1 Girtablullû and Co: A New Function of the Scorpion-Man in the Ancient Near East Nadine Nys, University of Ghent and University of Leuven Bible Lands e-review 2016/S1 Abstract Although there are great differences concerning the appearance of the scorpion-man, many researchers don't really differentiate between them when it comes to meaning and function, and even seem to forget there is also a third type that always appears in basically the same, outspoken function. The most familiar and benevolent type is the so-called Girtablullû: the human-headed and human-bodied creature with scorpion tail. This creature will be referred to in this article as Type 3. The scorpion-bird- and scorpion-scorpion-man belong to Type 2: creatures with human-head and bird- or scorpion-body respectively. The oldest type (therefore referred to as Type 1) can resemble both the human-bodied (Type 3), and the scorpion/bird-bodied types (Type 2). Thus, while both Type 3 and Type 2 can be identified by their iconography (human body or animal body, i.e. bird and scorpion respectively), Type 1 however, must be identified through its pose which is always "supportive", i.e., standing with its arms upraised to literally or virtually give support to either symbolic motifs (as the Sun-disc), or real-life objects (e.g. a throne). Type 1 is thus always shown in the same position. The different poses and/or differences in appearance do have an impact on the meaning and function of the composite creature, and are therefore worth keeping in mind when trying to analyse the meaning of images in which the creatures appear. Introduction and Types One of the many fabulous creatures of the Ancient Near East is the scorpion-man, generally called the Girtablullû, and seen as a benevolent creature that has some connection with Shamash, the Sun-god. The name Girtablullû is a composition of gir-tab, which means "scorpion", and lú-ùlu, which means "untamed man" 1. In accepting the benevolent character of the scorpion-man, most researchers seem to pass over the fact that there appear to be different kinds of scorpion-people, with more or less 1 Wiggermann 1992: 180; Gubel 2000: 44. 1
2 human and animal elements. They do, though, make a distinction between two categories, but this is only iconographically, and not regarding their meaning. The first category (Type 3) is the Girtablullû, shown as a winged, bearded human-headed and human-bodied creature, but with hind-quarters and talons of a bird, a snake-headed penis and a scorpion's tail. Scorpion-man, ca BC, Relief, Limestone, 218 x 83 cm, Iraq, Nimrud, Palace of Assurnasirpal II, Paris, Musée du Louvre, AO The second category (Type 2) is what could be called the scorpion-bird-man or scorpionscorpion-man, with a more bird-like or scorpion-like body standing on bird or lion feet 3. Pair of Scorpion-scorpion-men with Lion-legs, Neo-Elamite II (?), ca BCE, Jasper, 2.8 x 0.7 cm, London, British Museum, 1841, The Trustees of the British Museum However, according to the difference in iconography and position they are depicted in, and the various contexts in which these creatures appear, it seems there is one more type qua meaning and function, although iconographically it does not differ from the two acknowledged types. 2 Green 1985: pl. VIII. 3 Black and Green 1992: 161; Green : 250; Wiggermann : 239; Huxley 2000:
3 Type 1 can be like the Girtablullû (i.e. the more man-like hybrid) or resemble the scorpionscorpion-man (i.e. with a scorpion-like body), but it must be considered a different type because of the posture it is shown in: with its hands stretched above its head in a supportive position. Seal of Nisannaia, Assyrian, ca BCE, Cylinder Seal, Chalcedony, 3.7 x 1.7 cm, Berlin, VA Context Scorpion hybrids can be seen in a great variety of contexts. They appear in mythological, religious and ritual scenes in the company of animals (bird, gazelle, snake, etc.), other mythological creatures (e.g. sphinx, Bison-man, Fish-man, winged lion, winged bull, hero, etc.), god-symbols or the gods and goddesses themselves (e.g. moon-crescent, (winged) sundisc, spade, eight-pointed star, and Sun-god, God-boat, Ishtar, Marduk.) They can be seen participating in fights (e.g. assisting Shamash in his fight against mountain-demons), they are sometimes attacked by an archer, or attacking themselves (e.g. a winged lion, a griffin, a nude male), or simply standing in a defensive position aiming their bow and arrow at a possible enemy. Scorpion-Man and Bull-Man Attacking Nude Male, Babylonian, 8 th -7 th century BCE, Cylinder Seal, Chalcedony, 3.61 cm, Mesopotamia, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Collon 1987: Nr
