International Conference on Mathematics, Science, and Education 2014 (ICMSE 2014)

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1 MATHEMATICAL LITERACY SKILLS BASED ON POAC ANALYSIS AND PISA STUDY IN GEOMETRY AND MEASUREMENT MATERIAL (THE CASE STUDY OF STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 1 TULIS, BATANG REGENCY) Dessy Eka Jayanti, St. Budi Waluya, Ani Rusilowati Departement of Mathematics Semarang State University Indonesia * ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to describe the mathematical literacy skills in geometry and measurement material of eighth grade of State Junior High School 1 Tulis using Planning, Organizing, Actuating and Controlling (POAC) analysis and based on Program International Student Assessment (PISA) study. The specific target is: to know the mathematical literacy skills profile of eighth graders of State Junior High School 1 Tulis. The target is the eighth graders as many as 40 students. This study used the documentation technique in the form of written test which was conducted in VIII E class after the completion of all geometry and measurement material delivery, especially in the sub material of cube, block, prism, and pyramid by mathematics teacher. The test items and assessment guideline of mathematical literacy skills test was arranged based on the test items guideline of mathematical literacy skills made by the researcher and validated by the validator. The maximum mathematical literacy skills of the eighth graders of State Junior High School 1 Tulis were level 4 in the PISA study. Keywords: Mathematical Literacy, POAC, PISA INTRODUCTION Globalization era requires reliable human resources (HR) which have a critical, systematic, logical, creative thinking and willingness to cooperate effectively. HR that has such abilities is able to utilize the information. HR, who has a thought as mentioned above, is more likely to be born from the educational institution in school. Education can educate students to be a virtuous or moral human, to live up to the norms and values existed in the society corresponding to the national character. Experiences in many countries show that the HR quality is more important than the abundant natural resources. According to Ticha&Hospenova (2006: 129), the low quality of students learning related to the context including the learning process, students, learning facility, and teacher who teaches them. Based on Slameto (1991), the learning outcomes are influenced by various factors, both internal and external factors. The internal factors are such as physiological and psychological factors (e.g intelligence, motivation, achievement, and cognitive ability) and the external factors include environmental and instrumental factors (e.g teacher, curriculum, and instructional media). Therefore, when teacher will conduct the learning process and give a test, it is expected that the teacher has formerly planned what he/she will be addressed, provided the necessary device, delivered the material and test well, and paid attention to the assessment technique. Mathematics played a role in advancing the education. Learning mathematics in the elementary and secondary education emphasizes on the logical structuring and students attitude formation. Students are aimed to observe, guess, do, try, able to answer the why question, and debate if possible. The principle of active learning is expected to be able to develop the creative M - 108

