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1 Florida State University Libraries Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations The Graduate School 2007 The Shelf Life of DBAE: Art Teacher Retention of Discipline-Based Art Education Strategies in the Classroom Ann Tippetts Christiansen Follow this and additional works at the FSU Digital Library. For more information, please contact

2 THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF VISUAL ARTS, THEATRE, AND DANCE THE SHELF LIFE OF DBAE: ART TEACHER RETENTION OF DISCIPLINE-BASED ART EDUCATION STRATEGIES IN THE CLASSROOM By ANN TIPPETTS CHRISTIANSEN A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Art Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2007

3 The members of the Committee approve the Dissertation of Ann Tippetts Christiansen defended on March 1, 2007 Tom Anderson Professor Directing Dissertation Stanford Olsen Outside Committee Member Pat Villeneuve Committee Member Melanie Davenport Committee Member Approved: Marcia Rosal, Chair, Department of Art Education Sally McRorie, Dean, School of Visual Arts, Theatre, and Dance The Office of Graduate Studies has verified and approved the above named committee members. ii

4 This dissertation is dedicated to my parents, Frank M. and Janet B. Tippetts, for instilling in all of their children a strong work ethic, to my father for imbuing me with a sense of the art world, and to my husband, Bill, and children, Nathan, Shawn, Brandon, and Alissa for their unwavering support of my goal to attain this degree. iii

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge thank the following people for their contributions to the completion of this work: Nathan and Shawn Christiansen for their electronic and graphics expertise and willingness to share it Tom Anderson for his guidance in writing and his unflagging encouragement to stay the course under exceptional circumstances iv

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures... viii Abstract... ix 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Problem Statement 4 Guiding Question 4 Supporting Questions 5 Objectives of Study 5 Personal Motivation 6 Rationale for Study 6 Justification of Study 7 Scope and Limitations of Study 8 Overview of Procedure and Methodology 8 Definition of Terms 9 Summary 11 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 12 Part I: A Brief History 14 Approaching the 21 st Century 14 Behaviorism 14 Progressivism 15 Reconstructionism 15 Social Efficiency 16 Between World Wars 16 Education 16 Progressivism vs. Behaviorism 16 Teacher Education 18 Normal Schools 18 Standardized Teacher Training 18 Art Education 18 Child-Centered Art 18 Levels of Art Education 19 World War II to the Demand for Excellence 20 Education 21 Progressivism Under Attack 21 Education Reform 22 Child-Centered Schools 23 Excellence in Education 23 Teacher Education 24 Art Education/Art Teacher Training 24 Child-Centered Art Education 24 Content-Based Art Education 26 Summary of History 29 Part II: A Paradigm Shift 31 Discipline-Based Art Education 31 Why Discipline-Based Art Education? 31 Art as a Subject of Study 32 Art as a Discipline 32 DBAE Articulated 33 v

7 Justification for DBAE 33 DBAE Content & Strategies 34 DBAE Curricula 35 Art For Every Student 36 DBAE Assessment 37 DBAE at Florida State University 37 Graduate Degree Programs 38 The F.I.A.E. 39 Diverging Paths 39 Choices in Art Education 40 Critics of DBAE 40 Comprehensive Art Education 42 Visual Culture Art Education 43 Summary of Review of Literature 43 3 METHODOLOGY 46 Problem Statement 46 Guiding Questions 46 Supporting Questions 46 Objectives 47 Non-technical Overview of the Study 49 Theoretical Foundation 50 Phenomenological Research 51 Qualitative Research 52 The Survey 55 The Interviews 56 Population 59 Survey Sample 60 Interview Sample 61 Procedures and Instruments: Overview 62 Literature Review as a Tool 64 Survey Instrument 65 Interview instrument 66 Coding the Data 67 Reporting the Data 70 Summary 71 4 STUDY RESULTS 73 Guiding Question 73 Supporting Questions 73 Survey 74 Survey Participants 74 Teacher A 75 Teacher B 75 Teacher C 76 Teacher D 76 Teacher E 77 Teacher F 78 Teacher G 79 Teacher H 79 Teacher I 80 Teacher J 80 Teacher K 81 vi

8 Survey Responses 82 Demographic Responses 82 Descriptive Responses 89 Evaluative Responses 96 Summary of the Survey Findings 101 Demographic Findings 101 Descriptive Findings 102 Evaluative Findings 104 Interviews 105 Interview Participants 107 Teacher E 107 Teacher H 108 Teacher I 108 Interview Responses 109 Demographic Responses 109 Descriptive Responses 119 Evaluative Responses 127 Summary CONCLUSIONS 138 Guiding Question of the Study 138 Supporting Questions 138 Summaries of Responses to Supporting Questions 139 Supporting Question Supporting Question Supporting Question Supporting Question Emergent Foci 145 Age and Experience 146 Early Training 147 Continued Education 147 Administrative Support 148 Summary of the Findings Presented Thematically 150 Conclusion 152 Implications For Theory and Practice in Art Education 154 Future Research 156 APPENDICES... Appendix A: Survey Questions & Results 158 Appendix B: Interviews Schedule & Results 170 Appendix C: Human Subjects Committee Approval #1 194 Appendix D: Informed Consent Form #1 195 Appendix E: Human Subjects Committee Approval #2 196 Appendix D: Informed Consent Form #2 197 REFERENCES BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH vii

