1 Vol. 9(3), pp , 21 January, 2015 DOI: /AJMR Article Number: 0D63EFF50238 ISSN Copyright 2015 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article African Journal of Microbiology Research Review Antimicrobial potenti ial of chitosan Pedro Henrique Sette-de-Souza 1*, Francinalva Dantas de Medeiros 2, Martina Gerlane de Oliveira Pinto 1, Júlio César Queiroz 1, Rayanne Izabel Maciel de Sousa 1, Patrícia Meira Bento 1, Daniela Pita de Melo 1, Pollianna Muniz Alves 1 and Ana Cláudia Dantas de Medeiros 2 1 Department of Dentistry, State University of Paraíba, Campina Grande, Brazil. 2 Department of Pharmaceutics Science, State University of Paraíba, Campina Grande, Brazil. Received 31 October, 2014; Acceptedd 12 January, 2015 Chitosan is a biopolymer that has been used in the production of biomaterials and is the focus of numerous studies due to its antimicrobial activity. Chitosan has high value-added applications in medicine, agricultural and cosmetics. Its broad spectrum of action, strong bactericidal/bacteriostatic activity and low cytotoxicity are some of the many advantages of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent. This paper consists of a review of the previous studies of the antimicrobial properties of chitosan and its derivatives. Articles were searched in the databases "Pubmed", "Scopus" and "Web of Knowledge", and excluded those which used the combination of chitosan with some drug or active herbal principle, without restriction of year of publication. This research was carried out to investigate the impact factor of each journal and to develop a timeline to demonstrate the expansion of research in the area. Of the total of 52 articles found, 78.85% (41) dealt with the antibacterial activity of chitosan and % (16) with antifungal activity. Of the 41 articles that dealt with bacteria, 39.02% (16) evaluated the activity of chitosan against Staphylococcus aureus and 43.89% (18) against. The antifungal activity was assessed in 37.5% (6) of strains of Candida albicans. It was observed that there has been an increasing use of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent in recent years, possibly related to its greater use in the production of polymer microparticles and microspheres in various areas. The average impact factor was 2.62 (± 1.10), by JCR, which indicates the rigorous selection of the articles used in this review and the greater credibility of this study. Although theree are a growing number of studiess on the antimicrobial properties of chitosan, further studies are needed to maximize its use. It is important to encourage research to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chitosan on other clinical pathogens resistant to antimicrobial activity. Key words: Chitosan, anti-bacterial agents, antifungal agents. INTRODUCTION The production of chitosan-based biomaterials has been the focus of numerous studies, since this biopolymer and its derivatives have proved to be promising agents in thee treatment and prevention of various diseases becausee *Corresponding author. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under thee terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0International License
2 148 Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. Figure 1. Chemical structure of chitin and chitosan after deacetylation. Adapted from Dutta et al. (2012). they have numerous cellular actions (Kulikov and Shumkova, 2014); Aam et al., 2010). The term "chitosan" refers to the group of natural polycationic polysaccharid des with high molecular weight and different viscosities, pka and degrees of acetylation (Costa et al., 2014; Tsai et al., 2011; Raafat et al., 2008). It is produced by the deacetylation of chitin found in the exoskeleton of arthropods, crustacean shell, insects, algae and fungi (Tayel et al., 2010; Van der Mei et al., 2007; Prado et al., 2004). During its production, the degree of deacetylation should be monitored because this influences the antimicrobial polymer (Tayel et al., 2010). Figure 1 shows the chemical structure of chitin and chitosan. Since 2013, the chitosan extracted from shrimp has been consideredd "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) for use in food by the US Food and Drug Administration (Jeon et al., 2013). For Tayel et al. (2014) and Kumaresapillai et al. (2011), the chitosan produced and extracted from fungi is important for its low environmental impact, the possibility of control in certain conditions and large-scale production. Chitosan has several characteristics that allow its application in widely different fields of science, these are: easy formation of gels, filmogenic capacity and good mechanical properties due to its physico-chemical characteristics ( Kulikov and Shumkova, 2014), as well as being biodegradable, low allergenic biocompatibility potential and