South African Sludge Management Guidelines Innovation and Impact

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "South African Sludge Management Guidelines Innovation and Impact"

Transcription

1 South African Sludge Management Guidelines Innovation and Impact Heidi G. Snyman * Water Research Commission, Private Bag X 03, Gezina, 0031, Gauteng, South Africa ( Abstract South Africa has completed the development of their new Wastewater Sludge Guideline Series. The new three tier sludge classification system includes microbiological limits, stability criteria and pollutant limits. These limits are based on international and local research results while factors such as legislation, technology and the sector s ability to absorb the guidelines were also taken into account. The guidelines are published in five volumes each dealing with a specific management option(s). These volumes deal with the selection of appropriate sludge management option(s) based on the characteristics and classification of the sludge and the requirements for the following management options: (1) agricultural use, (2) on-site and offsite disposal; (3) beneficial use of sludge and high loading rate use in agricultural practices; (4) thermal sludge management practices and, (5) for commercial products containing sludge. The different volumes for different management options simplify the understanding of the requirements and restrictions that pertain to a particular management option. The paper details the specific metal limits for each management option. The paper also highlights the results of an impact study which details the potential impact of the application of the guidelines in the society. Keywords Metal limits, sewage sludge, sludge guidelines, South Africa, wastewater sludge. INTRODUCTION This paper presents an overview of the wastewater sludge management approaches in a typical developing country (South Africa), it summarises the content of the newly developed South African Sludge Guideline Series and state the preliminary impact of applying these guidelines providing a valuable case study for other developing countries. The concept of sustainability was adopted as the ideal during the development of the 2nd edition of the Sludge Guidelines. Sustainable management options include options that do not harm the environment by either the use of a non-renewable resource or a build-up of substances in the environment to the extent that the assimilative capacity of the receiving environment has been exceeded. Unsustainable management options include disposal practices such as stockpiles, certain landfill and sacrificial land disposal practices. With current knowledge, there are three ways in which sludge management can contribute to sustainable development: (1) Utilising the calorific energy value of the sludge (example: generating heat); or (2) Utilising useful constituents such as carbon and nutrients (example: agricultural use); or (3) Extracting useful constituents from the sludge (example: extraction of phosphorus). Most agree that the second option i.e., utilising the useful constituents such as carbon and nutrients in the sludge, particularly in support of agricultural practices, is the most viable management option for South Africa. However, one also needs to be realistic and recognise that not all sludge generated in South Africa is suitable for agricultural use. It was therefore necessary to develop guidelines for other management options such as disposal and incineration and also provide opportunity for innovation. Each sludge management option was developed as a separate guideline volume. This simplifies the Guidelines for users, as each guideline focus on the management, technical and legislative aspects associated with a particular option. Each of the management options has different regulatory requirements and the sludge classification requirements for each option vary. At the same time it was important to understand whether the sector was ready and able to adopt the new guidelines. Developing countries often develop policies and guidelines for the sustainable management of the environment and waste comparable with those applied in developed countries. The implementation of these policies and guidelines are often seen as being costly and unpractical. This paper therefore also details the benefits (and shortcomings) of implementing sustainable

2 sludge management guidelines in a developing country. The aim of the impact study was to quantify the potential impact of the Sludge Guidelines on South African society by analysing current examples of wastewater sludge best practice that are aligned with the new Sludge Guidelines. WASTEWATER SLUDGE USE AND DISPOSAL PRACTICES IN SOUTH AFRICA The statistics regarding the use and disposal of wastewater sludge was presented by Snyman (2007). Half of the approximately 970 wastewater treatment plants in South Africa treat less than 500 m 3 /day (< 0.5 Ml/day) and a further 11% treat between 500 and 2000 m 3 /day. There is little information on the sludge handling practices of these small plants, although it is suspected that most of the sludge is accumulated on site. A survey of 72 wastewater treatment plants (Snyman et al., 2004) which focused mainly on the plants larger than 2000 m 3 /day revealed that majority of sludge that is used/disposed is anaerobically digested sludge (primary and humus sludge). Waste activated sludge accounts for 25% of the mass of sludge produced. Sludge is dewatered either in drying beds or mechanical belt filter presses or centrifuges. Where no dewatering technologies are employed, liquid sludge is often used for direct land application such as dedicated land disposal and instant lawn cultivation. Anaerobic digestion of primary and humus sludge is still employed to stabilise the majority of the sludge generated in South Africa. The majority does not treat the sludge further than the traditional anaerobic digestion and activated sludge extended aeration. Composting is used by both metropolitan city councils and plants in smaller town councils while pelletisation is only employed by large metropolitan areas (Snyman et al., 2004). Final disposal methods employed by the wastewater treatment plants surveyed in South Africa are still dominated by on-site disposal methods. This includes direct land application and stockpiling of the sludge on site. The beneficial use of sewage sludge is still limited. Stockpiling and disposal practices noticeably increased after the publication of the 1997 sludge guidelines (WRC, 1997) as these guidelines were perceived to be overly strict and unattainable. This was one of the reasons why an addendum was published in 2002 (WRC, 2002) and a dedicated research programme was initiated to develop sustainable appropriate guidelines. The South African wastewater treatment sector remains conservative in terms of the technological choices. Innovative technologies such as the electro-osmotic belt filter press (Snyman et al., 1999) and innovative commercial solutions are isolated or remain at the demonstration plant level. SLUDGE LEGISLATION IN SOUTH AFRICA The South African based Water Research Commission initiated a research programme to further develop the knowledge base for the management of sewage sludge in the South African context. Although the results of these research projects did not address all the unknown factors, it provided enough information to develop a new set of guidelines for the management of wastewater sludge in South Africa. The South African wastewater guidelines replaces all previous guidelines are now being implemented by the local authorities. The Department of Water Affairs stipulate in the authorisation of the treatment plant that the Guidelines should be adhered to and through this process the Guidelines become legally binding. The South African guidelines comprise of a set of 5 Volumes (Herselman et al., 2009; Herselman and Moodley, 2009; Herselman and Snyman, 2009a; Snyman and Herselman, 2006a; Snyman and Herselman, 2006b) and scientific support documents (Herselman, 2009a; Herselman, 2009b; Herselman and Snyman, 2009b; Snyman and Herselman 2006c) which detail the background literature that informed the guidelines as well as the scientific research methodology and findings, risk assessment and premise for the guideline. The major aspects of each of these volumes are discussed in the sections that follow. The limits set for the microbiological class and the stability class remains essentially the same throughout the 5

3 volumes (Snyman et al., 2006). However, the methodology and limits for the pollutant class differs depending on the most sensitive receptor and legal framework of that particular use. Specific discussions regarding the metal limits for each use are therefore presented. Volume 1: Selection of Management Options Volume 1 (Snyman and Herselman, 2006b) describes the initial comprehensive characterisation of the sludge. Based on the results of the characterisation, the sludge is classified according to the new classification system (Table 1). Limits and criteria for the microbiological class, stability class and pollutant class are detailed by Snyman and Herselman (2006bc). In Volume 1, limits are presented for 8 metals which are used for classification purposes and benchmark values are presented to highlight potential risks (Table 2). Table 1. The South African wastewater sludge classification system (Snyman and Herselman, 2006bc) Classification class Best quality Intermediate quality Worse quality Microbiological class A B C Stability class Pollutant class a b c Table 2. Metal limits to determine the pollutant class for the preliminary classification of wastewater sludge to assess possible management options (Snyman and Herselman, 2006bc). Aqua regia extractable metals (mg/kg) Pollutant class a b c Elements for As < >75 classification (risk Cd < > 85 based limits) Cr < > Cu < > Pb < > 840 Hg < > 55 Ni < > 420 Elements for benchmarking purposes to identify potential risks (20 th percentile for class a, between 20 th and 80 th percentile for class b and 80 th percentile values for class c) Zn < > Sb < >7 B < >72 Ba < >250 Be < >7 Co < >38 Mn < >1225 Mo < >12 Se < >15 Sr < >205 Tl < >0.14 V < >430 An appropriate management options can be selected based on the classification results. All sludge has to be classified according to all three criteria to assess the use options. For example, a class A1a sludge would be the best quality sludge which could be used in agricultural practices. However, due to the pollutant class of a class A1c sludge, agricultural use is not permissible. The document directs the reader to the appropriate Guideline volume to use based on the classification.