9 LIST OF FIGURES 1. Teachers Ages Teachers Academic Degrees/Certificates Teachers School Levels Teachers School Districts Special School Designations School Letter Grades Teacher Grade Level Assignments viii

10 ABSTRACT Ann Tippetts Christiansen This research is primarily a phenomenological qualitative study of how art teachers who were trained in the approach continue to use Discipline-Based Art Education. The study assessed how the graduates of the formerly-dbae-focused art education program at Florida State University currently use that paradigm as the focus of their art programs. The selected art teachers were interviewed, which was the primary research strategy for this study. The teachers who were interviewed were selected from the results of a survey that was the supporting strategy. During the twentieth century, art teacher preparation changed periodically to meet the challenges inherent in growth in the field (Day, 1997; Dobbs, 1992). It has been acknowledged that DBAE, or Discipline-Based Art Education, is a theoretical approach rather than a curriculum (Day, 1991). As a result, the DBAE approach has been revised and redesigned to suit teachers, resources, and school and classroom circumstances. By the beginning of the twenty first century discipline-based art education had become ingrained in art teacher preparation, but since that time, there has been a shift away from DBAE as the dominant art education paradigm being taught in teacher education programs in higher education. This is the case even though practicing teachers continue to use it as the dominant model. With that understanding, it would be of value to know how that approach is still utilized. Since the FSU Art Education Department revised its teacher education training program in the early years of the twenty first century, the Department s approach to teaching art in schools has changed in response to the context in which students learn art and teachers teach it, to the globalization of information, to the relative ease with which one can access information about differing cultures and ideas, as well as to the changing nature of art (Anderson, 2006; Anderson & Milbrandt, 2005; Stokrocki, 2004). Currently within the North American art education community, there is no single approach to art education, although the tenets of DBAE remain foundational with branches growing in different directions as new notions of what should be included in art curricula emerge. ix

11 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY In the late 1980 s, teacher education in the visual arts, noted Sevigny (1987), [was] at the threshold of significant opportunity (p. 121), with the advent of disciplinebased art education. That opportunity grew from nineteenth century studio-based art education, through traditions such as progressivism and child-centered art education, to the challenges issued by the excellence movements that characterized art education in the second half of the twentieth century. As the end of the twentieth century approached, paradigms were shifting toward an approach to art education that expanded the perception of it to include not only the instruction of studio practices in art production, but also some knowledge of art s history, a grasp of the principles of aesthetic judgment, and an understanding of at least a few of the puzzles inherent in our reflections on art (Smith, 1987b, p vi). Discipline-based art education (DBAE), as it came to be known, grew from that perceived need and was the driving force in art education through the end of the twentieth century (Day, 1997; Greer, 1984). Art teachers who used the DBAE approach required significant training whether they had taught art or were new to the field. The training came primarily from university art education programs, but significant opportunities for training also were provided through institutes of art education under the auspices of university programs and the Getty Center for Education in the Arts (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1993). The institutes made summer training available to art teachers, classroom teachers, and school administrators whose presence was required to ensure subsequent administrative support at each school. With changing times institutions of higher learning have had to strive to keep pace by offering improvements in teacher education programs. Day (1997) remonstrated that with change must also come the determination of colleges and university teacher preparation programs to strengthen 1

12 and improve current art teacher preparation programs, to ensure that all programs are at least adequate and preferably better (p. 11). During the twentieth century, art teacher preparation changed periodically to meet the challenges inherent in growth in the field (Day, 1997; Dobbs, 1992), and now DBAE is no longer the dominant art teacher education paradigm. The dynamic nature of the field of art education requires examination of teacher preparation in the context of the times as well as an investigation into the effectiveness of that preparation to ensure that the significant opportunity that concerned Sevigny is maximized and enhanced. In that context, all that is older is not useless. An assumption of this study is that we shouldn t dispose of the good along with the bad, the baby with the bathwater. So the question is, what has been good about DBAE? What should we keep? DBAE is a theoretical approach to teaching and learning rather than a curriculum (Day, 1991). As a result, the DBAE approach has been revised and redesigned to suit teachers, resources, as well as school and classroom circumstances. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, discipline-based art education had become ingrained in art teacher preparation, but since that time, there has been a shift away from DBAE as the dominant art education paradigm being taught in teacher education programs in higher education. This is the case even though practicing teachers continue to use it as a dominant model. With that understanding, it would be of value to know how that approach is still utilized. How is DBAE currently used in K-12 schools? What is still useful about it? How have some of the components of DBAE changed as individual teachers have had opportunity to use the approach and determine its success in the classroom? This research is primarily a phenomenological qualitative study of how art teachers who were trained in the approach continue to use DBAE. The study assessed how the graduates of a formerly-dbae-focused art education program currently use that paradigm as the focus of their art programs. The selected teachers were interviewed, which was the primary research strategy for this study. They were selected from the results of a survey that was the supporting strategy. Graduates from The Florida State University Art Education program were chosen for this study as a result of the selection of that program by the Getty Center for 2

