Italian Pig Industry Role of Herd Book and native breeds Register

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1 Italian Pig Industry Role of Herd Book and native breeds Register Dr Maurizio Gallo SASSARI, 7 SETTEMBRE

2 Italian Pig Sector Outlook 2011 TOTAL CONSUMPTION: t - 3,4% (carcass weight including industry, family, restaurant consumption) ITALIAN PIG MEAT PRODUCTION t - 3,0% IMPORT: t +1,8% (pig carcasses and pig meat) EXPORT: t + 9,4% (carcasses weight) SELFSUFFICIENCY: 65,3% -1,2%

3 Italian Pig Sector Outlook 2011 Import of fresh and frozen hams: t (+3,1%) corresponding about to cuts (including hams of imported carcasses). Ham selfsufficiency is about 30,3%. Export of seasoned hams and speck: t (+4,5%) corresponding about to cuts Export of cooked hams: t (+7,2%) corresponding about to cuts Export of salami and sausages: t (+26,4%) Export of mortadella and wurstel: t (+14,5%)

4 Italian Pig Sector Domestic consumption 2011 % Quantity 11/10 Prices 11/10 Total - 1,1 + 1,8 Fresh pig meat - 2,3-0,1 Processed pig meat - 0,1-0,1 PDO pork + 0,2 + 1,8 Better perfomance of PDO products Source: ISMEA - AC Nielsen Homescan

5 NUMBER OF FARMS Anno 2010 Numero di aziende suinicole Classe di capi e più totale Piemonte Valle d'aosta Liguria Lombardia Trentino A.Adige Prov. Bolzano Prov. Trento Veneto Friuli-Venezia G Emilia-Romagna Toscana Umbria Marche Lazio Abruzzo Molise Campania Puglia Basilicata Calabria Sicilia Sardegna Italia % sul totale Italia 81,3 8,6 5,5 2,4 2,1 100,0

6 REGIONAL PIG POPULATION SHARE 85% North Italy

7 COST COMPARISON Interpig data 2010 /kg carcass weight Feed Other variable costs Total variable costs Labour Building, finance and misc. Total fixed costs Total costs Italy 1,169 0,137 1,303 0,156 0,330 0,486 1,789 EU Ave 0,907 0,131 1,038 0,157 0,398 0,555 1,593 Production Cost higher than other EU countries (old age of pigs, worse FCR, strict requirements for PDO production)

8 PRICE AND COST TREND Price and Cost Indices Italian heavy pig 160,00 (100 Average ) 150,00 140,00 130,00 120,00 110,00 100,00 IndPrezzo IndCosto 90,00 80,00 70,00 60,

9 ITALIAN MARKET Italian Pig meat market is divided in several segments: PDO and PGI products Traditional and Local products Healthy and Organic products Sustainability of the Italian pig industry requires: High quality specialization Efficiency

10 BREEDING ACTIVITY Italian Herd Book Register of native breeds

11 HERD BOOK 4 breeds: Italian Large White, Landrace and Duroc for production of heavy pig Pietrain (NN) for production of lean pig Activity is based on Central Station sib test and on AI semen best boars delivered

12 DIVERSITY OF ITALIAN HEAVY PIG For PDO production the only carcasses U, R, O (from 40% to 54,9% meat content) are suitable E carcass (>= 55%) and P (< 40%) are excluded.

13 DIVERSITY OF ITALIAN HEAVY PIG % LEAN MEAT AND OTHERS TRAITS GENETIC CORRELATIONS TRAITS ILW IL ID (n. 7728) (n. 2829) (n. 3478) ADG +0,233 +0,499 +0,062 B.FAT - 0,754-0,739-0,482 LEAN CUTS +0,728 +0,795 +0,565 QUALITY -0,764-0,809-0,757 HAM +0,477 +0,564 +0,335 FCR -0,329-0,438-0,239 VIF -0,056

14 BREEDING GOALS MEAT QUALITY PROCESSOR CARCASS QUALITY SLAUGHTERER BREEDING SUSTAINABILITY BREEDER Italian Selection follows a «balanced» approach: Improvement Average Daily Gain, Feed Conversion Ratio and Lean Cuts Yield Maintenance Suitability of meat for processing in Prosciutto and Salami 14

15 HERD BOOK PROGRAMME www. anas.it Herd Book Herds Local offices ADN Laboratory Testing Station Central office Slaughterhouse Herd Book A.I Centre Ham processor Commercial A.I. Centre Commercial pig farms information Live animals Biological material *

16 HERD BOOK PROGRAMME days old piglets Testing Station (Reggio Emilia) Testing activity is organised in a bimonthly shift. Pigs are slaughtered after eight months From registered farms 3 full sibs are taken to the testing station Estimation of Breeding values for traits related to: Production efficiency Carcass Composition Meat quality Boars approved for A.I are brothers of the pigs tested in the station A.I stud produces semen from the selected boars and is delivered by using ANAS custom made software A.I Boars are tested for paternity by microsatellites technique and for Hal gene.

