2 COURSE OBJECTIVES About Stroke Stroke Policy Recommendations Stroke Protocols and Stroke Hospital Care Stroke Assessment Tools Pre-Notification Stroke Treatment
3 ABOUT STROKE
4 STROKE FACTS A stroke is a medical emergency! Stroke occurs when blood flow is either cut off or is reduced, depriving the brain of blood and oxygen Approximately 795,000 strokes occur in the US each year Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the US Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability On average, every 40 seconds, someone in the United States has a stroke Over 4 million stroke survivors are in the US The indirect and direct cost of stroke: $38.6 billion annually (2009) Crosses all ethnic, racial and socioeconomic groups Berry, Jarett D., et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 127, 2013.
5 DIFFERENT TYPES OF STROKE Ischemic Stroke Caused by a blockage in an artery stopping normal blood and oxygen flow to the brain 87% of strokes are ischemic There are two types of ischemic strokes: Embolism: Blood clot or plaque fragment from elsewhere in the body gets lodged in the brain Thrombosis: Blood clot formed in an artery that provides blood to the brain Berry, Jarett D., et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 127, Clots_UCM_310939_Article.jsp
6 DIFFERENT TYPES OF STROKE Hemorrhagic Stroke About 13% of strokes are caused by a hemorrhage Caused by a breakage in a blood vessel within the brain Can be the result of trauma or a ruptured aneurysm There are two types of hemorrhagic stroke: Intraparenchymal (within the brain tissue, sometimes referred to as intracerebral) Hemorrhage: A blood vessel bursts leaking blood into the brain tissue Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Occurs when a blood vessel bursts near the surface of the brain and blood pours into the area outside of the brain, between the brain and the skull Berry, Jarett D., et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 127, Strokes-Bleeds_UCM_310940_Article.jsp
7 DIFFERENT TYPES OF STROKE Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) A TIA or Transient Ischemic Attack produces stroke-like symptoms TIA is caused by a clot; but unlike a stroke, the blockage is temporary and usually causes no permanent damage to the brain Approximately 15% of all strokes occur after a TIA. TIA is a medical emergency!
8 STROKE RISK FACTORS Controllable Risk Factors High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol Diabetes Tobacco Use Alcohol Use Physical Inactivity Obesity Heart Disease Atrial Fibrillation Non-Controllable Risk Factors Age Gender Race Family History Previous Stroke or TIA Risk_UCM_308539_SubHomePage.jsp
9 COMMON STROKE SYMPTOMS Right Hemispheric Stroke Slurred speech - dysarthria Weakness or numbness of left face, arm or leg Left sided neglect Right gaze preference Left Hemispheric Stroke Speech problems what is being said or inability to get words out Problems with comprehension Weakness or numbness of right face, arm, or leg Left gaze preference Brainstem Stroke Symptoms Nausea, vomiting or vertigo Speech problems Swallowing problems Abnormal eye movements Decreased consciousness Crossed findings Intracerbral Hemorrhage Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage Nausea and Vomiting Headache One Sided Weakness Decreased Consciousness Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Worst Headache of Life Intolerance to Light Neck Stiffness or Pain Summers, D., Leonard, A., Wentworth, D., Saver, J. L., Simpson, J., Spilker, J. A., et al. Comprehensive Overview of Nursing and Interdisciplinary Care of the Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient. American Heart Association, , 2009.
10 COMMON STROKE MIMICS STROKE MIMICS Alcohol Intoxication Cerebral Infections Drug Overdose/Toxicity Epidural Hematoma Hypoglycemia Metabolic Disorders Migraines Neuropathies (Bell s Palsy) Seizure and post seizure, Todd s Paralysis Brain Tumors Hypertensive Encephalopathy Summers, D., Leonard, A., Wentworth, D., Saver, J. L., Simpson, J., Spilker, J. A., et al. Comprehensive Overview of Nursing and Interdisciplinary Care of the Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient. American Heart Association, , 2009.