4 library.artstore.org (MetMus.) Images of scorpion-men have been found in palaces, temples, houses and on vessels and other ceramics, on stamp and cylinder seals, thrones, furniture, murals, reliefs, musical instruments, boundary stones (kudurrus), and so on. Meaning and Function The scorpion-man is primarily known as the guardian of the mountains of sunset and sunrise, as mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh 5. Hence his connection to the Sun-god Shamash, to whom he seems to be in a sort of assisting, accompanying function. But further research reveals that he is also depicted in this role with other deities, e.g. Ishtar. Sennacherib Standing Before Procession of Gods, Neo-Assyrian, ca BCE, Relief, Iraq, Maltai 6 This supportive function of Type 1 can also be seen literally, namely where the hybrid is seen supporting the seat of a throne, the rim of a vessel, the moon-crescent, the winged Sun-disc, and so on. When the scorpion-man (Type 3) is shown guarding palaces, entrances, gates, temples, the foundations of heaven, the Tree of Life, etc., we may assume it is there for its apotropaic, protective function. This function it could only take on because it was defeated by Marduk, together with the other ten creatures belonging to Tiamat's army, as told in the Enuma Elish (a Babylonian Epic of Creation) 7. This last role can be enhanced by the aspect of the creature; where the Girtablullû can be seen not only as a guarding, but also as a welcoming figure, the scorpion-bird or scorpion- 5 Amiet 1961: ; Haas 1986: 73-74; Heimpel 1986: , 143; Black and Green 1992: 161; Green : 250; Moran 1995: ; Wiggermann 1995: ; Horowitz 1998: 96-98, 329; George 2000; Gubel 2000: 44, 52; Huxley 2000: 120, , 133; Debusscher 2004: 79-88; Hempelmann 2004: 46, Green : 263 fig. 2 + (detail drawing) Green 1985: pl. IXa. 7 Black and Green 1992: 161; Wiggermann 1992: 145; Wiggermann : ; Lambert 2007:
5 scorpion hybrid (Type 2) is much more frightening because of its outspoken reference to a dangerous animal and will certainly chase away all evil subjects or powers just by his looks. His apotropaic character is enlarged by its terrifying and fear-provoking appearance. Conclusion In short, we can differentiate three types of scorpion hybrids, not so much iconographically, but also by qua meaning and function: the supportive scorpion hybrid (Type 1), the protective and welcoming Girtablullû (Type 3) the frightening scorpion hybrid (Type 2). Although they all may appear in similar contexts, their role and meaning differ slightly, according to their iconography, the context they are shown in, the position they are presented in, and, even more determining, the way they hold their hands or pincers. Archaic Type of Scorpion-Man, ca BCE, Iran, Jiroft, Chlorite, 27 cm 8 The supportive Type 1 seems to be the oldest (ca BCE). It is the scorpion hybrid (manlike or scorpion-like) that is portrayed in a supportive position, i.e. with its hands or pincers stretched above its head. The protective Girtablullû (Type 3) only appears during the first millennium BCE, and was most popular between the 8 th and 6 th centuries BCE. This is the bearded human-headed and human-bodied creature, with hind-quarters and talons of a bird, a snake-headed penis and a scorpion's tail, that always holds his hands in a welcoming gesture called the karābu-pose, known from the house-gods who were often depicted in this pose near doors and entrances to welcome visitors. 8 Perrot and Madjidzadeh 2005: pl. IIIe. 5