13 Education in the Arts as a training venue for prospective art teachers (1988). As a result of the Snowbird initiative (1988), Florida State University became a primary institution for training prospective art teachers the DBAE approach. The students who graduated from FSU s art education program during the period from 1987 through 2003 were trained in fundamental approaches to teach a comprehensive art program including the four tenets of DBAE, specifically art history, art production, aesthetics, and art criticism (General Bulletin, 1997). Since the FSU Art Education Department revised its teacher education training program in the early years of the twenty first century, the Department s approach to teaching art in schools had changed in response to the context in which students learn art and teachers teach it, to the globalization of information, to the relative ease with which one can access information about differing cultures and ideas, as well as to the changing nature of art (Anderson, 2006; Anderson & Milbrandt, 2005; Stokrocki, 2004). Currently within the North American art education community, there is no single approach to art education, although the tenets of DBAE remain foundational with branches growing in different directions as new notions of what should be included in art curricula emerge. Some of the courses at FSU were informed by an expanded version of content-centered comprehensive art education with seven foci including four tenets of DBAE (studio production, art criticism, aesthetics, and art history) and three more: creativity, visual culture, and emerging technologies (Anderson & Milbrandt, 2005). With recent developments in mind, it can be beneficial to determine the viability of discipline-based art education, or at least aspects of DBAE, in the minds of art teachers who were trained in its use and continue to use it or aspects of it. Once DBAE-trained teachers began to practice their craft, they made choices as to what to emphasize and what to omit to accommodate each teacher s situation. To determine where art education stands at this time, it is appropriate for the discipline of art education to step back and evaluate the shelf life of DBAE. Does it continue? Is it used as it was originally intended? What changes have emerged? Are the changes occurring with any consistency, or are they differing from teacher to teacher? What are the implications for art education? The answers to these and similar questions lie, at least in part, with the practitioners of art education. 3

14 Problem Statement It was necessary to explore how art teachers have not only put into practice the approach in which they were trained, but also explore what has influenced the changes they have made in their art curricula (Day, 1997; Thurber, 2004; Zimmerman, 2004). This study was designed to determine the opinions of selected art teachers who participated in and graduated from the FSU program with a bachelor s and/or a master s degree in art education on a teacher certification track during the period when the DBAE paradigm was taught to determine whether they still practice the DBAE approach, what aspects of it they find useful, and what aspects they think should be retained in future teacher preparation. The study included a contextual examination of trends in art education during the twentieth century to indicate the place DBAE occupied in that history. With an understanding of the place DBAE occupied, the question this study examined was whether the components of DBAE were still viable for future directions in art education as perceived by selected DBAE-trained art teachers. The guiding research problem for this project was: Given that it was the dominant paradigm in art education for twenty years, given that we are currently moving into other paradigms of art education, particularly Comprehensive Art Education, one form of which is Art For Life (Anderson & Milbrandt, 2005) and Visual Culture Art Education (Duncum, 2001; Tavin & Hausman, 2004), and given that there must have been something valuable in discipline-based art education to make it such a dominant paradigm for that period, what is it that is still valuable about discipline-based art education, what would be desirable to retain from DBAE, what were its most successful aspects, what were its most useful qualities, in the eyes of selected practitioners who continue to use that paradigm? Guiding Question The guiding question for this study was: What aspects of discipline-based art education do art teachers trained in DBAE find useful and valuable in teaching art, and what aspects would they recommend retaining in future art teacher training? 4

15 Supporting Questions Through an extensive literature review of significant literature of teacher preparation, the following supporting questions emerged that helped frame the conceptual foundations of this study. 1. What have practitioners trained in the DBAE approach retained and used consistently? Why is this so? 2. What non-dbae components have been added to teachers DBAE-framed programs? Why? 3. What components have been discarded, from the DBAE approach, and why were they discarded. 4. What aspects of DBAE do practicing DBAE-trained art teachers recommend be retained in future art teacher training? Objectives of Study The objectives of this study were to: 1. Determine the historical context in which discipline-based art education developed and to gather other information related to the research problem through a review of literature; 2. Design a survey instrument and survey teachers to find a base of information and an interview population; 3. Design an interview instrument and interview selected teachers to assess the uses of DBAE and the attitudes of selected teachers trained in the DBAE paradigm to DBAE as well as the modifications they have made since they began using the approach; 4. Describe, analyze, interpret and evaluate the data to determine how the selected teachers continue to use DBAE or not, what aspects they use, modifications made, reasons why, and the value they put on given aspects of DBAE as well as their recommendations for its future use in teacher training programs; and 5