4 Volume 2: Requirements for the agricultural use of sludge Volume 2 describes the requirements and restrictions related to the safe use of sludge for the production of crops at agronomic rates (Snyman and Herselman, 2006ac). This volume is used when stabilised sludge is used as a nutrient source and/or soil conditioner at an application rate designed to supply a crop s nitrogen needs, while at the same time minimising the risk of nutrient leaching. This applies to both commercial as well as to small scale and subsistence farming practices. It can also be used to manage compost containing sludge that is not sold or distributed to the general public for use. This Volume details the management, technical and legislative aspects, as well as the sludge characterisation and monitoring requirements. It provides ceiling limits for metals and microbiological constituents in sludge intended for agricultural use, and encourages the implementation of vector attraction reduction options to stabilise the sludge. General and specific restrictions and requirements for the agricultural use of sludge are presented to minimise health risks and to protect the environment. Both sludge and soil metal limits are presented in this volume (Table 3 and 4). No soil metal restrictions apply for pollutant class a sludge and the use of pollutant class c sludge is not permissible. The soil metal limits detailed in Table 4 are only applicable when pollutant class b sludge is used in agricultural practices. If the total metal content of the soil is below the Total Investigation Level (TIL; Table 4), sludge of a pollutant class b can be applied and the situation re-assessed after five (5) years. If the total metal content of the soil is found to be higher than the Total Maximum Threshold (TMT; Table 4), sludge application is not permissible for this soil. The risk to the environment is unacceptable when the total metal content of the soil exceeds TMT. If the total metal content of the soil is found to be between the TIL and the TMT (Table 4) the mobility of the metals concentration in the soil needs to be assessed. The available metal content of the soil is determined using the NH 4 NO 3 extraction method (Snyman and Herselman, 2006ac). If the available metal content of the soil exceeds the Maximum Available Threshold (MAT, Table 4) level, pollutant class b sludge may not be applied on this soil. Table 3. Pollutant limits for the agricultural use of wastewater sludge in South Africa (Snyman and Herselman, 2006ac) Aqua regia extractable Pollutant class metals (mg/kg) a b C As < >75 Cd < > 85 Cr < > Cu < > Pb < > 840 Hg < > 55 Ni < > 420 Zn < > Note: A 90% compliance is required to comply with a pollutant class. If the available metal content of the soil is lower than the Maximum Available Threshold (MAT; Table 4), sludge of a pollutant class b can be applied and the situation re-assessed after two (2) years. After two years, the total and available metal content of the soil must be determined. If either of these results exceeds the TMT or MAT, the sludge application should be terminated.

5 Table 4. Limits for metals in soils (mg kg -1 ) (Snyman and Herselman, 2006ac) Total investigative level # (TIL) Total maximum threshold # (TMT) Maximum available threshold* (MAT) As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Zn # - Total digestion method (Aqua regia, EPA 3051) * - NH 4 NO 3 extraction method Volume 3: Requirements for the on-site and off-site disposal of sludge Volume 3 describes the requirements and restrictions related to the on-site and off-site disposal of sludge (Herselman and Snyman, 2009ab). The Volume gives detailed requirements and guidance on managing the phasing out of unlined sludge stockpile facilities, operating existing dedicated land disposal sites; and, the rehabilitation and phasing out of dedicated land disposal sites. Other disposal options, such as off-site disposal of sludge in a general or hazardous landfill sites, on-site disposal of sludge in a mono disposal landfill or lagoon, and the disposal of sludge to the marine environment, are addressed in the context of other guidelines and policies published by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Although the generic classification for the microbiological, stability and pollutant class remain the same (Table 1), a different set of limits and analytical method was adopted for the pollutant class in Volume 3. The pollutant class determination of sludge in Volumes 1 and 2 was based on the total metal content (aqua regia digestion) of the sludge. Since the total metal content of sludge does not give an indication of the potential leachability of the metals in the sludge, it is recommended that the pollutant class for disposal purposes be based on the leachable metal fraction in the sludge. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was adopted for this Volume (Table 5). The TCLP was developed in the USA by the Environmental Protection Agency to predict the leachate quality and hence the risk it poses to groundwater. In reference to this, South Africa has adopted the Estimated Environmental Concentration (EEC), which is a method whereby the exposure of aquatic fauna to constituents of concern in the waste is estimated and quantified. The TCLP test can be used to support/affirm the EEC (DWAF, 2006) and the potential of a waste to delist from a hazardous waste to a general waste. The recommended Pollutant class classification for sludge destined for land disposal is detailed in Table 5. Pollutant class a sludge (TCLP metal concentration AE) could be disposed on land without restrictions, but with monitoring requirements. When the analytical results of the TCLP test indicate Pollutant class b sludge, the sludge should be limed at a recommended dosage of 25mg lime /kg sludge. The TCLP test should be repeated on the sludge after liming. If the new results indicate Pollutant class a sludge, the sludge could be disposed on land as normal Pollutant class a sludge. In cases where the analytical results after liming still indicate Pollutant class b sludge, the load principle should be applied where the maximum load for the disposal area is calculated based on the TCLP concentration of the constituents of concern and more stringent management requirements would apply. Land disposal of Pollutant class c sludge would only be allowed on properly engineered lined disposal facilities with stringent management and monitoring requirements. Specific liming tests are recommended to achieve at least a Pollutant class b