11 STROKE POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
12 EMS POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Support ABCs: airway, breathing, circulation give oxygen if needed Perform prehospital stroke assessment Establish time when patient was last normal Rapid transport to the nearest Primary Stroke Center, Comprehensive Stroke Center or GWTG- Stroke Hospital EMS can bypass hospital without stroke resources if the stroke center is within reasonable transport range Alert receiving hospital as soon as possible of potential stroke patient CODE STROKE Check glucose level if possible
13 STROKE PROTOCOLS AND STROKE HOSPITAL CARE
14 STROKE CARE The goal of stroke care is to minimize brain injury and maximize the patient s recovery The Stroke Chain of Survival links actions to be taken by patients, family members, and healthcare providers to maximize stroke recovery. The links include: Family member, friend or bystander recognizes stroke warning signs and rapidly calls EMS rapidly arrives at scene and performs stroke assessment EMS rapidly notifies receiving hospital that patient will be arriving and EMS transports patient to the receiving hospital Hospital rapidly diagnoses and treats patient
15 HOSPITAL LEVELS OF CARE Primary Stroke Center (PSC) Stabilize and provide emergency care for patients with acute stroke Either admit or transfer to a CSC Over 1,000 PSCs to date Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) Have the capability to support all needed levels of care to stroke patients, including - Special interventions - Highly technical procedures 74 certified CSCs to date (began 9/2012)
16 STROKE ASSESSMENT TOOLS
17 % of Stroke Identification Sensitivity STROKE ASSESSMENT TOOLS Stroke assessment tools help EMS identify a stroke quickly and transport the individual to the appropriate center 100 EMS Stroke Identification* Pre-hospital stroke assessment training raises the accuracy of stroke identification Paramedics demonstrated a sensitivity of 61-66% without stroke assessment training and 86-97% with training Stroke Assessment Tool Training No Training in Use of Stroke Assessment Tool Training in Use of Stroke Assessment Tool Maggiore, W. A. (2012). 'Time is Brain' in Prehospital Stroke Treatment. Journal of Emergency Medical Services,
18 FIELD ASSESSMENT OF STROKE There are multiple tools you can use to assess a stroke. Currently there are no standards set out by the AHA/ASA for the use of one Facial tool Droop: over another. Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale is most widely used. The patient shows teeth Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale or smiles Facial Droop Normal: Both sides of the face move equally Normal: Left and Right side of face move equally Abnormal: One side of face does not move at all Arm Drift Normal: Both left and right arm move together or not at all Abnormal: One arm does not move equally with the other Speech Abnormal: One side of the face does not move as well as the other side Normal: Patient uses correct words with no slurring Abnormal: Patient has slurred speech, uses inappropriate words or cannot speak Adapted from: Kothari RU, Pancioli A, Liu T., Brott T., Broderick J. Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale: reproducibility and validity. Ann Emerg Med Apr;33(4):373-8, permission for use.
19 FIELD ASSESSMENT OF STROKE 1. Age over 45 years Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen Screening Criteria Yes No 2. No prior history of seizure disorder 3. New onset of neurological symptoms in just 24 hours 4. Patient was ambulatory at baseline (prior to event) 5. Blood glucose between 60 and 400 Exam: Look for obvious Normal Right Left Facial smile/grimace Droop Droop Grip Weak grip No grip Arm Weakness Drifts down Falls rapidly Weak grip No grip Drifts down Falls rapidly Table adapted from Kidwell C.S., Starkman S., Eckstein M., Weems K., Saver J.L., Identifying stroke in the field. Prospective validation of the Los Angeles prehospital stroke screen (LAPSS). Stroke 2000 Jan;31(1):71-6.
20 FIELD ASSESSMENT OF STROKE Miami Emergency Neurological Deficit Scale MENDS : Pre Hospital Examination Mental Status Level of Consciousness (AVPU) Speech: You can t teach an old dog new tricks Questions: (Age, Month) Commands: (Close/open eyes) Cranial Nerves Facial Droop: Show teeth or smile Visual Fields: Four Quadrants Horizontal Gaze: Side to side Limbs Motor: Arm Drift (close eyes hold out arms) Leg Drift (Open eyes lift each leg separately) Sensory: Arm, Leg (close eyes and touch, pinch) Coordination: Arm, Leg ( finger-nose, heel-shin) Adapted from Miami Miller School of Medicine, Gordon Center for Research in Medical Education
21 CONSUMER ASSESSMENT OF STROKE Face Drooping - Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop or is it numb? Arm Weakness - Ask the person to raise both arms. Is one arm weak or numb? Does one arm drift downward? Speech Difficulty - Ask the person to repeat a simple sentence, like "the sky is blue." Is the sentence repeated correctly? Are they unable to speak, or are they hard to understand? Time to call If the person shows any of these symptoms, even if the symptoms go away, call and get them to the hospital immediately.