6 The first frightening scorpion hybrid (i.e. the creature with a complete bird-like or scorpionlike body standing on bird or lion feet; Type 2) makes his entrance during the second half of the second millennium BCE but is also prevalent during the first half of the first millennium BCE. Kudurru of King Nebuchadnezzar I (detail), ca BCE, Limestone, 65 x 21.5 x 17 cm (complete), London, British Museum, BM The Trustees of the British Museum In general we can state that all these types find their origin in the oldest images of scorpions; these images date from a period in which the animal had a cosmic function: it handled the heavenly objects in the sky with its pincers and it overlooked the correct rising and setting of the sun, necessary to maintain the cosmic order 9. The oldest scorpion hybrids were shown with their hands or pincers up in the sky because they still had this cosmic function, but later images prove that this role was not lost in later times. Nevertheless, in later periods, the scorpion hybrid took on more functions and meanings, hence the variations in his iconography. The hybrid first started to support other objects as well and it now assisted or supported other gods (Type 1). A fine example of this is Ishtar, who as a fertility-goddess was also known as Ishara and in this capacity was represented by a scorpion 10. The apotropaic function of the scorpion-man (Type 3) in its turn also derives from the early practice of scorpions in magical, protective rituals; the animal would be burned so that the ashes could be used to make apotropaic drawings 11. We may assume that each type of scorpion hybrid played an apotropaic role in one way or another; this function was without a doubt the most vital whenever he was depicted guarding something, but was less prominent in other contexts, although it was never completely absent. 9 Amiet 1961: ; Wiggermann 1992: ; Wiggermann : Toscanne 1977: 193, 195; Seidl 1989: 157; Van Dijk 1998: 9-10; Stol 2000: , 269; Galter 2007: : Pientka-Hintz 2009: Pientka-Hintz 2009:
7 The iconography of the frightening scorpion hybrid (Type 2) was meant to not only protect, but also to scare away evil and even to actively defend, so that the apotropaic character of the creature was enhanced by its looks. In general it may be said that the scorpion hybrids played three distinctive roles: they could support (Type 1), actively defend (Type 2), or passively defend (Type 3). Although the differences are perhaps minimal, they are worth taking into consideration whenever one tries to understand an image in which a scorpion hybrid is depicted. 7
8 Bibliography Amiet, P., La Glyptique Mésopotamienne Archaïque, Black, J. and A. Green, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. An Illustrated Dictionary, London, Collon, D., First Impressions. Cylinder Seals in the Ancient Near East, Galter, H.D., Der Skorpion und die Königin zur Tiersymbolik bei den Assyrern. Journal for Semitics, 16/3, 2007: George, A.R., The Epic of Gilgamesh: A new translation, Green, A., A Note on the "Scorpion-Man" and Pazuzu. Iraq, 47, 1985: Green, A., Mischwesen B. Archäologie. Mesopotamien; s.a. Löwenadler, Löwendrache, Löwenmensch und Menschenlöwe. Edzard (ed.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäeologie, Bnd. 8, : Gubel, E., A Demon from Ancient Gõzãn (North Syria) in the Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels. Bulletin van de Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis, vol. 71, 2000: Haas, V., Magie und Mythen in Babylonien. Von Dämonen, Hexen und Beschwörungspriestern, Heimpel, W., The Sun at Night and the Doors of Heaven in Babylonian Texts. Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 38, nr. 2, 1986: Hempelmann, R., "Gottschiff" und "Zikkuratbau" auf vorderasiatischen Rollsiegeln des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr. Dietrich and Loretz (ed.), Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Bnd. 312, Horowitz, W., Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography, Huxley, M., The Gates and Guardians in Sennacherib's Addition to the Temple of Assur. Iraq, Vol. 62, 2000: Lambert, W.G., Mesopotamian Creation Stories. GELLER and SCHIPPER (eds.), Imagining Creation, IJS Studies in Judaica, 5, 2007: Meuszynski, J., Neo-Assyrian reliefs from the Central Area of Nimrud Citadel. Iraq, Vol. 38/1, 1976: Moran, W., The Gilgamesh Epic: A Masterpiece from Ancient Mesopotamia. Sasson (ed.), Vol. IV, 1995:
9 Perrot, J and Y. Madzidjadeh, L'iconographie des vases et objets en chlorie de Jiroft (Iran). Paléorient 31/2, 2005: Pientka-Hinz, R., Skorpion. Streck (ed.), Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäeologie, Bnd. 12, 2009: Stol, M., Birth in Babylonia and the Bible: its Mediterranean Setting. Cuneiform Monographs, 14, Seidl, U., Die Babylonische Kudurru-Reliefs. Symbole Mesopotamische Gottheiten. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, 87, Toscanne, P., Sur la Figuration et le Symbole du Scorpion. Scheil and Thureau-Dangin (ed.), Revue d'assyriologie et d'archéologie Orientale, 12, 1977 (1915): Van Dijk, J.J.A., Inanna raubt den "grossen Himmel". Ein Mythos. Maul (ed.), 'Festschrift für Rykle Borger zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 24. Mai 1994', Cuneiform Monographs, 10, 1998: Wiggermann, F.A.M. (ed.), Mesopotamian Protective Sprits: the ritual texts, Wiggermann, F.A.M., Mischwesen A. Philologisch. Mesopotamien. Edzard (ed)., Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäeologie, Bnd. 8, :
Ancient Near East (aka Mesopotamia) Neolithic Jericho c. 7000 bce Uruk (Sumerian) c. 3500-2300 bce Ziggurat Cuneiform, Cylinder seals Inanna, Anu Votive Queen Puabi Gilgamesh registers Akkad c.2300-2100
Gardner s Art Through the Ages, 13e Chapter 2 The Ancient Near East 1 The Ancient Near East 2 Goals Understand the cultural changes in the Neolithic Revolution as they relate to the art and architecture.
Adad is the god of storms. He is usually shown carrying a lighting fork, symbolising his power over the storm forces of nature. The Babylonian and Assyrian god Adad was known to the Sumerians as Ishkur,
The Epic of Gilgamesh The Great Man Who Did Not Want To Die by Helen Sader September 9, 2013 Gilgamesh and Enkidu slaying the monster Humbaba The Epic of Gilgamesh The Great Man Who Did Not Want To Die
Akkaddian Dynasty 1 2 Page 1 of Notes MISSING Head of an Akkadian ruler from Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca. 2,250-2,200 B.C.E. copper 14 3/8 in. high 3 Page 1 of Notes Figure 2-14 Votive disk of Enheduanna,
Ancient Near East Epic of Gilgamesh, tablet, 2150 2000 BC What country(s) does this include? Map Timeline Sumerian art Akkadian art Neo Sumerian & Babylonian Assyrian art Neo Babylonian & Persian art 3500
Dialoguing with the Gods: the Liver Models from Mari Emilio Passera 1 1 Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 31-34 Gordon Square, London, WC1H 0PY Email: Emilio.email@example.com When
4 River Valley Civilizations/Mesopotamia Notes Development of Civilization The Neolithic Age will be replaced by the Age around BCE. What nickname is given to the earliest civilizations? What have a learned?
Name DBQ#1 UNIT 2 Directions The task below is based on documents 1 through 6. This task is designed to test your ability to work with the information provided by various types of documents. Look at each
APAH: Near Eastern Art Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent Tigris & Euphrates Rivers [Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Egypt] River based settlement agricultural areas Control of floods/development
TIMELINES OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS 0 PART SERIES EGYPTIAN Part I & II CHINESE Part I & II GREEK Part I & II ROMAN Part I & II MESOPOTAMIAN Part I & II film ideas, Inc. Presents T I M E L I N E S Of ANCIENT
1. Introduction. 2. The history. 3. Economic, political and social organization. 4. The writing. 5. The city. 6. The king Hammurabi. 7. The principals gods. 1. Introduction The Mesopotamic empire was between
6 th Grade Social Studies The World Chap 2 Early Civilizations 1 Read: Why We Remember How would life be different if the basic principles of nationhood, writing, and law were not developed thousands of
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA-GEOGRAPHY LOCATED BETWEEN THE TIGRIS-EUPHRATES RIVERS BOTH RIVERS FLOW SOUTH INTO THE PERSIAN GULF LOCATED IN PRESENT DAY IRAQ Fertile
repetitive parallelism the nature of Mesopotamian poetry is to repeat verses in couplets but often verses have slight variations in language Enuma Elish 4.3-6 (the Babylonian poem of creation): You are
Lecture 3. Rise of Urbanism HIST 213 Spring 2012 Transition from Stone Age to Bronze Age Important developments in burial tradition: 1. communal graves give way to individual burials with prestige burial
Figure 3-14 Seated scribe (Kay?), from his mastaba at Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty V, ca. 2450 2350 BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1 9 high. Louvre, Paris. Khafre, from Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2520 2494
Downloadable Reproducible ebooks Sample Pages These sample pages from this ebook are provided for evaluation purposes. The entire ebook is available for purchase at www.socialstudies.com or www.writingco.com.
