# Why did it take approximately 2000 years before another viewpoint was accepted?

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1 SCHM 103: Fundamentals of Chemistry Ch. 3: The Evolution of Atomic Theory HISTORY OF THE ATOM Ancient Greek Philosophers Democritus ( BC) Aristotle ( BC) Why did it take approximately 2000 years before another viewpoint was accepted? Dalton s Atomic Theory (see p. 80 for details) Formulated by John Dalton ( ) Based on experiments performed by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (Law of Conservation of Mass) and Joseph Louis Proust (Law of Definite Proportions). Some of Dalton s theorems had to be altered. List and provide a brief reason. Which one? Reason: Which one? Reason Which one? Reason

2 The Evidence for Dalton s Atomic Theory Law of Conservation of Mass: Law of Definite Proportions: PRACTICE PROBLEM 1: Aluminum oxide was prepared two different ways Recipe I: Aluminum + Oxygen Aluminum Oxide g g g a. Is the law of conservation of matter obeyed? Explain. b. What is the equation for the percent by mass? c. What is the percent by mass of aluminum in aluminum oxide? d. What is the percent by mass of oxygen in aluminum oxide? Recipe II: Aluminum + Oxygen Aluminum Oxide + Oxygen g g g g e. Is the law of conservation of matter obeyed? Explain. f. What is the percent by mass of aluminum in aluminum oxide?

3 g. What is the percent by mass of oxygen in aluminum oxide? h. Is the law of definite proportions being obeyed? Explain. STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Particles in the atom: Symbol Charge Mass (amu) proton neutron electron 1 amu = g The predominant contributor towards the mass of the atom is. Other important features of the atom include: Thinking about the old adage, Opposites attract, likes repel, what problems might this cause with this model? Solution: Solution:

4 ATOMIC SHORTHAND Definitions Atomic Number: Mass Number: If the atom is neutral, the # e - equals If there is no superscript in the upper right corner, what is the charge of the atom? PRACTICE PROBLEM 2: Give the p +, e -, and n numbers for 199 a. 79 Au p + e - n 23 b. 11 Na p + e - n What if the atom was charged? How do we make an atom Positive? Applying this idea to shorthand notation, Negative? Applying this idea to shorthand notation, PRACTICE PROBLEM 3: Give the p +, e -, and n numbers for a Zr p + e - n b. 15 P p + e - n

5 SPECIAL NOTE: In Practice Problem 2, the p +, e -, and n numbers were determined for atoms of elements. Atoms of elements are neutral, i.e., have zero charge. In Practice Problem 3, the p +, e -, and n numbers were determined for ions. Ions are not neutral, i.e. have a positive or a negative charge. If the ion is positive, it is called a cation. If the charge is negative, it is called an anion. Take Home Message: Be careful when using the terms element and ion because they mean different things! ATOMIC MASS UNIT With the exception of 12 C, notice on the table below that the isotope masses DO NOT exactly match the mass number! Define atomic mass unit: Atomic mass unit is also known as ISOTOPES & ATOMIC WEIGHT Elements can exist in both stable and unstable (radioactive) forms. Different atoms of the same element can have different mass numbers. Let s consider the various elemental forms of carbon in nature. % Abundance in Nature # protons # neutrons # electrons 12 C C C trace amounts

6 Besides the mass number, what else is changing in the table above? Define isotope: What happens to an element if the number of protons were changed? PRACTICE PROBLEM 4: Explain why 14 N and 14 C are not isotopes of each other. The atomic mass on the periodic table accounts for all possible isotopes of a particular element in nature. Define atomic mass: What is the difference between a non-weighted averaged and a weighted average? Given the masses and the % abundance, calculate the atomic mass of carbon. Isotope Mass (amu) %Abundance 12 C % 13 C % 14 C trace PRACTICE PROBLEM 5: Use the data below to calculate the atomic mass for magnesium.

7 HISTORY OF THE PERIODIC TABLE 1789: Antoine Lavoisier introduced a list of 33 elements, grouped according to their chemical properties. 1808: John Dalton developed a new symbol system for 36 elements. 1813: Jöns Berzelius suggested using letters rather than circles used in the Dalton system because it was easier to write. At that time, there were 44 known elements. His system is still used today. Moreover, he published a table of atomic weights; most being in close agreement with modern values. 1871: There several proposals about how the elements should be arranged, but Dmitrij Ivanovič Mendeleev periodic table is one widely accepted by the scientific community. 1913: Henry Mosley modified the periodic law by suggesting that element should arranged by increasing atomic number. MENDELEEV S PERIODIC TABLE In 1829, Johann Döbereiner grouped elements possessing similar properties together, calling them triads. John Newland proposed in 1864 that elements should be arranged according to their atomic mass. Mendeleev combined these ideas to generate his version of the periodic table. Specifically, he generated his table by arranging elements in order of increasing atomic mass. grouping elements with similar chemical & physical properties in columns. So what makes his table different if he simply used someone else s ideas? It enabled properties of elements to be predicted based on the periodic law.

8 Define periodic law: He had the foresight to re-arrange the order of elements if their properties dictated it. Give an example: o He stated that gaps in his table represented existing elements that had not been discovered. Example of the predictive power of Mendeleev s Periodic Table TERMS periods groups metals, nonmetals, metalloids (semimetals), representative elements (main group elements), transition metals, inner-transition metals, lanthanides actinides (liquids at r.t.) alkali alkaline earth chalcogens halogens noble gases

9 Periodic Table 1A 8A 1 H A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 2 He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg B 4B 5B 6B 7B < B > 1B 2B 13 Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc (98) 44 Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po (209) 85 At (210) 86 Rn (222) 87 Fr (223) 88 Ra Ac (227) 104 Rf (265) 105 Db (268) 106 Sg (271) 107 Bh (272) 108 Hs (270) 109 Mt (276) 110 Ds (281) 111 Rg (280) 112 Cn (285) 114 Fl (289) 116 Lv (293) 58 Ce Pr Nd Pm (145) 62 Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu (244) 95 Am (243) 96 Cm (247) 97 Bk (247) 98 Cf (251) 99 Es (252) 100 Fm (257) 101 Md (258) 102 No (259) 103 Lr (262) Periodic Table 1A 8A 1 H A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 2 He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg B 4B 5B 6B 7B < B > 1B 2B 13 Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc (98) 44 Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po (209) 85 At (210) 86 Rn (222) 87 Fr (223) 88 Ra Ac (227) 104 Rf (265) 105 Db (268) 106 Sg (271) 107 Bh (272) 108 Hs (270) 109 Mt (276) 110 Ds (281) 111 Rg (280) 112 Cn (285) 114 Fl (289) 116 Lv (293) 58 Ce Pr Nd Pm (145) 62 Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu (244) 95 Am (243) 96 Cm (247) 97 Bk (247) 98 Cf (251) 99 Es (252) 100 Fm (257) 101 Md (258) 102 No (259) 103 Lr (262)

10 Some Additional Periodic Properties In general Atomic Size Increases as you go a group. Decreases as you go a period. For reference, the atomic radius of C is More explanation in the next chapter. The First Ionization Energy is In general the first ionization energy Decreases as you go a group Increases as you go a period. For reference, the first ionization energy of H is For reference, the first ionization energy of He is For reference, the first ionization energy of Li is Would it be easier to remove an electron from P or Cl? from F or I? Trends in atomic size help us to understand first ionization energy. First ionization removes an outer electron. (Explain what outer electron means in the next chapter.) In a larger atom, the outer electrons are further from the nucleus, so the attraction to the nucleus is and therefore it takes energy to remove an electron.

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