6 classification. Table 5. Metal limits based on the TCLP test for the disposal of sludge TCLP extractable metals (mg/l) Pollutant class a b c AE >AE and 10*AE >10*AE Arsenic (As) >4.3 Cadmium (Cd) >0.31 Chromium (Cr III) >47 Chromium (Cr VI) >0.2 Copper (Cu) >1 Lead (Pb) >1 Mercury (Hg) >0.22 Nickel (Ni) >11.4 Zinc (Zn) >7 Volume 4: Requirements for the beneficial use of sludge Volume 4 of the Guidelines was developed with a view to maximise the beneficial use of sludge (Herselman and Moodley, 2009; Herselman, 2009). This Volume deals specifically with sludge application to land, for beneficial purposes, at rates higher than agronomic rates with specific management, technical and legislative aspects as well as restrictions and monitoring requirements to protect the receiving environment. It provides ceiling limits for metals and microbiological constituents in sludge intended for beneficial use and encourages the implementation of vector attraction reduction options to stabilize sludge. The volume deals with the restrictions and requirements for once-off high rate sludge, continious high rate application of sludge as well as the use of sludge as landfill cover. Once off application includes applications such as the rehabilitation of disturbed/degraded soils (nutrient depletion, erosion, acidity and salinity, poor physical properties, reduced biological activity) after mining activities, intensive farming and industrial activities and using sludge in the establishment of golf courses, race courses, vineyards, road embankments, public parks. If sludge is applied to the same piece of land more than three times at rates higher than agronomic rates, it will classify as continuous sludge application. Continuous high rate applications include the continuous application of sludge in natural forests and plantations, use of sludge as growth medium for plants, flowers and seedlings, cultivation of grain and fruit trees, cultivation of industrial crops (non-food crops) and instant lawn cultivation. Stabilised sludge can be used as daily and/or final cover on General or Hazardous landfill. Sludge with solids content of 50% looks and functions much like soil. It will increase the water holding capacity of the final cover of the landfill facility and has high odour absorbing abilities. Using sludge as cover material is, in essence, seen as co-disposal of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste on landfills. The metal limits (aqua regia extraction) for the once of and continuous high rate application of sludge on land is detailed in Table 3 (same as for the agricultural use of sludge) with specific metal limits for soils. The total metal concentration of the soil must be determined before high rate sludge application to determine whether additional metals can be added to the soil without negative effects on surface and groundwater. Limits have been set for metals in the receiving soil. These limits will depend on the present and future land-use of the site (agricultural or industrial) and are more stringent if the end land-use is agriculture (edible crops). The total maximum threshold (TMT) for metals in soil will protect soils destined for agricultural land-use and land with public access, while the

7 maximum permissible level (MPL) for metals in the receiving soil (Table 6) will protect industrial soils and land with limited public access to ensure that the soil quality does not degrade to such an extent that remediation would be necessary. Table 6. Metal limits for soil receiving high sludge loads (Herselman and Moodley, 2009; Herselman, 2009) Total Maximum Threshold (TMT) mg/kg Maximum permissible level (MPL) mg/kg As 2 20 Cd 3 5 Cr Cu Pb Hg 1 9 Ni Zn When the total metal content (aqua regia digestion) of the soil exceeds the TMT, sludge application on land where edible crops will be grown and/or where public access is unlimited is not permissible. In cases where the land is used to cultivate industrial crops, sites with limited public access and industrial areas (mine rehabilitation and forests) sludge may be applied. When the soil metal concentrations are higher than the MPL, sludge application is not permissible. The metal limits (TCLP) for the use of sludge as a landfill cover is detailed in Table 5 (same as disposal, Volume 3). Volume 5: Requirements for the thermal sludge management practices and for commercial products containing sludge Guidance on the thermal treatment of sludge was developed with a view to guide the sludge producer/user to the different thermal treatment options available for sludge (Herselman et al., 2009; Herselman, 2009b). The aim of incineration, also called combustion, is mainly to reduce the sludge volume through the conversion of the organic complexion of sludge to more basic compounds like carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, water vapour, methane and hydrogen. Established thermal treatment processes include, but are not limited to: (1) Total or partial combustion of organic solids to oxidised end products (carbon dioxide and water) through incineration; (2) Partial oxidation and volatilisation of organic solids by pyrolysis or starved-air combustion to produce end products with energy content (e.g. methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide); and (3) Co-incineration of sludge with other materials (municipal solid waste, wood waste and coal) in industrial processes such as industrial furnaces and cement kilns. Special attention is given to the legislative and technical aspects of thermal treatment, including air emission limits and air quality monitoring. These restrictions and requirements are presented to protect the receiving environment and the general public from any potential constituents of concern present in the sludge that may be present in air emissions. No metal limits are stipulated for the thermal treatment of sludge. However, a general risk-based equation [1] is proposed to determine the pollutant limits for sludge destined for complete combustion and co-combustion.

8 86400 C = CRSC DF (1 CE) SF Where: C = The pollutant limit (allowable daily concentration of As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg or Ni in sludge, in mg/kg of total solids, dry-weight basis) CRSC = Chronic Risk Specific Concentration of a pollutant (the allowable increase in the annual average ground-level ambient air concentration for a pollutant at or beyond the property line of the site in µg/m³ DF = Dispersion Factor (in µg/m³/g/s, based on an annual average air dispersion model) CE = Sewage sludge incinerator control efficiency for As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg or Ni (in hundredths, based on a performance test) SF = Sludge feed rate (in ton dry /day) = Time conversion factor (number of seconds per day) The second part of Volume 5 deals with management of commercial products containing sludge. This includes fertilizer products such as compost and pellets that are distributed to the general public for unrestricted use. To protect the receiving environment and the general public from any adverse effects of any constituents that may be present in the product, the quality of the final product should be regulated. The product must be sampled and analysed before distribution to the public and must comply with Class A1a according to its Microbiological class, Stability class and Pollutant class. The majority of commercial products (other than fertilizer) produced with sludge and/or incinerator ash as raw material are used in the construction business. This includes, but is not limited to, bricks, cement, pumice and artificial aggregate. Volume 5 also provides limited guidance on these aspects. IMPACT OF ADVANCED SLUDGE GUIDELINES IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY South Africa, as a developing country, has progressive and comprehensive environmental legislation and guiding documents. Sadly, the implementation and regulation fail in some cases. Although the sludge guideline series were well received by the authorities and industry, it is important to establish whether the intended objectives will be achieved in the medium to long term. An assessment was done on the current and potential future impacts of the South African Guidelines for the Utilisation and Disposal of Wastewater Sludge, on socio-cultural, economic, health and environmental aspects of South African society (Van der Waal, 2006). The aim of this work was to quantify the potential impact of the Sludge Guidelines on South African society by analysing current examples of wastewater sludge best practice that are aligned with the new Sludge Guidelines. The impact of the new sludge guidelines on human health was not quantified as this is difficult to isolate from the impacts of other social conditions such as poverty and HIV/Aids. The study showed positive economic impact of the use of sludge in land application, brick manufacturing, composting and fertiliser manufacturing. Economic benefits were either in the form of profitable private enterprises or local authorities reporting significant savings when applying sludge beneficially (Van de Waal, 2008). In terms of the social impact, the potential for job creation was quantified in 6 small enterprises which created 36 semi-skilled and skilled jobs (often the sole breadwinners within their families and communities). If companies across South Africa were established to take advantage of sludge re-use the social impact would be significantly more than what is outlined in the 6 case studies investigated during the impact assessment. The [1]