THE RISING OF THE SUN-GOD AS A MYTHOLOGICAL MOTIF: OLD AKKADIAN SEALS IN RELATION TO THE GILGAMESH EPIC Tibor SEDLÁČEK Department for the Study of Religions, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University Arna Nováka
Chapter 2: The Ancient Near East Sites of the Ancient Near East Sumer Background Ancient Sumer Roughly corresponds to southern Iraq of today Made up of independent city-states, each of which was believed
Downloadable Reproducible ebooks Sample Pages These sample pages from this ebook are provided for evaluation purposes. The entire ebook is available for purchase at www.socialstudies.com or www.writingco.com.
Originally Printed in: Iraq Double Issue: Volume 6, Nos. 1 & 2 Art Loss In Iraq CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS IN THE LOOTED IRAQ MUSEUM by ROBERT BIGGS Robert Biggs, Ph. D., is Professor of Assyriology at the
Chapter 4 Lesson 2 The First Empires By 2400BC Sumer city-state power is weakened Powerful kingdoms rise in northern Mesopotamia and Syria Empires Through conquest and trade empires spread over wide regions.
Ancient Greece: Myths and legends Black-figured amphora Herakles and the Stymphalian birds Athens, Greece around 540 BC Visit resource for teachers Contents Before your visit Background information Resources
STONE TABLETS The advent of written communication changed the world forever and helped to create civilization as we know it. At first, the written word was used mainly for basic accounting and record keeping.
Chapter 3 Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent Section Notes Geography of the Fertile Crescent The Rise of Sumer Sumerian Achievements Later Peoples of the Fertile Crescent History Close-up The City-State
VMFA Resources Pre- and Post-Visit Activities VIRGINIA MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS Greece and Rome GRADE 3 Based on images of two works of art from VMFA s collection, these activities will provide students with
Do Now! Dear Sixth Grade Historian, 1) Take out a pen or pencil. 2) Copy your homework assignment into your homework folder. 3) Take out your home and put it in the upper left corner of your desk. 4) Silently
The Fertile Crescent, Part II Major Civilizations Sumer Akkadian Empire Babylonian Empire Hittite Empire Kassite Empire Assyrian Empire Chaldean (Neo-Babylonian) Empire Phoenician Empire The Copper Age
6.1 Introduction Ancient Sumer flourished in Mesopotamia between 3500 and 2300 B.C.E. In this chapter, you will discover what happened to the Sumerians and who ruled Mesopotamia after them. The city-states
WHAT IS MESOPOTAMIAN SOCIETY LIKE? Mesopotamian society has privileged and non-privileged groups. Privileged people are very rich and have all the power: - The aristocracy consists of the king s family
Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia History Alive! Ch. 6, pp. 51-59 1 6.1 Introduction City-states of Sumer were like independent countries Often fought over land and water rights Never united into one
Bell Ringer Background Information From the early colonists establishments on the James River in Virginia to Lewis and Clark s travels on the Missouri River, Americans have depended on rivers for transportation,
Ancient Egyptian Art Function of Egyptian Art Painted sunk relief of the king being embraced by a goddess. Tomb of Amenherkhepshef (QV 55) (New Kingdom) Art designed to benefit a divine or deceased recipient.
