Study Guide for Learning Evaluation #3 Modules 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25 Dr. Michael Green - General Psychology 2301

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1 Study Guide for Learning Evaluation #3 Modules 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25 Dr. Michael Green - General Psychology 2301 Module 18 Classical Conditioning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences Pavlov s Experiment Classical Conditioning UCS --- elicits UR During association (conditioning) Neutral associated with UCS - Neutral becomes CS After association (conditioning) CS -- elicits CR (the same as UR but as a result of CS now) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Page 1 of 8

2 originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus Acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response Generalization tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses Extinction diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS Strength of CR Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR Extinction (CS alone) Pause Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS Behaviorism Page 2 of 8

3 John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes Module 19 Operant Learning Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Law of Effect Thorndike s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Skinner Box chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses Learning Page 3 of 8

4 a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal Reinforcer any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus i.e., satisfies a biological need Conditioned Reinforcer stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer Chaining behavior Example was Einstein the bird Multiple behaviors follow each other, with reinforcement at the end of the sequence Schedules of reinforcement Page 4 of 8

5 Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedule reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz Punishment aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of one s environment Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Page 5 of 8

6 Module 20 Learning by Observation Observational Learning learning by observing others Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy Alfred Bandura s Experiments Bobo doll we look and we learn Module 23 Thinking Cognition mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Algorithm methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem Heuristic simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently usually speedier than algorithms Insight sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem contrasts with strategy-based solutions Confirmation Bias tendency to search for information that confirms one s preconceptions Fixation inability to see a problem from a new perspective impediment to problem solving Functional Fixedness tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions impediment to problem solving Page 6 of 8

7 Module 24 Language and Thought Language our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning Phoneme in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit Linguistic Determinism o Whorf (1956) suggested that language determines the way we think. Chomsky o Inborn universal grammar Critical period for learning language o childhood Module 25 Intelligence Intelligence ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations Intelligence Test a method of assessing an individual s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores Mental Age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance Page 7 of 8

8 Stanford-Binet the widely used American revision of Binet s original intelligence test revised by Terman at Stanford University Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional Intelligence (EQ) ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions Creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) most widely used intelligence test subtests Aptitude Test a test designed to predict a person s future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn Achievement Test a test designed to assess what a person has learned Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group Normal Curve the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes Page 8 of 8

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