16 5. Draw conclusions regarding the DBAE paradigm and its current use in selected schools based on the supporting data and suggest possible uses of aspects of DBAE in future art teacher training. Personal Motivation for This Study There was personal reason for me to follow this particular line of research. As an art teacher in a middle school, I was concerned with the preparation I received as a certification track undergraduate. As a 1972 graduate with a major in art from another university, I was not as prepared to teach art as I was prepared to make art. With the completion of a Master of Science degree in art education in 1992 from FSU, which at the time was using the DBAE paradigm, I felt prepared to teach the subject and to inspire my students. As a teacher who found satisfaction in using components of DBAE, I was curious about the other practicing art teachers who came through this program. Were they as satisfied as I was with DBAE as the foundation of their art curricula? What have they changed since they implemented the DBAE model? I felt it was important to research the teaching and learning strategies of other graduates of the program in which I received that focused training in DBAE to see if others currently practice DBAE and why. In short, I felt that there were valuable aspects of DBAE, and I wanted to see if others did, too, and why. Rationale for the Study Discipline-based art education has been a useful paradigm. As a practitioner of the approach, I was in a position to know this first hand, so I was curious as to the opinion of others who were prepared to teach using DBAE of the efficacy of that approach. During the decade that FSU primarily trained art teachers in the DBAE approach, that paradigm was a tool to reform teachers who had been practicing earlier methods as well as to prepare new teachers (Day, 2000). This study sought to determine what aspects of DBAE remained useful and what was advised to be retained by practicing teachers for future teacher training. The current viability and projections for future directions were based on responses from teachers who, first, were trained in the DBAE approach, and, second, have taught using that approach and adapted the 6

17 approach to fit the needs of their students and schools. With the results from the interviews, recommendations are made as to what could be fostered from the original DBAE approach, and, conversely, what should be discarded as no longer useful. Justification of the Study The last half of the twentieth century was marked by the cry for improvements in the nation s schools (Barkan, 1960; Bigge & Shermis, 1991; Brown, 1991; Bybee, 1998; Clowse, 1981; Efland, 1990b; Eisner, 1972; McFee, 1965; Rhoades, 1985; Rippa, 1992). Critics claimed that the American educational system was not doing its job. The movement toward higher academic standards dominated the debate over the direction of American education with an emphasis on math and science, curtailing the influence of Progressive Education (Bruner, 1960, 1962; Barkan, 1960). When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, criticism of the American educational system escalated (Efland, 1990; Rippa, 1992). Congress passed the National Defense Education Act in Art educators responded to the movement but with differing approaches. DBAE was accepted by many as the definitive approach to art education that would include art production but also art history, art criticism, and aesthetics as means to mold art education into a viable discipline that could place it on a level comparable with math or science in the school curricula (Greer, 1984). Day (1997) noted that for significant progress to be made in the implementation of any new approach, it was vital that art teachers be included in the research and improvement process. It is appropriate and needed now, as it was then, to allow art teachers who participated in the art education program at the Florida State University to provide the data for assessing the success of the approach taught at that time (Anderson, 2000; Hutchens, 1997). With the feedback from the teachers trained in the DBAE approach to art education, a more accurate measure of the value of the approach is possible. The practitioners who have put the approach in place are in an excellent position to assess its practical merits. 7

18 Scope and Limitations of the Study Primarily, this phenomenological qualitative study has the potential to inform the art education community about the practical value of DBAE, or aspects of DBAE, as seen through responses of the selected teachers who were trained in the paradigm and teach using that paradigm. I interviewed selected art teachers to obtain their responses to queries about the success of DBAE in their art programs and about where their programs have diverged from the DBAE approach. The study is limited in that the survey participants consisted of 11 teachers, and there were three teachers who were interviewed so the results are not generalizable. More teachers would increase the generalizability of the results, but the focus on the three teachers, instead, provided an in-depth look at their perspectives from a phenomenological perspective (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). Overview of the Procedures and Methodology This is a phenomenological qualitative study (Krathwohl, 1993; Charles & Mertler, 2002). The selection of art teachers to be interviewed was made from those who graduated from The Florida State University with bachelor s and/or master s degrees in art education between 1990 and 2000, who were currently teaching art in the state of Florida. The interview participants were selected from a population responding to the earlier survey about DBAE conducted by the researcher. This study evaluates those in the field as to their perception of the DBAE approach to art education, its current viability, aspects of the paradigm that are more or less useful to them, and their ideas about future directions for emergent art education paradigms. DBAE is an approach to art education that evolved in response to conditions in the world and the United States of America as they impacted the course of education. In order to place the program at FSU in the context of its time in art education, I conducted a literature review of the history of art education and art teacher training practices couched in the context of notable events during the twentieth century. Since education is impacted by events in history, it was critical that trends in education and teacher training be examined in the historic setting that gave impetus to change. By extension, it was equally critical that art education and art teacher preparation also be 8