23 PRE-NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS EMS professionals can notify hospital staff that a stroke patient is being sent to the hospital prior to them arriving at the hospital Pre-notification systems help improve rapid triage, evaluation, and treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke The sooner the patient gets to medical treatment, the greater potential for a better outcome EMS Pre-Notification Systems The study cited below by Lin, et al. observed shorter symptom onset to hospital arrival when a pre-notification system was used There was an increase in the amount of patients with door-toimaging times within 25 min When a prenotification system was used there were lower onset to door times observed (113 min vs. 150 min) Overall, prenotification resulted in more rapid triage, evaluation, and treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke Lin, C. B., Peterson, et al. (2012). Emergency Medical Service Hospital Pre-Notification is Associated with Improved Evaluation and Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Journal of the American Heart Association,
24 TRAINING TOOLS OnlineAHA.org ACUTE STROKE ONLINE Course Content - Stroke chain of survival - Definitions of stroke types - Pathophysiology - Stroke risk factors, recognition, management - Transition to critical care and rehabilitation Intended Audience The experienced healthcare provider who wants to improve his or her knowledge of stroke treatment CME ACCME/AMA (Physicians) ANCC (Nurses) CECBEMS (EMS Practitioners) STROKE PREHOSPITAL CARE ONLINE Course Content - Pathophysiology - Risk factors - Differential diagnosis - Recognition - Assessment - Management EMS Personnel Intended Audience CME CECBEMS (EMS Practicioners)
25 STROKE TREATMENT OPTIONS
26 STROKE TREATMENT PROTOCOLS Patient Arrives at Comprehensive Stroke Center ER Symptom onset < 3 hrs (4.5 hours) TPA Eligible YES TPA Eligible No CT/MR Imaging Start IV TPA CTP/CTA/MRP/ MRA Consider Other Interventional Treatments Symptom onset > 3 hrs (4.5 hours)m onset > 3 hours Stroke Protocol Map Covidien Part Number (A) JUN/12
27 STROKE TREATMENT OPTIONS Medical Management IV-tPA is the clot busting drug used with stroke patients Patients must be within the time window of 0-3 (or hour window (in certain eligible patients) hours from symptom onset There are other contraindications associated with the use of the drug Intra-arterial Thrombolysis IA thrombolysis is a technique where the doctor uses a catheter (like a heart catherization) to administer tpa directly into the blood clot blocking blood flow to part of the brain This treatment can be administered up to 6 hours after stroke symptoms onset Patients must meet strict criteria in order to receive this procedure Mechanical Thrombectomy This procedure uses a device to retrieve the clot The time window for mechanical thrombectomy is up to 8 hours from symptom onset If the patient fails IV-tPA or is ineligible for IV-tPA, they may be eligible for mechanical thrombectomy
28 PUBLISHED RCT CURRENT TREATMENT OUTCOMES Thrombolytics Revascularization success with IV rt-pa Mortality rates Disability (Modified Rankin Scale measure of disability at 90 days after rt-pa) Mechanical Thrombectomy Revascularization success with endovascular/interventional procedures Mortality rates Disability (Modified Rankin Scale measure of disability at 90 days after an interventional procedure) Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke. The New England Journal of Medicine, 333:24, Mendes, Dávalos A, Pereira V, Chapot R, Bonafé A, Andersson T, and Jan, Gralla. Retrospective Multicenter Study of Solitaire FR for Revascularization in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Stroke Pereira, Vitor M., et al. Prospective, Multicenter, Single-Arm Study of Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Solitaire Flow Restoration in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Stroke Saver, Jeffrey L., et al. Solitaire flow restoration device versus the Merci Retriever in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (SWIFT): a randomised,parallel-group, non-inferiority trial. The Lancet
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