2 and critical mathematics learning objectives (Suherman et al, 2003: 62). Marpaung (2007) states that if students are not given the opportunity to interact and appreciate the things around them which can serve as the learning source, students will not be able to apply the knowledge received with everyday life. With the development of knowledge and technology, the mathematics material delivery needs to be more focused and emphasizes on reasoning and problem solving skills. According to Temur (2012: 90), the problem solving process gives a contribution to students to be more motivated and enthusiastic during the learning process. Students can carry out the problem solving process by constructing their knowledge which lives inside themselves. The conceptual understanding must always attach to students so that they are able to apply mathematics in real life (Ojose 2011: 99). On the other hand, the learning pattern in this globalization era has developed very rapidly by empowering students optimally. It encourages teacher to improve his/her professionalism in developing the learning process. The recent education paradigm has shifted from the traditional learning to new learning. According to ISTE, this learning shift can be seen in Table 1. Table 1.1.Learning Shift Traditional Learning New Learning Teacher centered Student centered Single media Multimedia Isolated work Colaborative work Information delivery Information exchange Factual Knowledge Critical Thinking and Information decision Push Making pull From Table 1, it appears that the traditional learning process has been shifted to the new learning and this learning process is more orientated on students interest (Suyanto, 2007) Regarding the global competition that increases fiercely nowadays, students need to be equipped with the reasoning, arguing, and problem solving skills in their everyday life in order to keep up with the era development. Those skills are called mathematical literacy skills. In fact, students are still weak in mathematical literacy, whereas in this era development the mathematical literacy is much needed to communicate and develop the technology. PISA survey, which measures the ability of 15 year olds children in M reading, mathematics, and natural sciences literacy, has been implemented in three periods by OECD (Shiel, 2007: 1). Indonesia participated in those three periods of study. The first, in 2000, was followed by 41 countries, Indonesia was ranked 39th in math skills. Second, in 2003, followed by 40 countries, Indonesia was ranked 38th in math skills. Third, in 2006, attended by 57 countries, Indonesia was ranked 50th in mathematics. Fourth, in 2009, attended by 65 countries, Indonesia was ranked 61st in mathematics. Fifth, in 2012, followed by 65 countries, Indonesia was ranked 64th in mathematics. Based on the mathematical literacy, Indonesia is still in low position. Some dimensions highlighted in the PISA program are (1) content dimension, which is in PISA, means as content or material or mathematics learned in school; (2) process dimension, which is in the PISA study, interprets as the things or someone s measures to solve a problem in a given situation using mathematics as a means so that the problem can be solved, (3) context dimension, which is in the PISA study, defines as a situation reflected in a problem (OECD, 2013: 18). In this study, it is more emphasized on the content dimension which is focused on the shape and space content because it is related to the geometry subject. According to Shiel (2007: 5), the test items of shape and space examine the students' ability to recognize shape, look for the similarity and difference of the various dimensions and shape representations, as well as explore the characteristics of an object in relation to the position of the object. Therefore, it is clear that the test items on the shape and space content need to be developed because it is directly corresponded to the human activity. PISA results in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 did not show much change in the result of every participation which was surely caused by many factors. One of those factors are Indonesian students are generally lack of training in doing test items with the characteristics as in the PISA test items which have the contextual substance, reasoning-based, argumentation, and creativity in doing it. This condition at least can be found in math textbooks used by students in school, including books that had been reviewed by BSNP, so it is not easy to find some test items with the same characteristics in PISA test items. The math test items in PISA measure more on mathematical literacy, they are reasoning, arguing, and problem solving skills rather than test items that measure basic technical skills related to the remembering and calculation.

3 Starting from the existing reality, the researcher tries to play a role in analyzing the mathematical literacy skills of eight graders based on the POAC analysis and PISA study. The achievement target is to give an overview of students mathematical literacy skills profile so that it can impact on students and mathematics teachers. Moreover, the result of the study can be published in an international conference on mathematics, science, and education. The problem statement of this study is how the mathematical literacy skills profile of the eighth graders. The purpose of this study is to know the mathematical literacy skills profile of the eighth graders. The expected outcome of this study is to provide a deeper understanding for the teachers about the repertoire of science in the study of mathematical literacy skills. METHODS The research approach was a qualitative approach because it was useful to understand the subjective reality of eighth graders. The documentation process was in the form of written test done to gather the information of students' mathematical literacy skills. Researcher looked for the information as complete as possible and conducted this study by understanding the subject from their point of view, without ignoring the interpretation construction by making the conceptual schema. Data collection technique in this study was through the documentation. Finding or fact obtained was described in the form of descriptive data, then it was analyzed (interpreted) qualitatively. The main research instrument in this qualitative research was the researcher himself/herself. The research instrument used by the researcher in this study was the observation sheet of learning device (syllabus, lesson plan, teaching material, and instructional media), the learning process (the process of teaching and learning), the test items of mathematical literacy skills, and the observation sheet of students creative character assessment which had been validated by some experts in mathematics. Moleong (2011: 324) argued that to determine the data validation was needed the assessment technique. The implementation of assessment technique was based on certain criteria. There are four criteria used, namely credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Data analysis was carried out started from data collection stage to analysis stage. Research data was in the form of observation and data analysis was performed quantitatively and quantitatively. The analysis was conducted by taking into account the validator s suggestion and comment by calculating the average score of each component. Figure 1. Instrument Validation Stage Instrument quality assessment was stated in a scale of 1 to 5. The instrument assessment was used to assess the validity of material or content, construction, and instrument language. Validator wrote his/her assessment, advice, and comment on the validation sheet. Researcher collected the research data using documentation. Then, the data obtained was analyzed using qualitative descriptive technique that was consisted of three activities, namely collecting and also reducing data, displaying data, drawing conclusion or verification (Sugiyono, 2013: 335). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Result and discussion of the research finding was carried out based on POAC analysis method which had been fully designed. The data presented will support the description of mathematical literacy skills profile of the eighth graders of State Junior High School 1 Tulis. Mathematical literacy skills data were collected using the documentation technique such as conducting the written test in VIII E class after the completion of all lesson material delivery. Before the test items of mathematical literacy skills were tested, it was previously trialed in VIII A class. Of the 12 test items which were trialed, 8 of them were taken for research. The selection of those test items were with the consideration of validity, reliability, level of difficulty, and distinguishing feature of the test items which met the criteria. The highest score of VIII E class was 79, meanwhile the lowest score when given the mathematical literacy skills test was 21. The characteristic of mathematical literacy skills was reviewed from three aspects; they were process component, mathematical skills, and the context M - 110

