# 18.06 Final Exam May 18, 2010 Professor Strang

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1 18.06 Final Exam May 18, 2010 Professor Strang Your PRINTED name is: 1. Your recitation number is (12 points) This question is about the matrix A = (a) Find a lower triangular L and an upper triangular U so that A = LU. (b) Find the reduced row echelon form R = rref(a). How many independent columns in A? (c) Find a basis for the nullspace of A. (d) If the vector b is the sum of the four columns of A, write down the complete solution to Ax = b.

2 2. (11 points) This problem finds the curve y = C + D 2 t which gives the best least squares fit to the points (t, y) = (0, 6), (1, 4), (2, 0). (a) Write down the 3 equations that would be satisfied if the curve went through all 3 points. (b) Find the coefficients C and D of the best curve y = C + D2 t. (c) What values should y have at times t = 0, 1, 2 so that the best curve is y = 0?

3 3. (11 points) Suppose Av i = b i for the vectors v 1,..., v n and b 1,..., b n in R n. Put the v s into the columns of V and put the b s into the columns of B. (a) Write those equations Av i = b i in matrix form. What condition on which vectors allows A to be determined uniquely? Assuming this condition, find A from V and B. (b) Describe the column space of that matrix A in terms of the given vectors. (c) What additional condition on which vectors makes A an invertible matrix? Assuming this, find A 1 from V and B.

4 4. (11 points) (a) Suppose x k is the fraction of MIT students who prefer calculus to linear algebra at year k. The remaining fraction y k = 1 x k prefers linear algebra. At year k + 1, 1/5 of those who prefer calculus change their mind (possibly after taking 18.03). Also at year k + 1, 1/10 of those who prefer linear algebra change their mind (possibly because of this exam). [ ] [ ] [ ] x k+1 x k 1 Create the matrix A to give = A and find the limit of A k as k. y k+1 y k 0 (b) Solve these differential equations, starting from x(0) = 1, y(0) = 0 : dx dt dy = 3x 4y = 2x 3y. dt [ ] [ ] x(0) x(t) (c) For what initial conditions does the solution to this differential equation y(0) y(t) lie on a single straight line in R 2 for all t?

5 5. (11 points) (a) Consider a 120 rotation around the axis x = y = z. Show that the vector i = (1, 0, 0) is rotated to the vector j = (0, 1, 0). (Similarly j is rotated to k = (0, 0, 1) and k is rotated to i.) How is j i related to the vector (1, 1, 1) along the axis? (b) Find the matrix A that produces this rotation (so Av is the rotation of v). Explain why A 3 = I. What are the eigenvalues of A? (c) If a 3 by 3 matrix P projects every vector onto the plane x+2y+z = 0, find three eigenvalues and three independent eigenvectors of P. No need to compute P.

6 6. (11 points) This problem is about the matrix 1 2 A = (a) Find the eigenvalues of A T A and also of AA T. For both matrices find a complete set of orthonormal eigenvectors. (b) If you apply the Gram-Schmidt process (orthonormalization) to the columns of this matrix A, what is the resulting output? (c) If A is any m by n matrix with m > n, tell me why AA T cannot be positive definite. Is A T A always positive definite? (If not, what is the test on A?)

7 7. (11 points) This problem is to find the determinants of x A = B = C = (a) Find det A and give a reason. (b) Find the cofactor C 11 and then find det B. This is the volume of what region in R 4? (c) Find det C for any value of x. You could use linearity in row 1.

8 8. (11 points) (a) When A is similar to B = M 1 AM, prove this statement: If A k 0 when k, then also B k 0. (b) Suppose S is a fixed invertible 3 by 3 matrix. This question is about all the matrices A that are diagonalized by S, so that S 1 AS is diagonal. Show that these matrices A form a subspace of 3 by 3 matrix space. (Test the requirements for a subspace.) (c) Give a basis for the space of 3 by 3 diagonal matrices. Find a basis for the space in part (b) all the matrices A that are diagonalized by S.

9 9. (11 points) This square network has 4 nodes and 6 edges. On each edge, the direction of positive current w i > 0 is from lower node number to higher node number. The voltages at the nodes are (v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4.) (a) Write down the incidence matrix A for this network (so that Av gives the 6 voltage differences like v 2 v 1 across the 6 edges). What is the rank of A? What is the dimension of the nullspace of A T? (b) Compute the matrix A T A. What is its rank? What is its nullspace? (c) Suppose v 1 = 1 and v 4 = 0. If each edge contains a unit resistor, the currents (w 1, w 2, w 3, w 4, w 5, w 6 ) on the 6 edges will be w = Av by Ohm s Law. Then Kirchhoff s Current Law (flow in = flow out at every node) gives A T w = 0 which means A T Av = 0. Solve A T Av = 0 for the unknown voltages v 2 and v 3. Find all 6 currents w 1 to w 6. How much current enters node 4?

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