mucoadhesive properties, which are favo- rable in some of its applications (Patel et al., 2005). Due to its positive charge from the deacetylation, chitosan has important physiological and biological characteristics for the food, cosmetic, biomedical, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries (Badawy and Rabea, 2013; Tayel et al., 2010). It is used in the food industry to maintain the quality of many fruits, considering that in freshly harvested products there are the possibilities of increased contamination (Valle et al., 2012; Campaniello et al., 2008). It is used in the pharmaceutical industry to encapsulate compounds and to target drugs for resistant microorganisms to antibiotics, among other uses (Jeon et e al., 2013). Thee advantages of the use of chitosan as ann antimicrobial agent are numerous and can highlight thee broadd spectrum of action with its strong bactericidal/ bacteriostatic activity and low cytotoxicity. However, despite having several advantages over chemical disinfectants, literature is occasionally contradictoryy regarding its antimicrobial activity (Costa et al., 2014; Duttaa et al., 2012; Tayel et al., 2010). Therefore, thiss review aimed to bring together recent studies on thee antimicrobial activity of chitosan and its derivatives showing possible causal factors in the different results. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHITOSAN The use of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent has increasedd in recent years (Tables 1 and 2). This increase may bee related to the increase in studies on the production of o polymer microparticles, and microspheres in various fields. Antibacterial activity Besides antibacterial activity, Ji et al. (2009a) realizedd chitosan stimulated proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells. There are still reports that chitosann influences the activation of the complement system, acts as ann immune-potentializer to nonspecificc activation of o immune cells, accelerates the production of biological mediators and the infiltration of inflammatory cells (macrophages and polymorphonuclear) and has an effect on fibroblasts (Moon et al., 2007; Ueno et al., 2001) ). Thesee findings are important to show that chitosan couldd be used in the treatment of periodontal diseases (Ji et al., 2009b), since it accelerates the inflammatory responsee
3 Sette-de-Souza et al. 149 Table 1. Antibacterial activity of chitosan on specific bacteria, for study and source of chitosan. Reference Bacteria Origin of chitosan Badawy et al. (2014) Costa et al. (2014) Agrobacterium tumefaciens Erwinia carotovora Enterococci Streptococci Inta et al. (2014) Bacillus subtilis Company (Seafresh Chitosan Lab Co.) Jeon et al. (2013) Klebsiella pneumoniae Salmonella enterica Streptococcus uberis Vibrio cholerae Kulikov and Shumkova (2014) Staphylococcus epidermidis Crustaceans Animal (Crab) Sahariah et al. (2014) Tayel et al. (2014) Coliformes Enterobacteriaceae Fungal (Aspergillus brasiliensis) Yang et al. (2014) Acidovorax avenae Crustaceans Animal (Caranguejo) Younes et al. (2014) Klebsiella pneumoniae Company (Aber Technologies France) Salmonella typhi Geng et al. (2012) Bacillus subtilis Salmonella cholerae suis Li et al. (2013) Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzicola Crustaceans Animal (Crab) Mansilla et al. (2013) Pseudomonas syringae Chen and Chung (2012) Giner et al. (2012) Huang et al. (2012) Jiang et al. (2012) Li et al. (2012) Logesh et al. (2012) Lactobacillus brevis Streptococus mutans Bacillus cereus Enterobacter aerogenes Salmonella entérica Enterococcus faecalis Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella spp. Vibrio spp Acidovorax citrulli Vibrio cholerae Salmonella typhi Company (Keumho Chemical) Fungal (Roccella montagnei lichen)
4 150 Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. Table 1. Contd. Reference Bacteria Origin of chitosan Simunek et al. (2012) Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Clostridium beijerinckii Clostridium paraputrificum Company (Medicol Co.) Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Roseburia intestinalis Chung et al. (2011) Salmonella typhimurium Shigella dysenteriae Listeria monocytogenes Bacillus cereus Kumaresapillai et al. (2011) Proteus vulgaris Fungal (Aspergillus niger) Salmonella paratyphi-a Salmonella typhi Lou et al. (2011) Burkholderia. seminalis Crustaceans Animal (Caranguejo) Mellegard et al. (2011a) Bacillus cereus Company (Novamatrix) Mellegard et al. (2011b) Tsai et al. (2011) Bacillus cereus Acinetobacter baumannii MRSA Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus pyogenes Company (Shin Era Technology) Tayel et al. (2010) Bacillus subtilis Pseudomonas fluorescence Salmonella typhimurium Fungal (Mucor rouxii) Sarcinia lutea Serratia marcescens Ballal et al. (2009) Enterococcus faecalis Fernandes et al. (2009) Bacillus cereus Ji et al. (2009a) Ji et al. (2009b) Lee et al. (2009) Fernandes et al. (2008) Raafat et al. (2008) Sarasam et al. (2008) Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Porphyromonas gingivalis Prevotella intermedia Streptococcus mutans Porphyromonas gingivalis Prevotella intermedia Vibrio vulnificus Staphylococcus simulans Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Streptococcus mutans Company (Putian Zhongsheng Weiye Co.) Company (Dongying Guofeng Fine Chemical Co)