17 TREND LEAN CUTS (ID)

18 TREND ADG (ID)

19 HEAVY PIG BREEDING SCHEME Italian Large White Italian Landrace Italian Duroc F1 - GEN.I 90 Italian pigs for POD production

20 TERMINAL BOARS ITALO DUROC GEN.I

21 ITALIAN SOWS

22 GEN.I 90 Italian Large White x Italian Landrace SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION 90 Number of piglets weaned per sow 8 Number of parity per sow 11 Number of weaners per parity 20 Percentage less mortality of piglets 14 Minimum number of functional mammal teats THIS SELECTION IMPROVES LONGIVITY AND WELFARE

23 TREND OF PROLIFICACY ANDAMENTO DELLA PROLIFICITA' PER ANNO DI NASCITA DELLE PRIMIPARE Trend in relation to the year of birth of a primiparous sow +1,800 +1,500 +1,200 +0,900 L +0,600 LW +0,300 +0, ,300

24 TREND OF LONGEVITY Trend in relation to the year of birth of a primiparous sow

25 ITALIAN LEAN PIG This type of production present time is in Sardinia, Sicily, Puglia and in few farms of North Italy. To compete with the imported product could be necessary a Italian Differentiation Distinctive elements: Carcass weight from 97 to 105 Kg Meat Quality PSE free, Less drip loss, Better colour

26 ITALIAN LEAN PIG The Herd Book since 1995 has focused on the selection of a population of Pietrain breed free from the gene responsable for Malignant Hypertermia (halotane free). Pietrain could be the Terminal Boar or its father (for istance Pietrain x Duroc) This solution ensures: Better Feed Conversion Ratio Highest lean meat content (Carcass of Class E)

27 BOARS FOR LEAN PIG Pietrain NN and Pietrain NN x Italian Duroc BREEDING SLAUGHTERHOUSE LABORATORY at 6 months of age Lean meat FOM class uniformity Myopathies absence Reduced drip loss > 115 kg 56-60% E (PSE)

28 NATIVE BREEDS REGISTER Conservation of native breeds is important for maintaining and exploiting local market niches and for general purpose of maintaining genetic diversity Activity started in 1987 with Cinta Senese breed and since 2001 for others 4 breeds, while for Sarda since 2006

29 Cinta Senese NATIVE BREEDS REGISTER Apulo Calabrese Mora Romagnola Nero Siciliano Casertana Sarda

30 NATIVE BREEDS REGISTER BREEDS UNITS BOARS SOWS Y. ANIMAL SARDA CASERTANA N. SICILIANO A. CALABRESE MORA ROM CINTA SENESE Data 2011

31 REGISTER COMMITMENTS Genetic variability preservation Keeping inbreeding low Maintaining robustness and capability to live and produce in marginal lands with poor feed Pedigree information collection Mating scheme management

32 CONSERVATION: CONCERNS Narrow effective population size = Few ancestors High coefficient of kinship = High inbreeding = Low genetic variability Low reproduction efficiency

33 Genetic parameters - Cinta Senese Size of Population Base Population (one or more unknown parents) (f) 115 Effective Population Size of Founders (fe) Expected Inbreeding by unbalancing of founders contribution 4.55% Computed Mean Inbreeding 14.21% Number of animals in the Reference Population Number of Ancestors contributing to the Reference Population 84 Effective Number of Ancestors for the Reference Population (fa) 10 Nº of ancestors explaining 50% 4 Florence University ANAS

34 POPULATION MANAGEMENT Availability of reliable pedigree data; Inbreeding based mating; High boars/sows ratio; Replacement picked up from every available litter.

35 ECONOMIC VIABILITY: CONCERNS Production is made by a number of small size production units (farms and pork processors). Modern distribution demands for products which are constantly available and of uniform quality. Few resources are available to improve processing and marketing.

36 SUITABLE POLICIES Integration with tourism; Coupling with local handicraft and other local products (wines, cheeses, etc.); Inclusion in traditional or innovative cuisine; Organic production; E-commerce.

37 FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS Specific traits of native breeds can be exploited to set up special production systems; Promising opportunities in meeting niche markets demand; Improved use of marginal rural areas in the frame of sustainable development.

38 GRAZIE PER L ATTENZIONE!

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