9 environmental impact was quantified in terms of avoidance of the deterioration of land to the extent that rehabilitation is required. Negative environmental impacts have resulted largely from unsustainable sludge handling and mismanagement practices. These can be avoided in future through the application of the new Sludge Guidelines. It is recognised that the implementation of the guidelines do not come without the costs of implementation and operation. However, it is clear from this impact study that each aspect, namely economy, society, environment and to a certain extent human health, will potentially be impacted positively if the new South African Guidelines were fully implemented. CONCLUSIONS The release of the new South African Wastewater Sludge Guideline series aims to rectify previous sludge guideline shortcomings and provide an easy to use management tool for the handling of wastewater sludge in this developing country. This paper presents an overview the sludge management practices in South Africa and provides a summary of the content of the newly developed South African Sludge Guideline Series developed to encourage sustainable sludge management. The three tier sludge classification system includes microbiological limits, stability criteria and pollutant limits is presented. Specific discussions regarding the metal limits for each use are presented. These guidelines are therefore now being implemented and field data will present interesting trends regarding the validity of these guidelines. In the short term an impact assessment was done to assess the current and potential future impacts of the South African Wastewater Sludge Guideline series on socio-cultural, economic, health and environmental aspects of South African society. REFERENCES DWAF, Waste Management Series. 3rd Edition. Minimum Requirements for the Handling, Classification and Disposal of Hazardous Waste. Herselman J. E. (2009a). Technical Support Document to the Development of the South African Sludge Guidelines: Volume 4: Requirements for the Beneficial Use of Sludge at High Loading Rates. Water Research Commission K5/1622/2/09, Pretoria, South Africa. Herselman J. E. (2009b). Technical Support Document to the Development of the South African Sludge Guidelines: Volume 5: Requirements for Thermal Sludge Management Practices and for Commercial Products Containing Sludge. Water Research Commission K5/1622/3/09, Pretoria, South Africa. Herselman J. E., Burger L. W. and Moodley P. (2009). Guidelines for the Utilisation and Disposal of Wastewater Sludge: Volume 5 of 5: Requirements for Thermal Sludge Management Practices and for Commercial Products Containing Sludge. Water Research Commission TT 351/09, Pretoria, South Africa. Herselman J. E. and Moodley, P. (2009). Guidelines for the Utilisation and Disposal of Wastewater Sludge: Volume 4 of 5: Requirements for the Beneficial Use of Sludge at High Loading Rates. Water Research Commission TT 350/09, Pretoria, South Africa. Herselman J. E. and Snyman H. G. (2009a). Guidelines for the Utilisation and Disposal of Wastewater Sludge: Volume 3 of 5: Requirements for the On-site and Off-site Disposal of Sludge. Water Research Commission TT 349/09, Pretoria, South Africa. Herselman J. E. and Snyman H. G. (2009b). Technical Support Document to the Development of the South African Sludge Guidelines: Volume 3: Requirements for the On-site and Off-site Disposal of Sludge. Water Research Commission K5/1622/1/09, Pretoria, South Africa. Pandit, M. and Das, S. (1998) Sludge Disposal. Water treatment primer: CE4124: Environmental Information Management. Civil Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. Snyman, H.G. (2007) Management of wastewater and faecal sludge in Southern Africa. In Proc. of the IWA Specialist Conference, Moving Forward wastewater Biosolids Sustainability: Technical, Managerial, and public synergy, Moncton, Canada, June.

10 Snyman, H.G., Forsmann, P and Smollen, M The feasibility of electro-osmotic belt filter dewatering technology at pilot scale. Water Sci. Technol 41 (8): Snyman H. G. and Herselman J. E. (2006a). Guidelines for the Utilisation and Disposal of Wastewater Sludge: Volume 2 of 5: Requirements for the Agricultural Use of Wastewater Sludge. Water Research Commission TT 262/06, Pretoria, South Africa. Snyman H. G. and Herselman J. E. (2006b). Guidelines for the Utilisation and Disposal of Wastewater Sludge: Volume 1 of 5: Selection of Management Options. Water Research Commission TT 261/06, Pretoria, South Africa. Snyman H. G. and Herselman J. E. (2006c). Premise for the Development of Volume 1 and 2 of the South African Sludge Guidelines. Water Research Commission K5/1453/1/06, Pretoria, South Africa. Snyman, H.G., Van Niekerk, A.M., Herselman, E. and Wilken, J.W. (2006) Development of the South African wastewater sludge guidelines. Water Sci. Technol. 54 (5): Snyman, H.G., Herselman, J.E. and Kasselman, G. (2004). A metal content survey of South African sewage sludge and an evaluation of analytical methods for their determination in sludge. WRC Report no: 1283/1/04. ISBN , South Africa. Van der Waal C. (2008). Guidelines for the Utilisation and Disposal of Wastewater Sludge: Volume 1-5, Impact Assessment. Water Research Commission TT 370/08, Pretoria, South Africa. WRC. (1997) Department of Agriculture, Department of Health, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Water Institute of Southern Africa, Water Research Commission. Permissible Utilisation and Disposal of Sewage Sludge. 1st Edition. TT85-97 Pretoria. Water Research Commission. WRC. (2002) Department of Agriculture, Department of Health. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Water Research Commission. Sludge Consultant. Addendum No, 1 to Edition 1 (1997) of Permissible Utilisation and Disposal of Sewage Sludge. TT 150/01 Pretoria. Water Research Commission.

The ECN Concept for Quality Assurance of Compost

The ECN Concept for Quality Assurance of Compost The ECN Concept for Quality Assurance of Compost The ECN Quality Assurance Scheme 1 Targets and Structure of ECN-QAS 2 Quality Assurance Organisations 3 The ECN-QAS for Compost The ECN - Quality Assurance

More information

AGRICULTURAL USE OF FILTER CAKE FROM THE TONGAAT HULETT SUGAR REFINERY

AGRICULTURAL USE OF FILTER CAKE FROM THE TONGAAT HULETT SUGAR REFINERY REFEREED PAPER AGRICULTURAL USE OF FILTER CAKE FROM THE TONGAAT HULETT SUGAR REFINERY ALLEN P 1 AND PADAYACHEE N 2 1 Oricole Environmental Services, Briardene, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa 2 Tongaat Hulett

More information

Beneficial Utilisation of Sasol Coal Gasification Ash

Beneficial Utilisation of Sasol Coal Gasification Ash 2005 World of Coal Ash (WOCA), April 11-15, 2005, Lexington, Kentucky, USA http://www.flyash.info Beneficial Utilisation of Sasol Coal Gasification Ash Martin Ginster 1 and Ratale H. Matjie 1 1 Sasol Technology

More information

Biosolids 101 Roadmap of Oregon s Biosolids Program

Biosolids 101 Roadmap of Oregon s Biosolids Program Roadmap of Oregon s Biosolids Program Water Environment School 2015 25 March 2015 Clackamas Community College Paul Kennedy, Regional Biosolids & Water Reuse Program Coordinator Presentation Overview Introduction

More information

GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL

GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL The term leachate refers to liquids that migrate from the waste carrying dissolved or suspended contaminants. Leachate results from precipitation entering the landfill and

More information

Environmental Technology March/April 1998

Environmental Technology March/April 1998 Treating Metal Finishing Wastewater Sultan I. Amer, Ph.D. AQUACHEM INC. Environmental Technology March/April 1998 Wastewater from metal finishing industries contains high concentrations of contaminants

More information

Rapid Thermophilic Digestion Technology

Rapid Thermophilic Digestion Technology Rapid Thermophilic Digestion Technology Biomax Technologies Pte Ltd Mr Sim Eng Tong, CEO Block 4 Kaki Bukit Avenue 1, #05-07/08, Singapore 417939 Phone: + 65 6274 8606 Fax: + 65 6274 8607 Website: www.biomaxtech.com

More information

This example of a completed sampling plan worksheet has been included to illustrate the information

This example of a completed sampling plan worksheet has been included to illustrate the information APPENDIX B EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETED SAMPLING PLAN WORKSHEET This example of a completed sampling plan worksheet has been included to illustrate the information necessary to document a sampling program for

More information

Quality requirements and quality assurance of digestion residuals in Germany

Quality requirements and quality assurance of digestion residuals in Germany Quality requirements and quality assurance of digestion residuals in Germany DR. STEFANIE SIEBERT Bundesgütegemeinschaft Kompost e.v., Germany Biowaste, digestate products, manure, quality label, renewable