4 components. The percentage of process component was shown in Figure 2 below. Figure 2. Process Component Histogram The highest percentage was the students ability in formulating the problem mathematically. It was because most of students can identify the mathematical aspects of the test items contained in the real situation context, students can identify the important variable of each question, students can understand the mathematical structure in the situation or problem based on each question of the test items, students can simplify the situation or problem by using mathematical analysis, students can identify the barrier and assumption behind the mathematical model and simplify to make it easier to be processed, students can represent the situation mathematically using the appropriate variable, students can represent the problem in a different way based on their own idea, students can present a problem-solving mathematically because students understood the relation between language, symbol, and context in the test items, students can transform the problem into mathematical language or mathematical model, students can understand the problem aspects related to the problem found in the test items which had been known. The percentage of mathematical literacy assessment framework in PISA 2012 was shown in Figure 3 below. Communication or students skills in communicating mathematical problem and noticing the presence of problem, then challenged to recognize and understand it, achieving the highest percentage at 83%. It was because the students can interpret the statement, question, object that allowed students to form the problem model which was an important step in understanding and formulating the problem. During the problem solving process, students summarized and presented a good solution. After finding the solution, students used the solution obtained and conducted the justification towards it. The context component that became the focus of PISA was defined as a situation reflected in a problem can be seen in Figure 4 below. Figure 4.Context Component Histogram The percentage of educational and occupational contexts was higher than the other components as many as 63%. It was because students were able to enjoy their life at school and/or students learning environment. The occupational context known by students was not limited, but in this study, it was limited only on the things such as measuring cupboard that will be covered by the paint and calculating the minimal surface area of an object that will be used for soap packing. Students understood well about the relation of each occupational level, from the lowest to the highest level known by students. Therefore, students can formulate, perform the problem classification, and solve the problem. Generally, the maximum mathematical literacy skills used PISA of VIII E graders of State Junior High School 1 Tulis can only achieve level 4 according to OECD, The percentage of each PISA level can be seen in Figure 5 below. Figure 3.Mathematical Literacy Assessment Histogram M - 111

