster risk reduction Use the knowledge and capacities of all affected population groups to identify negative effects and develop coping and recovery mechanisms. Develop gender-sensitive indicators to monitor progress.
20 38 / 2 / Integrating gender and age in humanitarian actions / 39 Education Livelihoods Protection Provide schooling close to settlements or in the central areas of camps. Provide classes for different age and skill levels. Provide appropriate clothing and sanitary supplies to girls so that they can attend school. Ensure that other obstacles to increasing the enrolment and attendance of girls are addressed. Offer livelihood opportunities to older women and men. Offer work opportunities for women and men and ensure that these do not lock men and women in traditional roles, especially if that could increase their vulnerability. Offer childcare and, if necessary, other support with household tasks for caregivers involved in programmes. Pay equal wages for equal work. When creating camp management teams and protection teams in camps, include male and female staff members. Ensure that all households have identity documents, including those headed by women or children. 3. Prevent or mitigate negative effects Key elements to consider in this criterion: Potential negative effects of the action prevented Gender- or age-related negative effects created by the context mitigated The risk analysis for different gender and age groups should be included in the Single Form section "problem, needs and risk analysis" and measures to prevent or mitigate negative effects in the section "logic of intervention" or "Gender-Age Marker". Limitations and, if necessary, additional details can be provided in the section "Gender-Age Marker". What kinds of potential negative effects are there? Communities affected by crises and emergencies are exposed to a broad range of risks and negative effects. Without an adequate analysis, including a gender and age analysis, humanitarian assistance may fail to reduce or mitigate these effects. In some cases, the assistance itself may also have unintended negative effects on the population. Humanitarian organisations should therefore carefully analyse risks or potential negative effects and develop prevention and mitigation measures. The Gender-Age Marker considers two types of negative effects that humanitarian actions should address: Negative effects created by the action itself: Actions should identify what negative effects they could cause for different gender and age groups and include effective measures to prevent these effects. This includes for example the risk of stigmatisation, violence or tensions within households. Negative effects created by the context: Actions should be based on an analysis of what negative effects the context or the humanitarian situation holds for women, girls, boys and men. These negative effects, such as sexual- and gender-based violence, should be mitigated to the greatest extent possible.