19 analyzed as it was framed by general trends in education. The first portion of the literature review laid the foundation for the inception of DBAE. Included was the development of the plan by researchers accompanied by art teachers for the transition from teaching using the predecessors of DBAE to its use as the basis for art education in America s schools. The DBAE paradigm was delineated, including descriptions of the positions of its advocates as well as those of its detractors. In 2005 an inquiry was conducted of 28 of the teachers who graduated from the FSU Art Education program during the DBAE period to set foundational information about potential participants and their perceptions of their DBAE-centered art education. From the eleven respondents to this survey, three participants were selected who were interviewed. The selection of the interviewees was based on demographic data and appropriateness of the potential interviewees to the purpose of this study. This is called purposeful sampling (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982; Seidman, 1998; Schultz, Chambless, & Decuir, 2004). I am the researcher for this study, and am responsible for the creation of the questions used in the interviews of the art teachers, the search for the art teachers where they now reside and are now employed, and for contacts with the art teachers with a request for assistance in this study through participating in the interview process (Eisner, 1991; Seidman, 1998). I am also the person who completed the descriptions, analyses and interpretations of the interview transcriptions. Thus, judgment of the value of DBAE as well as its current status is based on the data collected through the interviews and my analysis of them. As a middle school art teacher in Florida, I, too, impact this study as I brought my own experience to the study simply as a result of the impossibility of absolute objectivity due to my involvement in art education. As much as possible, as the researcher, I reported the responses as they were recorded and summarized the data without distortion, but my influence is reflected, and I acknowledge that (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). Definition of Terms These terms are framed from a DBAE point of view as articulated by scholars engaged in that theory and practice. 9

20 Aesthetics: This is an area of philosophy that deals with the perception of the beautiful and the value of art. Aesthetics is that branch of philosophy that endeavors to understand our experience and perceptions of art (Crawford, 1987). Art criticism: This involves judgments about art based on standards supported by good reason. Art criticism seeks to inform and educate people about art by providing insights into its meaning so as to increase the understanding and appreciation of art and to illuminate the cultural ands societal values reflected in it (Risatti, 1987, p. 219). Art education: Art education is the instruction of visual art as a subject in school using a set approach designed to meet set criteria of knowledge and accomplishment. Art is taught as a subject in school curricula with specific content, objectives, and practices (Smith, 1987a). Art history: Art history is the examination of art in the context of the times in which it was created and with reference to the artist or culture that made it. It is an area of knowledge concerning examining works of art to the end that they become meaningful in the scheme of history through writing and discussion (Kleinbauer, 1987). Art production: Art production is the creation of art. In art production that is within a DBAE approach, students learn to join imagination to a sensitivity for materials, tools, and processes, and technique becomes an accomplishment that contributes significant quality to their work (Spratt, 1987, p. 202). Creative Self-Expression: Creative self-expression is art is the act of making forms that [bear] human meaning. This is an intentional, purposeful act of making meaning through the use and manipulation of aesthetic tools such as composition, technique, and concepts. It may be judged by the appropriateness of the means in relation to the perceived expression in a social context (Anderson & Milbrandt, 2005, p. 235). Discipline-based art education: DBAE is an approach to teaching art that incorporates the study of art history, aesthetics, art criticism and art production in the student experience with the goal of developing students abilities to understand and appreciate art. This involves a knowledge of the theories and contexts of art and abilities to respond to as well as to create art. Art is taught as an essential component of general education and as a foundation for specialized art study (Clark, Day, & Greer, 1987, p. 135). 10

21 Interview: A meeting during which someone is asked questions, for example, by a journalist or a researcher. It is a purposeful conversation, usually between two people (but sometimes involving more) that is directed by one in order to get information (Bogdan &Biklen, 1982, p. 135). Paradigm: An example that serves as a pattern or model for something, especially one that forms the basis of a methodology or theory, is a paradigm. Paradigms are noted for being loose collection[s] of logically-held together assumptions, concepts, or propositions that orient thinking and research (Bogdan & Biklen, 1981, p. 30). Phenomenology: The study of things as they are perceived as opposed to the study of the nature of things is phenomenology. This is subjective and requires researchers to attempt to gain access to their subjects understanding of the world, for it is that understanding that constructs reality for the subjects (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). Summary This study is designed to determine through empirical evidence the perceptions and opinions of the art teachers who participated in and graduated from the FSU DBAEbased program for teacher education between the years 1990 and 2000 with a bachelor s and/or a master s degree in art education on a teacher certification track to determine how the DBAE approach has served their goals for teaching art. Through a literature review the program familiarly known as DBAE is placed in its historical context and delineated in terms of the reasons for its content, development, and implementation. The preliminary survey set the stage, provided the means for selecting participants, and provided initial information about their responses to DBAE as a paradigm. The interviews serve to provide further demographic detail about individual teaching situations, but the primary purpose of that activity is to allow art teachers who were prepared to teach art by means of using the DBAE paradigm to evaluate the value of that approach. With the growing concern for educational reform, art educators in higher education are determined that the preparation of art teachers be addressed in terms of the directions the subject may take (Day, 1997; Efland, 1990a; Smith, 1987; Spring, 2004). This study seeks to add insight and information to accomplish that task. 11