5 Figure 5.PISA Level Histogram Based on Figure 5, there are 15 students or 38% of VIII E graders can achieve level 1, students who can get level 2 as many as 9 students or 23%, students who can obtain level 3 were 2 students or 5%, student who can achieve level 4 is 1 student or 3%, no student or 0% of students who can reach level 5 and 6, and there were 13 students or 33% of VIII E graders who cannot achieve level 1. The students activity that can be regarded achieving level 4 was characterized by the results of the test items completion of identified mathematical literacy skills. It showed that students were able to work effectively with the implicit model in the concrete situation, but complex with the presence of barrier or making assumption. Students were able to choose and combine the different representation including symbolizing and relating it to the real situation. Then, students can use a good skill development and stating their reason and view flexibly according to the context. Next, students can construct and communicate the explanation and their opinion based on interpretation, result, and action. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Conclusion Based on the result and discussion above, it can be concluded that the mathematical literacy skills test used was focused on the real life problem, outside of the situation or problem that was often discussed in class during the learning process of mathematics. The test item and assessment guideline of mathematical literacy skills test was arranged based on the test items guideline of mathematical literacy skills made by the researcher and validated by the validator. The test items of mathematical literacy skills had been previously trialed in the trial class. Of the 12 test items used in trial, there were 11 valid items and there was 1 non-valid item. This nonvalid item was caused by the instruction given was not clear. M Mathematical subject or content component which is examinedis shape and space because it is included in geometry lesson. The test items of this study are to examine the students' ability in recognizing shape and identifying the characteristic of an object in relation to the position of the object. All this time, students apply their mathematical knowledge based on the knowledge and skills learned and practiced with a variety of test items which is usually obtained in school books and instructional media used in school. However, the context problem of PISA requires using the relevant skills in context that is not too structured; where the instruction is not very clear for students. Students must be able to determine the knowledge which is relevant, what process must be passed to be able to produce the possible solution of this problem, and how to describe the truth and use the answer or solution obtained. Mathematical literacy is very important skills for students to survive in the recent information and knowledge era. In this case, mathematical literacy steps away from the mathematics curriculum. However, mathematical literacy assessment cannot be separated from the existing curriculum and learning process because the knowledge and students skills was very dependent on what and how they learn in school and how the learning process is evaluated. Suggestion First,for the school through Mathematics MGMP (Mathematics Teacher Conference /Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran). It needs to develop the test items of PISA model so that it can be an alternative improvement of test items quality that can enhance the students' mathematical literacy skills. The more test items of PISA model, the more knowledge for teachers to be inspired designing the mathematics learning based on PISA test items. Second, for the researcher, it is important to conduct the further research, but with other content components. REFERENCES Marpaung, Y Pendekatan Multikultural dalam Pembelajaran Matematika. Makalah. Seminar Nasional MIPA di UniversitasNegeri Semarang. Semarang, 19 Desember. Moleong, L.J Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif Edisi Revisi. Rosdakarya: Bandung.

6 OECD PISA 2012 Assessment and Analytical Framework: Mathematics, Reading, Science, Problem Solving and Financial Literacy / en. Ojose, B Mathematics Literacy: Are We Able to Put The Mathematics We Learn Into Everyday Use?.Journal of Mathematics Education, Volume 4 No. 1.Hal Shiel, G., et al PISA Mathematics: A Teacher s Guide. Dublin: Stationery Office. Slameto BelajardanFaktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi. Jakarta: RinekaCipta. Sugiyono Metode Penelitian Kombinasi (Mixed Methods). Alfabeta: Bandung. Suherman, E., et al Strategi Pembelajaran Matematika Kontemporer. Bandung: UPI. Suyanto Tantangan Profesional Guru di Era Global. Makalah. Dies Nataliske 43 Universitas Negeri Yokyakarta di Universitas Negeri Yokyakarta. Yokyakarta. Temur, O.D Analysis Of Perspective Classroom Teacher s Teaching of Mathematical Modeling and Problem Solving. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science &Technologi Education, Volume 8 No. 2. Hal Ticha, M., &Hospenova, A Qualified Pedagogical Reflection as a Way to Improve Mathematics Education. Journal of Mathematics Teacher s Education, Volume 9 No. 2. Hal M - 113

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