More information

Physical flow accounts: principles and general concepts

Physical flow accounts: principles and general concepts Physical flow accounts: principles and general concepts Julian Chow United Nations Statistics Division 1 st Sub-Regional Course on SEEA 23-27 September 2013 Malaysia SEEA Conceptual Framework Outside territory

More information

Improving Sustainability of Municipal Solid Waste Management in China by Source Separated Collection and Biological Treatment of the Organic Fraction

Improving Sustainability of Municipal Solid Waste Management in China by Source Separated Collection and Biological Treatment of the Organic Fraction Improving Sustainability of Municipal Solid Waste Management in China by Source Separated Collection and Biological Treatment of the Organic Fraction Adrie Veeken 1,2, Pim Hamminga 1,3 and Zhang Mingshu

More information

Wastewater(Solids(Management(( 2(Atlantic(Canada(Perspective( Dwayne(Doucette,(MASc.(P.Eng.((( June(19,(2013(

Wastewater(Solids(Management(( 2(Atlantic(Canada(Perspective( Dwayne(Doucette,(MASc.(P.Eng.((( June(19,(2013( Wastewater(Solids(Management(( 2(Atlantic(Canada(Perspective( Dwayne(Doucette,(MASc.(P.Eng.((( June(19,(2013( Wastewater(Treatment(in( Atlantic(Canada( Dramatic improvement in this Region over the Past

More information

Environmental aspects of water fluoridation

Environmental aspects of water fluoridation KEY POINTS Fluorides are very common in the environment. Reviews of the literature and environmental impact assessments have found no evidence of any adverse environmental effects resulting from water.

More information

Advanced Treatment of Hazardous Wastes(1) Advanced Treatment of Hazardous Wastes(2) Advanced Environmental Chemistry. Design of Solid Waste Landfill

Advanced Treatment of Hazardous Wastes(1) Advanced Treatment of Hazardous Wastes(2) Advanced Environmental Chemistry. Design of Solid Waste Landfill Course Description (전체 개설 교과목 개요) Advanced Treatment of Hazardous Wastes(1) This course is concerned with the management of hazardous materials and wastes in depth. We will deal with the physico-chemical

More information

Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe a summary for policymakers

Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe a summary for policymakers Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe a summary for policymakers A new European Environment Agency (EEA report, Revealing the costs of air pollution from industrial

More information

Bioremediation. Introduction

Bioremediation. Introduction Bioremediation Introduction In the twentieth century, the ever increase in the global human population and industrialization led to the exploitation of natural resources. The increased usage of heavy metals

More information

Introduction to Waste Treatment Technologies. Contents. Household waste

Introduction to Waste Treatment Technologies. Contents. Household waste Contents Introduction to waste treatment technologies 3 Section 1: The treatment of recyclable waste 4 Bulking facilities 5 Materials Reclamation Facility (MRF) 6 Reuse and recycling centres 8 Composting

More information

CHAPTER 9 PERMITTING. 9.2 Scotland 102 9.2.1 Exemption 102 9.2.2 Waste management licence 102 9.2.3 PPC permit 102

CHAPTER 9 PERMITTING. 9.2 Scotland 102 9.2.1 Exemption 102 9.2.2 Waste management licence 102 9.2.3 PPC permit 102 CHAPTER 9 PERMITTING 9.1 England and Wales 100 9.1.1 T24 exemption for on-farm AD 100 9.1.2 T25 exemption for off-farm AD 100 9.1.3 Standard rules environmental permits 100 9.1.4 Standard rules for on-farm

More information

Iron and Steel Manufacturing

Iron and Steel Manufacturing Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook WORLD BANK GROUP Effective July 1998 Iron and Steel Manufacturing Industry Description and Practices Steel is manufactured by the chemical reduction of iron

More information

A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES

A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES Narong Chinabut Office of Science for Land Development Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok

More information

Regulating Water Pollution in Ontario s Municipalities Windsor s Sewer Use By-law Prepared by Derek Coronado

Regulating Water Pollution in Ontario s Municipalities Windsor s Sewer Use By-law Prepared by Derek Coronado Regulating Water Pollution in Ontario s Municipalities Windsor s Sewer Use By-law Prepared by Derek Coronado Under Ontario s Municipal Act, municipalities have the power to pass sewer use by-laws. The

More information

Energy from waste. Introduction. Legal status of this guideline. What is energy from waste? Draft guideline

Energy from waste. Introduction. Legal status of this guideline. What is energy from waste? Draft guideline Draft guideline Energy from waste Publication 1549 September 2013 Authorised and published by EPA Victoria, 200 Victoria Street, Carlton Introduction As outlined in Getting full value: the Victorian Waste

More information

Welcome to NOAH and Langøya!

Welcome to NOAH and Langøya! Welcome to NOAH and Langøya! 1 Langøya 300 different types of flowers 20 different bee and wasp species 100 special species of spider 600 different species of butterflies 40 different species of birds

More information

Waste a source of energy. Regional Solid Waste Management Plan Review: Engaging solutions for tomorrow. Incineration. Incineration

Waste a source of energy. Regional Solid Waste Management Plan Review: Engaging solutions for tomorrow. Incineration. Incineration Waste a source of energy Regional Solid Waste Management Plan Review: Engaging solutions for tomorrow Garbage School 301: Waste to Energy All organic materials contains energy Plant or animal based Plastics

More information

Chapter 14 Quiz. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 14 Quiz. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 14 Quiz Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Chesapeake Bay? a. it is one of many small

More information

K component in recycled NPK fertilizers

K component in recycled NPK fertilizers 1 Quality requirements for wood ash as K component in recycled NPK fertilizers Trond Knapp Haraldsen 1 Eva Brod 2 Tore Krogstad 2 1Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Ås 2University of Life Sciences, Ås ASH

More information

Alternative fuels in cement manufacturing

Alternative fuels in cement manufacturing Alternative fuels in cement manufacturing Martin Oerter Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie GmbH Tannenstrasse 2 40476 Düsseldorf Münster, 27 October 2015 Research and services for the industrial minerals

More information

SIX REASONS TO DRY BIOGAS To A LOW DEWPOINT BEFORE COMBUSTION IN A CHP ENGINE STEVEN SCOTT MARKET DEVELOPMENT MANAGER ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES

SIX REASONS TO DRY BIOGAS To A LOW DEWPOINT BEFORE COMBUSTION IN A CHP ENGINE STEVEN SCOTT MARKET DEVELOPMENT MANAGER ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES SIX REASONS TO DRY BIOGAS To A LOW DEWPOINT BEFORE COMBUSTION IN A CHP ENGINE STEVEN SCOTT MARKET DEVELOPMENT MANAGER ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES Filippo Turra Product Manager Cooling Technology INTRODUCTION

More information

Welcome to the Understanding Dissolved Oxygen learning module. This section provides information on the following topics:

Welcome to the Understanding Dissolved Oxygen learning module. This section provides information on the following topics: Introduction Welcome to the learning module. This section provides information on the following topics: How dissolved oxygen is defined and measured in numbers Why dissolved oxygen is important Natural

More information

6 CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES

6 CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES 6 CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES 6.1.1 Schedule 4 of the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Scotland) Regulations 2011 sets out the information for inclusion in Environmental Statements

More information

Biomass Renewable Energy from Plants and Animals

Biomass Renewable Energy from Plants and Animals Renewable Biomass Biomass Basics Biomass Renewable Energy from Plants and Animals Biomass is organic material made from plants and animals. Biomass contains stored energy from the sun. Plants absorb the