22 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE Discipline-based art education was the dominant paradigm in art education toward the end of the twentieth century (Clark, 1997; Day, 1997a; Day, 1997b; Stankiewicz, 2000; Wilson, 1996.) Prior to the advent of discipline-based art education, its antecedents characterized the swinging pendulum of change. Depending on the events in local, national, or global communities, approaches to art education have responded to the prevailing attitudes of the day. When the arc of a pendulum reaches its most extreme in either direction, it begins to swing back, but it retains the energy of the previous stroke (Anderson & Milbrandt, 2005; Bell, 2005; Kuhn, 1970; Mittler & Ragans, 1999). Art education is at the apex of a new change, or a paradigm shift, as practitioners of discipline-based art education review the past decades and opt for new paradigms. The question, here, is what is valuable about DBAE? What should be retained in the eyes of practitioners? This literature review, initially, then, must focus on what DBAE is and what its qualities are. In order to determine the place DBAE occupies in history and the reasons for its inception, the patterns established by previous changes in art education policy need appropriate, but brief, examination. Mary Erickson (1979) noted that one reason to study histories of art education would be to create dialogue and ask questions about current and future directions in art education. The first portion of the literature review, therefore, is an examination of art education in the last half of the twentieth century leading to the perceived need for a discipline-based approach to art education. This examination contributes to an understanding of what was realized in the years just prior to the adoption of a new model in art education as the end of the twentieth century approached (Sevigny, 1987). A study of DBAE within frameworks of "social values, cultural reproduction, economic production, and political issues " (Stankiewicz, 1992, p. 172) of the times is essential to an understanding of the implementation of the approach. 12

23 Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there were three dominant movements in art education (Efland, 1990a). The expressionist, reconstructionist and scientific movements, in turn, dominated or contributed to change and growth in education and art education. Placing a new approach to art education in the context of national movements and the responses of general education to those movements enables the impetus for change to become more apparent. Additionally, providing context for the implementation of DBAE allows researchers to measure the effects of that approach more effectively as art education moves to new paradigms. Although an examination of DBAE in isolation offers the opportunity to dissect it and study the elements that made it successful, it is advantageous to first examine the approach in the context of that time, thus giving the researcher the advantage of knowing the foundations that led to its development and implementation (Seidman, 1998; Sevigny, 1987). Armed with this understanding, conclusions can be drawn as to the effectiveness of DBAE in achieving the goals as well as to the perception by its practitioners of what direction they take when given a need or opportunity for change in approaches. The inclusion of this portion of the literature review assists in setting the stage for DBAE, in the determination of what made DBAE significant in art education history, in the measure of its success, and some of the reasons for diverging from the path established by the advocates and practitioners of that approach. Part two of the review of literature focuses on discipline-based art education as presented to the art education community by those who prepared the approach for use in the classroom. With the context of trends in education, teacher education and art education established, an examination of that approach is detailed. Section two of the literature review also introduces noted trends in art education that have come about since DBAE. 13

24 Part One: A Brief History Approaching the Twentieth Century As the twentieth century opened it was apparent that the societal goals of the nineteenth century, to educate future citizens, reduce crime, and provide equality of opportunity, (Spring, 2004, p. 8) had not changed. Although the church was the organization most likely to promote these goals in past centuries, by the twentieth century the school had become the institution on which pressure was placed to sort out societal problems (Spring, 2004). According to Bigge and Shermis (1992), there were two dominant learning theories in education of the twentieth century through which these goals were met. The behaviorists determined that the stimulus-response approach, or educating children through conditioning, would reap the best results. On the other hand, learning through the interaction of children with their environment to gain an understanding of new information was the appropriate approach for the cognitive interactionist group. The two models are alternately woven in the fabric of twentieth century education. They moved art education toward the abandonment of the creative expressionist model and toward the implementation of a discipline-based model. Behaviorism With the publication of works by Charles Darwin, new approaches to education were filtered through the lens of social Darwinism, through the stimulus-response lens of the behaviorists, and rejected notions of compassion and social responsibility in favor of survival of the fittest (Callahan, 1963; Efland, 1990a; Gardner, 1991; Rippa, 1992). Business became a player in this process when profits appeared to hinge increasingly on the desire and ability of immigrant children to adapt to the American dream of economic independence. Unless vocational training to prepare children for factory work was provided, business considered schools to be a poor investment of tax dollars. School administration was viewed as managing the business of education, as social efficiency increasingly influenced decisions in education. 14