ANCIENT AEGEAN ART Map of Ancient Aegean Art Mycenaen Cycladic Minoan Compare these two works. Seated male lyre player Cyclades, Greece ca. 2700-2500 BCE marble; approx. 9 high National Archeological Museum,
1. Which of the following was not helpful to the success of the Hittite Kingdom? a. Horse-drawn chariots b. Rich deposits of metals c. The ability to forge iron tools d. The discovery of the lost wax method
Essay Prompt for in class History Essay Quiz 10/18/12 This worksheet may be used during the test All the world's earliest civilizations had in common a location near large river valleys. On the other hand,
Rise of Sumer An Advanced Society City States of Sumer: City states in Sumer fought each other to gain more farmland, as a result city states built up strong armies and thick walls. Rise of the Akkadian
History of Western Civilization I History: What is history? The word history comes from the Greek historia, which means to inquire or to research. The content of history consists of all past human actions
Babylonia and Assyria Empires of Mesopotamia In the Beginning Sargon the 1 st was the ruler of Akkad. He set out and conquered the Sumerian citystates. By ruling more than one city-state he creates the
Devotion NT345 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Our Great High Priest THEME: God is always there for us. SCRIPTURE: Hebrews 4:14 5:11 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids! Bible
Rivers Support the Growth of Civilizations The Tigris and Euphrates rivers are the most important physical features of the region known as Mesopotamia. Farm settlements in Mesopotamia eventually developed
Ancient Egypt Ms. McKinney FSMS 2010 Introduction More than five thousand years ago, people living along the banks of the Nile River built a rich and powerful kingdom. This kingdom, known as Ancient Egypt.
The Babylonians and Assyrians Ancient Peoples of Mesopotamia The Ancient City of Babylon As the civilization of Sumer weakened, in its place, the Babylonians took over. One of the first kings of the Babylonians
Lesson Quiz 1 DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. 1. Greek for land between the rivers A. 2. complex societies that have organized governments, culture, and writing 3.
Oral Religions Native Religions of People s Whose Culture Is Not Primarily Written What is this? Oral Religions May Have Ancient Roots Venus of Willendorf Artifact of Ancient Oral Religion Discovered in
Ancient Egypt: Symbols of the pharaoh Colossal bust of Ramesses II Thebes, Egypt 1250 BC Visit resource for teachers Key Stage 2 Contents Before your visit Background information Resources Gallery information
A Tribute to Joan Westenholz Wayne Horowitz and Filip Vukasavović Bible Lands e-review 2013/L2 Below is a tribute to our friend and colleague Joan Goodnick Westenholz consisting of two parts. First, is
Chapter 4 -Ancient Mesopotamia notes L.1 Geography of Mesopotamia Main Idea: The geography of Mesopotamia helped create the conditions for civilization -Land Between Rivers The River Valley in the Fertile
Contents Foreword 6 Important Events of Ancient Mesopotamia 8 Introduction 10 Lives Dependent on the Rivers Chapter One 14 City-States and Their Residents Chapter Two 29 Home, Family, and Children Chapter
PART FIVE Chapter 14: Ancient Mediterranean Worlds Time Periods for this chapter include: The Oldest Art: Prehistoric and Neolithic Mesopotamia: Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian Egypt The Aegean: Cycladic,
Genius Hour Topic BY: JACKSON ADAMS My topic I chose Mythical gods (Greek, Roman, and Egyptian). I chose this topic because I find these gods interesting. I have always had interest in them since I was
Sumerian) & ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIAN & SUMERIAN SEALS, SCRIPTS & TABLETS History & Ancient Mesopotamian & Sumerian Stamps & Seals Permission granted to reproduce for individual use only. 2006 Enrichment4You.com
The World of Mythology: Middle Eastern Mythology By Jim Ollhoff VISIT US AT WWW.ABDOPUBLISHING.COM Published by ABDO Publishing Company, 8000 West 78th Street, Suite 310, Edina, MN 55439. Copyright 2012
CUNEIFORM TEXTS FROM BABYLONIAN TABLETS CUNEIFORM TEXTS FROM BABYLONIAN TABLETS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM INDEX TO PARTS I-L BY C.B.F. WALKER PUBLISHED FOR THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM BY BRITISH MUSEUM
BIBLE STORY CHANT: CREATION OF THE WORLD BIBLE STORY: Creation of the World SCRIPTURE: Genesis 1:1-31 - 2:3 PRESENTATION: 1. Be true to the Bible story. As you tell the story in your own words, be true
Name: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Date: Chapter 2 -First Civilizations -Test Review Matching Match each person with the correct statement below. a. Darius e. a Phoenician b. Hammurabi Queen Hatshepsut c. a Hebrew
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA Grade Level: Grade 1 Presented by: Kim Christensen, Platte River Academy Anne Winkler, Cheyenne Mountain Charter Academy Length of unit: Five days - 45 minute lessons I. ABSTRACT A.