More information

Use of Substitute Fuels in Large Combustion Plants (LCPs)

Use of Substitute Fuels in Large Combustion Plants (LCPs) Use of Substitute Fuels in Large Combustion Plants (LCPs) By Pat Swords Content of the Presentation What are substitute fuels What is the experience to date with these fuels What are the regulatory implications

More information

Birmingham City University / Students Union Aspects and Impacts Register. Waste. Impacts description

Birmingham City University / Students Union Aspects and Impacts Register. Waste. Impacts description Birmingham City University / Students Union and Impacts Register Waste Production of non - hazardous waste Production of hazardous waste Storage of non - hazardous waste Potential for waste to be disposed

More information

Sludge Treatment Facility Stack Gas Monitoring Report February 2016

Sludge Treatment Facility Stack Gas Monitoring Report February 2016 I. INTRODUCTION This Monthly Report aims to provide a summary of environmental performance of the Sludge Treatment Facility (STF) over the monitoring period, which includes the air emission data collected

More information

IDENTIFYING YOUR WASTE

IDENTIFYING YOUR WASTE United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA530-F-97-029 September 1997 http://www.epa.gov Solid Waste and Emergency Response IDENTIFYING YOUR WASTE THE STARTING POINT This brochure explains the methodology

More information

Emission inventory system in Latvia

Emission inventory system in Latvia Emission inventory system in Latvia Agita Gancone Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre 28-29 September, Ankara Content Some information about Latvia, Legal background; Roles; Resources;

More information

Composition of Fecal Waste from Commercial Trout Farms in Ontario: Macro and Micro Nutrient Analyses and Recommendations for Recycling

Composition of Fecal Waste from Commercial Trout Farms in Ontario: Macro and Micro Nutrient Analyses and Recommendations for Recycling Composition of Fecal Waste from Commercial Trout Farms in Ontario: Macro and Micro Nutrient Analyses and Recommendations for Recycling Final Report Submitted to the: Ontario Sustainable Aquaculture Working

More information

State of the Nation Report

State of the Nation Report State of the Nation Report Landfilling Practices and Regulation in Denmark Contents 1. Summary of Solid Waste Management Sector... 2 2. Overview of Landfill Practices... 5 3. Key Stakeholders in the solid

More information

Maximising recycling rates tackling residuals

Maximising recycling rates tackling residuals September 2002 Briefing Maximising recycling rates tackling residuals Background Friends of the Earth is an international organisation with over 70 member groups across the World. The majority of these

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL EXTERNALITIES FROM LANDFILL DISPOSAL AND INCINERATION OF WASTE

ENVIRONMENTAL EXTERNALITIES FROM LANDFILL DISPOSAL AND INCINERATION OF WASTE International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 47-53, Article ID: IJARET_07_01_006 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijaret/issues.asp?jtype=ijaret&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

Paragraph 9 Exemption The reclamation or improvement of land

Paragraph 9 Exemption The reclamation or improvement of land The reclamation or improvement of land 1 INTRODUCTION This document provides guidance, definitions, operational policy and strategy with regard registering a paragraph 9 exemption under Schedule 1 of the

More information

Official Journal of the European Communities

Official Journal of the European Communities L 332/91 DIRECTIVE 2000/76/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 4 December 2000 on the incineration of waste THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, waste, and 0,2

More information

Quality requirements for wood ash as K component in recycled NPK fertilizers

Quality requirements for wood ash as K component in recycled NPK fertilizers 1 Quality requirements for wood ash as K component in recycled NPK fertilizers Trond Knapp Haraldsen 1 Eva Brod 2 Tore Krogstad 2 1Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Ås 2University of Life Sciences, Ås ASH

More information

Monitoring & Recording Hazardous & Non-Hazardous Waste

Monitoring & Recording Hazardous & Non-Hazardous Waste GIIRS Emerging Market Assessment Resource Guide: What s in this Guide? I. Definition: What is II. Methods for Disposal: Non-Hazardous Waste III. Methods for Storage and Disposal: Hazardous Waste IV. Additional

More information

Metal Ion + EDTA Metal EDTA Complex

Metal Ion + EDTA Metal EDTA Complex Simplified Removal of Chelated Metals Sultan I. Amer, AQUACHEM INC. Metal Finishing, April 2004, Vol. 102 No. 4 Chelating agents are used in large quantities in industrial applications involving dissolved

More information

Digestate treatment in Sweden and Germany Applied technologies and technologies under research

Digestate treatment in Sweden and Germany Applied technologies and technologies under research Digestate treatment in Sweden and Germany Applied technologies and technologies under research Frank Scholwin (Institute for Biogas, Waste Management & Energy; Weimar / Germany) Tobias Persson (Swedish

More information

INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES

INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES ENGINEERED SOLUTIONS GRO Golder Associates is a respected, employee-owned, global company providing consulting, design and construction services in our specialist areas

More information

This Questionnaire is divided into 8 sections referring to different capacity areas on the safe use of wastewater in agriculture:

This Questionnaire is divided into 8 sections referring to different capacity areas on the safe use of wastewater in agriculture: Annex - II Questionnaire to support the Capacity Development Needs Assessment In the framework of the Capacity Development Project on Safe Use of Wastewater 1 in Agriculture Phase I The Food and Agriculture

More information

DISPOSAL OF. TSI Auditorium Rosherville (JHB) Leon Bredenhann. 15 November 2004. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

DISPOSAL OF. TSI Auditorium Rosherville (JHB) Leon Bredenhann. 15 November 2004. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry DISPOSAL OF ASBESTOS TSI Auditorium Rosherville (JHB) 15 November 2004 Department of Water Affairs and Forestry Leon Bredenhann POINTS OF DISCUSSION! " # INTRODUCTION $%&'()'*&%)()+,-,.'+/)0&1-.+ 2(&'1.34'+

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question1 Read the following article from the Fremont Gazette and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify and describe TWO water-related environmental

More information

Environmental Role of Poplar and Willow Drusilla Riddell-Black Lupus Science United Kingdom

Environmental Role of Poplar and Willow Drusilla Riddell-Black Lupus Science United Kingdom Environmental Role of Poplar and Willow Drusilla Riddell-Black Lupus Science United Kingdom Environmental roles include Buffer zones Riparian zone protection Slope stabilisation Flooding reduction Carbon

More information

Impact of utilised bottom ash

Impact of utilised bottom ash Impact of utilised bottom ash Raul Grönholm, MSc, Sysav Jan Hartlén, PhD, JH Geoconsulting 24 januari 2012 1 Agenda SYSAV BOTTOM ASH FROM WASTE INCINERATION USE OF BOTTOM ASH MONITORING AND ESTIMATION

More information

Solid waste management

Solid waste management Solid waste management Introduction to solid waste management Solid waste is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given

More information

ASH 2012. Hazard evaluation for. having complex chemical form. materials and by-products MMXII

ASH 2012. Hazard evaluation for. having complex chemical form. materials and by-products MMXII MMXII ASH 2012 Hazard evaluation for inorganic oxide materials having complex chemical form with emphasis on waste, recycled materials and by-products Rolf Sjöblom, Division of Waste Science and Technology,

More information

Costs of air pollution from European industrial facilities 2008 2012 an updated assessment

Costs of air pollution from European industrial facilities 2008 2012 an updated assessment Costs of air pollution from European industrial facilities 2008 2012 an updated assessment Summary In 2012, air pollution from European industrial facilities cost at least EUR 59 billion (and up to EUR