25 In balancing the three goals of academic instruction, assistance to immigrant families, and vocational training, educators struggled to serve the interests of business groups, reformers, politicians, religious organizations, and welfare associations, among other groups, all demanding that schools teach in a manner that would serve those interests (Amburgy, 1990; Cremin, 1961; Efland, 1990a; Rippa, 1992; Spring, 2004). The increasing interest in solving social problems brought the philosophy of progressivism to the forefront. Progressivism promoted action in making social change. The means of making social change came through education. Eventually the efficiency of teachers came into question and was measured by student intelligence tests and productivity aspects of curricula. Progressivism The progressive education movement commonly associated with John Dewey, brought teachers to a greater awareness of the humanity of children and a renewed focus on personal relations between students and between students and teachers (Sellers & May, 1963; Efland, 1990a; Hurwitz, 1990; Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies, 2003; Spring, 2004). Dewey, as a cognitive interactionist, believed that children could learn intellectually as they interacted in a life-like setting, where learning was a byproduct of social interaction in a classroom community. The progressive education movement was attacked for pampering children at the expense of academic performance, but the approach assisted many who worked for rational, democratic solutions to social challenges of the twentieth century. Dewey determined that the interests of the child and social interaction were the two key sources of child learning. Reconstructionism The reconstructionist mode of thinking believed in the transformational qualities of education (Amburgy, 1990 & 2002; Efland, 1990a; Siegesmund, 1998). In this vein, manual training proponents persuaded educators that along with preparing students for vocations, the approach was inherently beneficial from a mental discipline perspective. Good craftsmanship and the notion that a well-functioning article could also be made 15

26 paralleled goals of art education. Eventually vocational education, with its emphasis on the arts-and-crafts movement, and art education began to diverge, with art teachers retaining a focus on teaching art appreciation. This direction removed art education from a utilitarian status and relegated it to the position of an elective course. Social Efficiency Social efficiency sought to measure student intelligence, teacher efficiency, and curricula effectiveness as the beginnings of the scientific rationalist thread (Efland, 1990a; Rippa, 1992). Since art instruction was not determined to be essential for the survival of civilization, it was to have a place in life, but was not as important as other school subjects. Between World Wars Progressivism produced some reform in better schools, improvements in city slums and working conditions in factories (Efland, 1990a; Rippa, 1992). Winning the right to vote in 1920, women entered the workforce in increasing numbers, and changed the traditional family pattern of father as breadwinner and mother as nurturer of children and home. In the 1920 s Victorian attitudes were challenged, liberating society from puritanical repression. The decade was marked by optimism spread following the victory in World War I. The 1929 stock market crash ended that outlook, plunging the country into the Great Depression. The 1930 s saw a retrenchment of society in solving problems facing so many during the Depression. Education Before World War I, scientific methods of administration, changes in curriculum, and educational testing, were used to improve social efficiency (Efland, 1990a). Notions of improving social conditions, and, by extension, the conditions of the country, were woven into the fabric of education. Progressivism versus Behaviorism. Progressivism relied on the principle that learning, and thus teaching, must be founded on children s natural development, life experiences and community life in a cognitive interactionist vein (Dewey, 1915/1953; 16

27 Sellers & May, 1963; Bigge & Shermis, 1992; Efland, 1990a; Efland, 1990b, Gardner, 1991). However, with America s involvement in World War I, Progressive education reforms were postponed. World War I revealed shortcomings in American schools when a high number of those inducted into the military earned very low scores on the army Alpha tests. Following the War, school reform was increasingly based on behaviorist scientific research, as part of the scientific movement, in the form of standardized testing. The tests were also useful as schools began tracking students according to ability and aptitude. In reaction to the rigidity of the scientific movement, the expressionist movement was funded by the idea that the child in people was crushed by rigid teaching methods and expectations (Bigge & Shermis, 1992; Efland, 1990a; Efland, 1990b; Hurwitz, 1990). The innate need to create and express oneself was considered vital to the development of children. Creative self-expressionism grew with the interest in Freud s writings about the unconscious. Educators used his ideas to direct the learning of socially acceptable behaviors through creative expression. The child-centered school emerged as a model for children to escape the rigid strictures of industrialized society, allowing children to grow and flower through individual creative expression rather than through groups or community interaction. Noting that John Dewey s progressivist efforts were funded by the desire for educational reform by guiding children through learning experiences in a school community setting, another group of reformers, known as reconstructionists, attempted to remake Dewey s early progressive positions with less focus on the child s choices and more emphasis on providing appropriate curricula to guiding children (Efland, 1990a; Eisner, 1985). Opposing sides faced the problems of enhancing educational opportunity and its maximization (Bigge & Shermis, 1992; Efland, 1990a; Hurwitz, 1990; Spring, 2004). On one side were those who based school reform on scientific research based on behaviorist notions of stimulus-response attempting to measure a child s educational growth and to quantify what aided in the process. On the other side were child-centered schools enabling students in their progress toward self-fulfillment. Overlapping the two were variants of Progressivism using researched methods designed to enhance the child s opportunity to learn school subjects in a community setting. 17

