The United States Constitution. Completed September 17, 1787! Took effect on March 4, 1789!

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1 The United States Constitution Completed September 17, 1787 Took effect on March 4, 1789

2 The Constitution was not made to fit us like a straightjacket. In its elasticity lies its chief greatness. President Woodrow Wilson

3 Preamble We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

4 Article 1. The Legislature Establishes the legislative branch Congress ( the Senate & House of Representatives) the elections and qualifications of members of Congress Explains the powers of the legislative branch Write laws Impeach presidents Establishes limits on federal & state power, establishes the Elastic clause

5 Article 2. Executive Power Describes the executive branch President, Vice President, President s cabinet Creates electoral college 35, born in US,, reside in US for 14 years Head of military, responsible for enforcing the laws

6 Article 2. Executive Power Impeachment of executive officers continued specifies that the Vice President succeeds to the presidency if the President is incapacitated or resigns. makes the Vice President the presiding officer of the Senate

7 Article 3. Judicial Power Describes the judicial branch Establishes the Supreme Court Establishes trial by jury Defines the crime of treason Gives Congress power to provide punishment for it House of Reps votes to impeach Senate presides over trial and convicts

8 Federal Salaries Vice President $227,300 House/Senate Members $174,000 Speaker of the House $223,500 Supreme Court Chief Justice $217,400 Other Justices $208,100

9 Article 4. States Powers and Limits Describes the relationship between the states and the Federal government, and amongst the states Full faith and credit clause requires states to respect and abide other states laws privileges and immunities clause prohibits states from discriminating against those from other states in favor of own citizens (eg. Having tougher penalities for out of staters) establishes extradition between states Establishes freedom of movement and travel amongst the states

10 Article 5. Process of Amendment Describes the process necessary to change the Constitution Proposing amendments By 2/3rds vote of each house of Congress By a national convention called by 2/3rds of the state legislatures Approving amendments Vote by 3/4 of the state legislatures to approve amendments

11 Article 6. Federal Power Establishes the Constitution as the Supreme law of the United States Supremacy Clause Requires oath of loyalty to support the Constitution by all federal officers

12 U.S. Checks and Balances

13 Article 7. Ratification Sets forth the requirements for ratification of the Constitution 9 states needed to ratify Delaware 12/7/1787 Pennsylvania New Jersey Georgia Connecticut Massachusetts Maryland South Carolina **New Hampshire 3/1789 Virginia New York North Carolina Rhode Island 5/29/1790

14 Bill of Rights Amendment Freedom of speech and the press Freedom of religion Right to peacefully assemble Right to protest against govt

15 Creates armed forces for protection Government can choose who joins the armed forces Right to carry weapons Amendment 2

16 Amendment 3 Prohibits the government from forcing homeowners to house and feed soldiers At any time

17 Protects against unreasonable searches and seizures of property Amendment 4 Need search warrants or homeowner s permission.

18 Amendment 5 Prohibits double jeopardy Forbids punishment w/o due process of law Allows accused to plead the 5th (can t be forced to testify against yourself) Eminent domain-property can t be taken away unless their paid for it

19 Amendment 6 Rights of the Accused Guarantees a speedy public trial for criminal offenses Requires trial by jury (of peers) Guarantees the right to a lawyer Guarantees that the accused may confront witnesses who testify against him/her.

20 Amendment 7 Allows a civil case to be decided by a jury trial when the amount of money involved is over $20. To get back property To enforce a contract To protect someone s rights

21 Amendment 8 Forbids excessive bail or fines Forbids cruel and unusual punishment bans torture

22 Amendment 9 Declares that people have other rights not specifically mentioned in the Constitution

23 Amendment 10 Rights not given to the national government are rights kept by the states or the people

24 Amendment Clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals Limits ability of citizens to sue states in federal courts, under federal law

25 Amendment Changes the method of presidential elections so that members of the electoral college cast separate ballots for president and vice president.

26 Amendment Abolishes slavery and grants Congress power to enforce abolition.

27 Amendment Defines United States citizenship prohibits states taking away people s rights right to due process and the equal protection of the law repeals the three-fifths compromise.

28 Amendment Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's race as a condition for voting..

29 Amendment Authorizes Congress to collect federal taxes on income.

30 Amendment Establishes direct election of senators. 2 senators per state Serve for 6 years Each senator has 1 vote Same qualifications as state legislatures Vacancies filled by governor until people vote during special elections

31 Amendment Prohibited the manufacturing, importing, and exporting of beverage alcohol. Repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment

32 Prohibits the federal government and the states from using a citizen's sex as a qualification for voting. Amendment

33 Amendment Changes details of Congressional and presidential terms and of presidential succession terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January If the President-elect dies or resigns, the Vice President-elect shall become President.

34 Repeals Eighteenth Amendment but permits states to retain prohibition and ban the importation of alcohol. Amendment

35 Amendment Limits president to two terms.

36 Amendment Grants presidential electors to the District of Columbia.

37 Prohibits the government from charging people when voting for federal officials. Amendment

38 Amendment If the President cannot do his job, the vice-president assumes the job of President until he is able to do so James Garfield died after eighty days before dying from an assassin's bullet a stroke made Woodrow Wilson an invalid for the last eighteen months of his term. whenever there is a vacancy in the office of Vice President of the United States, the President nominates a successor, who is confirmed by the majority vote of both houses of Congress.

39 Amendment 25 (ctd) The Presidential line of succession : 1. Vice President 2. Speaker of the House of Representatives 3. President pro tempore of the Senate 4. Secretary of State 5. Secretary of the Treasury 6. Secretary of Defense 7. Attorney General 8. Secretary of the Interior 9. Secretary of Agriculture 10. Secretary of Commerce 11. Secretary of Labor 12. Secretary of Health and Human Services 13. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 14. Secretary of Transportation 15. Secretary of Energy 16. Secretary of Education 17. Secretary of Veterans Affairs

40 Amendment You have the right to vote once you reach the age of 18.

41 Amendment Limits congressional pay raises Public Opinion on 1999 Congressional Pay Raise Source: Gallup Poll, July 1999

42 States Ratification of the Constitution Date State Votes % Approval Yay Nay December 7, 1787 Delaware % December 12, 1787 Pennsylvania % December 18, 1787 New Jersey % January 2, 1788 Georgia % January 9, 1788 Connecticut % February 6, 1788 Massachusetts % April 28, 1788 Maryland % May 23, 1788 South Carolina % June 21, 1788 New Hampshire % June 25, 1788 Virginia % July 26, 1788 New York % November 21, 1789 North Carolina % May 29, 1790 Rhode Island %

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