More information

This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid

This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid What Is Integrated Solid Waste Management? This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid waste, identifies the important issues you should consider when planning for solid waste management,

More information

2.0 NEED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT & CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES

2.0 NEED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT & CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES 2.0 NEED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT & CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES 2.1 This chapter outlines how the need for this proposed development has been established, where planning policy supports it, the alternative

More information

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EMVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ACT AMENDMENT BILL: WASTE. Parliament 28 th January 2014. Dr Dhiraj Rama

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EMVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ACT AMENDMENT BILL: WASTE. Parliament 28 th January 2014. Dr Dhiraj Rama NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EMVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ACT AMENDMENT BILL: WASTE Parliament 28 th January 2014 Dr Dhiraj Rama NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANGEMENT ACT AMENDMENT BILL: MINING CONTENTS 1. Introduction

More information

Material and methods. Värmeforsk report 1212 2012 Niklas Hansson DIANAS utilization of waste inciniration bottom ash in bound construction materials

Material and methods. Värmeforsk report 1212 2012 Niklas Hansson DIANAS utilization of waste inciniration bottom ash in bound construction materials Värmeforsk report 1212 2012 Niklas Hansson DIANAS utilization of waste inciniration bottom ash in bound construction materials Executive Summary Introduction In an international perspective waste incineration

More information

CHANGE LOG: HWR06 - Classifying and coding wastes from physico-chemical treatment facilities

CHANGE LOG: HWR06 - Classifying and coding wastes from physico-chemical treatment facilities Guidance HWR06 Classifying and coding wastes from physico-chemical treatment facilities CHANGE LOG: HWR06 - Classifying and coding wastes from physico-chemical treatment facilities Version Number Date

More information

GUIDELINES FOR PROCESSING AND USING REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) IN CEMENT INDUSTRY

GUIDELINES FOR PROCESSING AND USING REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) IN CEMENT INDUSTRY 1 GUIDELINES FOR PROCESSING AND USING REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) IN CEMENT INDUSTRY August, 2012 Government of Pakistan Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Ministry of Climate Change) Islamabad 2

More information

ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF CONTAMINATED SITES IN FLOOD DISASTER IN SERBIA 2014

ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF CONTAMINATED SITES IN FLOOD DISASTER IN SERBIA 2014 Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection Serbian Environmental Protection Agency ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF CONTAMINATED SITES IN FLOOD DISASTER IN SERBIA 2014 Dragana Vidojević Head of Indicators

More information

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration LAB 5 PLANT NUTRITION I. General Introduction All living organisms require certain elements for their survival. Plants are known to require carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

More information

Collection and disposal of wastewater

Collection and disposal of wastewater 10 Collection and disposal of wastewater 10.1 Characteristics and hazards of wastewater from health-care establishments Wastewater from health-care establishments is of a similar quality to urban wastewater,

More information

The City of Boulder 75 th Street Wastewater Treatment Facility

The City of Boulder 75 th Street Wastewater Treatment Facility The City of Boulder 75 th Street Wastewater Treatment Facility Wastewater Collection and Treatment The Foundation of Public Health Wastewater Collection Boulder s wastewater collection system, also known

More information

Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material

Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material W. Wolfe 1, C.-M. Cheng 1, R. Baker 1, T. Butalia 1, J. Massey-Norton 2 1 The Ohio State University, 2 American Electric

More information

COD/BOD 5 Reduction with ROTAMAT Fine and Micro Screens

COD/BOD 5 Reduction with ROTAMAT Fine and Micro Screens COD/BOD 5 Reduction with ROTAMAT Fine and Micro Screens Removal of particulate material from wastewater Eco-efficient use of capital Water pollution control through maximum COD/BOD 5 reduction Service

More information

Coal ash utilisation over the world and in Europe

Coal ash utilisation over the world and in Europe Workshop on Environmental and Health Aspects of Coal Ash Utilization International workshop 23 rd 24 th November 2005 Tel-Aviv, Israel Coal ash utilisation over the world and in Europe Hans-Joachim Feuerborn

More information

1. Purpose of Policy. 2. Introduction

1. Purpose of Policy. 2. Introduction POLICY ON THE HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF ASBESTOS AND ASBESTOS CONTAINING WASTE IN TERMS OF SECTION 20 OF THE ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION ACT, 1989 (ACT 73 OF 1989) 1. Purpose of Policy The purpose of this

More information

A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater. SBIR Topic N06 133

A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater. SBIR Topic N06 133 A Low Cost Chemical Remediation Technology for Heavy Metals in Shipyard Stormwater SBIR Topic N06 133 1 Normal Ave, CSAM RI 121A Montclair, NJ 07043 973 655 7385 SIROM TECHNOLOGY SIROM has developed a

More information

Using resources in an efficient way Case Metsä Group

Using resources in an efficient way Case Metsä Group EN(14)4468:1 Using resources in an efficient way Case Tytti Peltonen Copa Cogeca workshop on Circular Economy 4.6.2014 1 sustainably from the forest Sales EUR 4.9 billion; personnel 11,000 Production units

More information

Evaluation of water stress of selected cases from water re-use or saving scenario s tested in SP5

Evaluation of water stress of selected cases from water re-use or saving scenario s tested in SP5 The project for sustainable water use in chemical, paper, textile and food industries Evaluation of water stress of selected cases from water re-use or saving Jean-Baptist Bayart - Veolia April 2012 AquaFit4Use

More information

SLUDGE TREATMENT IN REED BED SYSTEMS AND RECYCLING OF SLUDGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

SLUDGE TREATMENT IN REED BED SYSTEMS AND RECYCLING OF SLUDGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SLUDGE TREATMENT IN REED BED SYSTEMS AND RECYCLING OF SLUDGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Steen Nielsen Tel: 4546 3 3 1 - smn@orbicon.dk ABSTRACT Sludge Reed beds have been used for dewatering and mineralisation

More information

Papapostolou 1, E. Kondili 1, J.K. Kaldellis 2

Papapostolou 1, E. Kondili 1, J.K. Kaldellis 2 Technological and Environmental Impacts Evaluation of Biomass and Biofuels Supply Chain Papapostolou 1, E. Kondili 1, J.K. Kaldellis 2 1 Optimisation of Production Systems Lab 2 Soft Energy Applications

More information

Marsa Thermal Treatment Facility Yearly Emissions Statement

Marsa Thermal Treatment Facility Yearly Emissions Statement Marsa Thermal Treatment Facility Yearly Emissions Statement Declaration Period: 2009 FACILITY DETAILS IPPC permit number: IP 0004/07 Name of the facility: MARSA THERMAL TREATMENT FACILITY Street address:

More information

Characterizing Beauty Salon Wastewater for the Purpose of Regulating Onsite Disposal Systems

Characterizing Beauty Salon Wastewater for the Purpose of Regulating Onsite Disposal Systems Characterizing Beauty Salon Wastewater for the Purpose of Regulating Onsite Disposal Systems Fred Bowers 1,2, Ph.D. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Water Quality August 14,

More information

Chemical Proportions in Compounds

Chemical Proportions in Compounds Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page 201 1. Problem A sample of a compound is analyzed and found to contain 0.90 g of calcium and 1.60 g of

More information

Ecological Aspects of Oil Shale Processing

Ecological Aspects of Oil Shale Processing Abstract Ecological Aspects of Oil Shale Processing Y. Zhirjakov, Institute of Oil Shale Research Tallinn Technical University Tallinn, Estonia 26 th Oil Shale Symposium Oil shale belongs to lean and environmentally

More information

What Is Humic Acid? Where Does It Come From?