28 Teacher Education Normal Schools. Normal schools provided prospective teachers with opportunities for learning, but the majority of universities had classical curricula and was critical of normal schools (Dewey, 1965; Harper, 1970). With progressives and reconstructionists placing the child at the core of their approaches, there was a belief in academia that normal schools were schools of methods rather than scholarship. Standardized Teacher Training. By the turn of the century many normal schools had expanded into four-year degree-granting teachers colleges and by the 1920s and 30s, teachers colleges, generally supported by the public, were training substantial numbers of the nation s public-school teachers (Elsbree, 1939; Clifford & Guthrie, 1990; Spring, 2004). In at least twenty states, state normal schools required four years of high school work for admission, and private normal schools were also tending to establish such a requirement. By 1933, forty-two states required licensing at the state level, and the requirement was primarily the completion of teacher education courses. Since that time, the pattern to certify on the state level and base that certification on teacher education courses has continued. Many normal schools have become university departments of education. In the 1930 s the American Council on Education established a National Teachers Examination that tested the subject matter taught. Schools of education attacked the examination. The National Education Association can claim responsibility for much of the systematic standardization of the training of teachers (Ravitch, 2004; Wesley, 1957). The Association s Normal Department had surveyed teacher education institutions since the nineteenth century and was involved in addressing perceived needs. Eventually teacher education became identified with the completion of a teacher education program instead of passing subject matter exams. Art Education Child-Centered Art. During the period between the two World Wars art education took its direction from dominant movements of the time (Efland, 1990a; Korzenik, 1990). Devotees of Franz Cizek, an Austrian who promoted a concept that became known as child-centered art, insisted on avoiding adult influence in teaching art to children and 18

29 allowing much greater freedom for children to make art in their own way. From those who practiced Cizek s approach, he acquired the reputation as the father of freeexpression. Creative self-expressionism evolved as a method in which children made their own art as a means of expressing themselves without adult intervention. It was determined that teaching this method was best left in the hands of artists, as they were singularly equipped to be sensitive enough to measure the expression in child art. The trend from the expressionist focus on the individual child s artistic expression to a societal view of art education came in the wake of economic pressure of the Great Depression (Efland, 1983; Efland, 1990a). Greater emphasis on art as a part of life and less on art in isolation as personal expression grew under the influence of John Dewey s approach that put art as part of daily experience. In the same manner that connected art to religious worship, had it depicted war and peace, and used it to enhanced industrial design, reconstructionists integrated it into education. During the Depression art education was not eliminated from most school districts in spite of cost-cutting measures, but it was reduced in some, with some entertaining the goal of implementing or expanding an art program retrenched in response to the dire financial straits in which the country and much of the world found itself (Efland, 1990a). To retain support for art education it was necessary to refocus the goal of art curricula from the nature of art and beauty to art as contributing to solutions for societies problems. Reconstructionists integrated art into such subjects as language arts, history, science, and math (Efland, 1990a). Art education was a tool to dissolve boundaries between subjects and provide a unified educational experience for children and adolescents. Art was often paired with social studies, and followed trends of the time. The art deco style of drawing, in favor in architecture and other areas of design, replaced drawings in the style of the arts-and-crafts movement of the turn of the century. Levels of Art Education. Art supervisors were present in school districts in large cities to supervise elementary art taught by classroom teachers (Efland, 1983). Elementary art teachers were rare in the period between the World Wars, since it was financially sound, instead, to maintain an art supervisor in a district to work with 19

30 classroom teachers and their endeavors in art instruction. In secondary education the curriculum was organized into separate subjects by classes. The number of art teachers increased for that reason. Unlike previous generations in which many students dropped out of school to enter the workforce in factories, most students remained in high school until they graduated due to the lack of jobs during the Great Depression. From World War II to the Demand for Excellence With the Holocaust perpetrated by the Third Reich and the dropping of atomic bombs, the landscape of America s future had changed (Efland, 1990a). The magnitude of atrocities had grown globally. Opportunities for a piece of the American Dream increased at home following World War II. With the return of soldiers to their homes in America, birthrates skyrocketed. This phenomenon was called the Baby Boom, and it continued into the 1970 s. Postwar prosperity also continued into the 1970 s. Families moved into the suburbs and contributed to the effects of the Baby Boom, the subsequent children of Baby Boomers. By the end of the World War II one third of the women were in the labor force, but many left employment after they were married (Rippa, 1992). Women became a strong political voice as more entered the work force and/or represented their families interests. Before the war the pattern of separate-but-equal schools followed an 1896 Supreme Court ruling that sanctioned separate but equal facilities and services for African Americans (Rippa, 1992). This provided the basis for schools systems providing separate but equal schools, but by erasing segregation in the armed forces, the war expanded the outlook of African Americans on race relations. As soldiers returned home many moved north instead of returning to the south, contributing to an increasing population shift of African Americans into such northern cities as Chicago, Detroit, and New York City. On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court reversed the 1896 decision and was followed with a ruling on May 31, 1955 in which it was determined that desegregation must proceed quickly. The sudden end to segregation did not occur, and a civil rights crusade to influence government policy and public attitudes reached a 20

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