5 Sette-de-Souza et al. 151 Table 1. Contd. Reference Bacteria Origin of chitosan Chung and Chen (2007) Kim et al. (2007) Salmonella typhi Company (Iljin Pharmaceuticals) Moon et al. (2007) Crustaceans Animal (Crab) Anas et al. (2005) Fujimoto et al. (2005) Chung et al. (2004) Rhoades and Roller (2000) Vibrio cholerae Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio mediterranei Vibrio nereis Vibrio proteolyticus Vibrio splendidus Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio alginolyticus Legionella pneumophila Salmonella typhimurium Streptococcus faecalis Bacillus spp. Cryptococcus albidus Pseudomonas fragi Company (M/s South India Sea Foods) Company (Wako Pure Chemicals Co.) Company (Pronova Biopolymer) and the repair process, enabling the reestablishment of normal microbiota and repairing the periodontal ligament. Bacteremia caused by is the most common cause of bloodstream infections associated with medical treatment (Hii et al., 2013) and Escherichia coli bacteremia is the third (Hii et al., 2013). Chung and Chen (2007) reported that chitosan can destroy the cellular structure of E. coli and S. aureus, leading to leakage of lysosomal enzymes and nucleotides in the cell. However, other studies were inconclusive regarding the antimicrobial effect of chitosan. Although they observed antibacterial activity of chitosan in E. coli and Legionella pneumophila, Fujimoto et al. (2005) believed that, it is due to the decrease of the ph value of derivatives of the organic acids and not of the polymer. The antibacterial activity of chitosan may be associated with a mechanism for sequential separation between the cell wall and cell membrane, followed by their destruction beyond the cell lysis and change in the osmotic pressure (Kulikov et al., 2014; Geng et al., 2012; Lou et al., 2011; Chen and Chung, 2012). For Tayel et al. (2010), chitosan tends to act in the peptidoglycan of cell wall. Recently, Jeon et al. (2013) suggested that the antimicrobial activity of chitosan is partially mediated by the OmpA, an outer membrane protein of bacteria incorporated into a β-barrel structure, responsible for cell surface integrity. This contrasts with what has been proposed by Raafat et al. (2008), who proposed that there is no evidence that the antimicrobial activity of chitosan is mediated by direct action on the cell membrane. There were also suggestions that the antibacterial effect of chitosan is related to its molecular weight, since the higher the molecular weight of the polymer, the greater the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Whereas, for Gram-negative bacteria, the lower mass molecular chitosan implies greater antimicrobial activity (Lee et al., 2009). Thus, the polymer has a greater effect on Grampositive bacteria than on Gram-negative bacteria and some authors suggested that the positive charge present in the amino group of chitosan may interact with sites on the cell surface of the bacteria causing disturbances in cellular permeability (Younes et al., 2014; Chen and Chung, 2012; Chung et al., 2004; Helander et al., 2001), and changes in DNA and RNA (Tayel et al., 2010). It is also important to emphasize that chitosan may alter the presence of metal within the cell, inhibiting microbial growth and activating the host's immune response, which acts on the inhibition of various enzymes (Tayel et al.,
6 152 Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. Table 2. Antifungal activity of chitosan on specific fungi for study and source of chitosan. Reference Fungus Origin of chitosan Badawy et al. (2014) Botryodiplodia theobromae Fusarium oxysporum Phytophthora infestans Chaterjee et al. (2014) Macrophomina phaseolina Elkholy et al. (2014) Kulikov et al. (2014) Younes et al. (2014) Rhizoctonia solani Sclerotium rolfsii Candida albicans Alternaria solani Aspergillus niger Fusarium oxysporum Company (Aber Technologies France) Chien et al. (2013) Candida albicans Company (Shin Era Technology) Pedro et al. (2013) Aspergillus flavus Company (Sigma Aldrich) Giner et al. (2012) Ing et al. (2012) Aspergillus niger Candida albicans Penicillium digitatum Pichia anomala Pichia membranaefaciens Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aspergillus niger Candida albicans Fusarium solani Liu et al. (2012) Rhizoctonia solani Sajomsang et al. (2011) Li et