What Is Humic Acid? Where Does It Come From? What Is Humic Acid? Humic and Fulvic acids are the final break-down constituents of the natural decay of plant and animal materials. These organic acids are found in pre-historic deposits. Humic matter

More information

Wastewater Production, Treatment, and Use in Malaysia

Wastewater Production, Treatment, and Use in Malaysia Wastewater Production, Treatment, and Use in Malaysia Engku Azman Tuan Mat 1, Jamil Shaari 2, and Voon Kok How 3 Wastewater production and treatment Malaysia has a population of 28.3 million based on the

More information

SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture

SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture SoCo Policy Seminar, Brussels, 28 May 2009 1 SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture by E. Rusco, L. Montanarella, B. Marechal JRC IES Land management and Natural Hazards

More information

Environmental Accounting Guidelines

Environmental Accounting Guidelines Environmental Accounting Guidelines 2002 March 2002 Ministry of the Environment Contents Introduction... 1 1. What is Environmental Accounting?... 3 1.1 Definition...3 1.2 Functions and Roles of Environmental

More information

Here are some hazardous wastes commonly generated by the marina industry:

Here are some hazardous wastes commonly generated by the marina industry: Important Note: The following text is excerpted directly from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation s publication, Environmental Compliance, Pollution Prevention, and Self Assessment

More information

INERT WASTE MANAGEMENT : A VARIABLE GEOMETRY CONCEPT

INERT WASTE MANAGEMENT : A VARIABLE GEOMETRY CONCEPT BEIJING CHARLOTTE CHICAGO GENEVA HONG KONG LONDON LOS ANGELES NEW YORK NEWARK MOSCOW PARIS SAN FRANCISCO SHANGHAI WASHINGTON, D.C. INERT WASTE MANAGEMENT : A VARIABLE GEOMETRY CONCEPT Joëlle Herschtel

More information

at a disposal site for which a permit has been issued; or

at a disposal site for which a permit has been issued; or Version 1/19 June 2000 INTERPRETATION OF THE DEFINITION OF DISPOSAL SITES WITH REGARD TO THE ISSUING OF PERMITS FOR WASTE INCINERATORS, WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES AND OTHER ALTERNATIVE WASTE DISPOSAL

More information

CHAPTER 7. Conclusions

CHAPTER 7. Conclusions CHAPTER 7 Conclusions 7.1 Environmental conclusions The conclusions in this section incorporate the work that was carried out to examine the chemical characteristics of each of the mine sites and their

More information

The End-of-waste Standards for Compost: Current State and Foreseen Implementation

The End-of-waste Standards for Compost: Current State and Foreseen Implementation The End-of-waste Standards for Compost: Current State and Foreseen Implementation J. Barth, Informa, DE ISWA Workshop 2012: Global Issues pertaining to BioWaste. Potential of organic waste in EU27: 115

More information

Coal Ash Production and Use Survey 2014

Coal Ash Production and Use Survey 2014 Coal Ash Production and Use Survey 2014 News Conference Washington DC Thomas H. Adams, ACAA Executive Director December 15, 2015 Founded in 1968 Headquartered in Farmington Hills, MI 160 members utilities,

More information

Guidance for developments requiring planning permission and environmental permits. October 2012 UNCLASSIFIED

Guidance for developments requiring planning permission and environmental permits. October 2012 UNCLASSIFIED Guidance for developments requiring planning permission and environmental permits October 2012 UNCLASSIFIED We are the Environment Agency. We protect and improve the environment and make it a better place

More information

1-Some related indicators: Total land area is 1 million Km 2. Only 3% of the land area is arable. The rest 97% is hyper arid desert. The whole lands a

1-Some related indicators: Total land area is 1 million Km 2. Only 3% of the land area is arable. The rest 97% is hyper arid desert. The whole lands a BIO FUEL PRODUCTION IN EGYPT FROM PROMISES TO PRACTICES November 17, 2011 Dr. Ahmed Abd El-Ati Ahmed GBEP Egypt Focal Point 1-Some related indicators: Total land area is 1 million Km 2. Only 3% of the

More information

Chemical Engineer Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery

Chemical Engineer Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery Waste-to to-energy in the U.S. and Trends for the Future Jesse Miller Chemical Engineer Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery Tuesday, August 9, 2011 1 Presentation Outline ORCR Atiiti Activities

More information

Worksheet for Calculating Biosolids Application Rates in Agriculture

Worksheet for Calculating Biosolids Application Rates in Agriculture PNW0511e Worksheet for Calculating Biosolids Application Rates in Agriculture Overview This bulletin will walk you through the calculations that yield the biosolids agronomic rate. This rate is based on

More information

WASTEWATER TREATMENT OBJECTIVES

WASTEWATER TREATMENT OBJECTIVES WASTEWATER TREATMENT OBJECTIVES The student will do the following: 1. Define wastewater and list components of wastewater. 2. Describe the function of a wastewater treatment plant. 3. Create a wastewater

More information

Ground Water Contamination by Leachate

Ground Water Contamination by Leachate Ground Water Contamination by Leachate Manoj P. Wagh, Piyush K. Bhandari, Swapnil Kurhade Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, P. D. V. V. P. College of Engineering, Ahmednagar, India.

More information

As of: September 2005. Waste Incineration A Potential Danger? Bidding Farewell to Dioxin Spouting

As of: September 2005. Waste Incineration A Potential Danger? Bidding Farewell to Dioxin Spouting As of: September 2005 Waste Incineration A Potential Danger? Bidding Farewell to Dioxin Spouting 2 Waste Incineration A Potential Danger? Bidding Farewell to Dioxin Spouting In the eighties of the previous

More information

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES

DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES The Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Guide to Biosolids Sampling Plans CHAPTER 5 DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES Goals of the Sampling Plan ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A SAMPLING PLAN Description of the Facility

More information

Sewage Discharge in Estuaries: The case for Trapping.

Sewage Discharge in Estuaries: The case for Trapping. Sewage Discharge in Estuaries: The case for Trapping. Group N- Sarah Wrigley, Bryony Wood, Laura Wicks, Helen Whiting, Daniel Wood, David Willock, Nicholas Wilson, Joanna Williams, Luke Warwick and Alex

More information

Policy measures for the prevention and minimization of hazardous wastes

Policy measures for the prevention and minimization of hazardous wastes WASTE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRESS AND ACHEIVEMENTS Policy measures for the prevention and minimization of hazardous wastes 1. At the international level, Mongolia joined The Basel Convention on the Control

More information

Thank you for being here today

Thank you for being here today Thank you for being here today Presenter: Rob Smoot, a senior engineer for the Solid Waste division of Parks and Environmental Services here at Metro, a licensed Chemical Engineer with over 27 years working

More information

University of Wisconsin Study: LIFE CYCLE COMPARISON OF FIVE ENGINEERED SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING FOOD WASTE

University of Wisconsin Study: LIFE CYCLE COMPARISON OF FIVE ENGINEERED SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING FOOD WASTE A BRIEF SUMMARY AND INTERPRETATION OF KEY POINTS, FACTS, AND CONCLUSIONS FOR University of Wisconsin Study: LIFE CYCLE COMPARISON OF FIVE ENGINEERED SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING FOOD WASTE by WILLIAM F. STRUTZ

More information