! CNI FAITH FOCUS - Fearless following and The Feast of the Epiphany Dr. Margee Kerr is a sociologist who studies fear. She and other experts who write about how to keep New Year s resolutions say that
Bible Books OT Major Prophets Quiz A BibleMesh Learning Assessment Tool Use this quiz to test your knowledge of the Old Testament books of the Major Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, and
Bellringer How did the people of Mesopotamia benefit from the physical geography of their region? What were three important contributions made by the ancient peoples living in the Fertile Crescent? Bellringer
Ancient Science of Life, Vol. VIII, Nos. 3&4, January & April 1989, THE SYMBOLS OF CREATIVE ENERGY IN THE LITERATURE ON MYSTICSM AND ON ALCHEMY S.MAHDIHASSAN SD-34, Block A, North Nazimabad, Karachi-33,
http://www.biblestudyworkshop.org 1 A Chorus of Praise Enjoined Psalm 148:1-14 http://www.biblestudyworkshop.org 2 Text: Psalm 148:1-14, A Chorus of Praise Enjoined Commentary by Clyde M. Miller 1. Praise
A Ancient Egypt: symbols of the pharaoh Visit resource for teachers Key Stage 2 Contents Before your visit Background information Sources of information Preliminary activities During your visit Gallery
Nippur Tablet Challenges Conventional Chronology Predating the Priestly Account by Hundreds of Years! Paul G. Humber Fox News has published an article with a deceptive title, Ancient tablet reveals new
The Anunnaki - Those Who From Heaven to Earth Came In the early 1900's British archeologists started doing excavations in the ancient Sumerian city of UR. Many of the artifacts and tablets spoke of beings
IMAGES OF POWER: ANCIENT NEAR EAST: FOCUS (Akkadian and Babylonian) ONLINE ASSIGNMENT: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.o rg/victory-stele-of-naram-sin.html TITLE or DESIGNATION: Victory Stele of Naram-Sin
Changing images of Buddha: From belief to image. 1 The human image of the Buddha doesn t occur in the early centuries of Buddhist Art. He is portrayed in nonhuman form, as a tree, empty throne, stupa or
Moche Route Itinerary Trujillo Chiclayo 5 days 4 nights PERU 2016 Day 1 Welcome to Trujillo- Trujillo City Tour Upon arrival at Trujillo Airport, reception and transfer to your selected hotel will be provided.
Ancient Greece: the Nereid Tomb Relief from the Nereid Tomb showing warriors storming a city Lycia, Turkey 390-380 BC Visit resource for teachers Key Stage 2 Contents Before your visit Background information
Outline Why ask the question? Read Genesis 1 & 2 Why do Christians hold different views? Features of Genesis 1 & 2 Overview of Christian Approaches Why ask the question? Foundational to Christian belief
Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia This timeline shows four empires that ruled Mesopotamia during a period of almost 1800 years. This timeline shows four empires that ruled Mesopotamia during a period
GREEK VALUES AND THEIR GODS AND GODDESSES 9 th Grade Literature Values of the Ancient Greeks Courtesy and respect for all classes of people Courage, trust and discipline Community and law Home and family
Horse in Myth and Legend Name Date In this educational packet, students will learn about the way horses are portrayed in folklore, legends and myths. Students will also learn about the history of horses
Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Astro 110-01 Lecture 6 1 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our goals for learning: In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? How did astronomical observations
LESSON 1 Name First Story of Creation Genesis 1 2:4 Directions: Read the scripture passage listed above and related biblical footnotes to help you to fill in the blanks for each item. 1. The book of Genesis