al. (2010) Microsporum gypseum. Trichophyton mentagrophyte Trichophyton rubrum, Cladosporium cucumerinum Colletotrichum lagenarium Fusarium oxysporum Monilinia fructicola, Company (Seafresh Chitosan) Company (Qingdao Baicheng Biochemical Corp) Ballal et al. (2009) Candida albicans Guo et al. (2007) Peña et al. (2004) Rhoades and Roller (2000) Botrytis cinerea Colletotrichum lagenarium Candida albicans Candida spp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomycodes ludwigii Rhodotorula spp. Zygosaccharomyces bailii Company (Qingdao Baicheng Biochemical Corp) Company (Pronova Biopolymer) 2010). Studies on the antimicrobial activity of pharmaceutical formulations containing chitosan were also carried out. The effectiveness of a chitosan-based mouthwash, used to combat oral bacteria, has been found to be similar to marketed mouthwashes, being a viable alternative for the industry and for the population (Chen and Chung, 2012), since the chitosan acts as a bactericidal agent and bacteriostatic (Fernandes et al., 2008). Antifungal activity Factors such as the ph of the solution used for diluting the chitosan, presence of bromine, chlorine and thiourea, the chemical structure, the degree of quaternization and the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance influence the antifungal activity of the polymer (Elkholy et al., 2014; Sajomsang et al., 2011; Guo et al., 2007; Roller and Covill, 1999). Furthermore, the molecular weight was
7 Sette-de-Souza et al. 153 directly proportional to the inhibition of fungal growth (Younes et al., 2014). Therefore, chitosan has the potential to be used as preservation medium for low ph foods which suffer from fungal infection (Rhoades and Roller, 2000). The candidemia is a major concern for hospitalized patients because Candida species are the most important nosocomial pathogens, which can generate prolonged periods of hospitalization or even cause death. The prevalence of mortality from candidemia can reach up to 61% (Kreusch and Karstaedt, 2013). Although the Candida albicans can still mostly be responsible for these diseases, other species are increasing their role in candidemia (Wu et al., 2014; Karstaedt, 2013). Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida guilliermondii are the most prevalent, just after C. albicans (Wu et al., 2014; Karstaedt, 2013). C. albicans is an opportunistic pathogen and the infections from this fungus represent a serious problem, especially for immunocompromised patients (Peña et al., 2004). Studies on the action mechanism of chitosan on C. albicans have identified the severe alterations of the cell wall and the internal structure of the fungus, as well as the increase in the flow of potassium and calcium required for inhibition of respiration, fermentation and cell viability, which is responsible for the antifungal effect of the polymer (Kulikov et al., 2014; Peña et al., 2004). The increased cytoplasmic calcium flux causes changes in the cytoplasmic wall, leading to loss of cellular permeability and consequently cell death. CONCLUSION Although there are a growing number of studies on the antimicrobial properties of chitosan, more studies are needed to maximize the use of this polymer. It is important to encourage research that will evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chitosan on other pathogens of clinical interest, which have antimicrobial resistance. Conflict of interests The authors did not declare any conflict of interest. REFERENCES Aam BB, Heggset EB, Norberg AL, Sorlie M, Varum KM, Eijsink VGH (2010). Production of chitooligosaccharides and their potential applications in medicine. Mar. Drugs 8(5): Anas A, Paul S, Jayaprakash NS, Philip R, Bright Singh IS (2005). Antimicrobial activity of chitosan against vibrios from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. Dis. Aquat. Org. 67: Badawy MEI, Rabea EI (2013). Preparation and antimicrobial activity of O-(benzoyl) chitosan derivatives against some plant pathogens. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 7(20): Badawy MEI, Rabea EI, Taktak NEM (2014). Antimicrobial and inhibitory enzyme activity of N-(benzyl) and quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives on plant pathogens. Carbohyd Polym 111: Ballal NV, Kundabala M, Bhat KS, Acharya S, Ballal M, Kumar R, Prakash PY (2009). Susceptibility of Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis to chitosan, chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination in vitro. Aust. Endod. J. 35: Campaniello D, Bevilacqua A, Sinigaglia M, Corbo MR (2008). Chitosan: antimicrobial activity and potential applications for preserving minimally processed strawberries. Food Microbiol. 25: Chen CYU, Chung YC (2012). Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis. J Appl Oral Sci. 20(6): Chien HF, Chen CP, Chen YP, Chang PH, Tsai T, Chen CT (2013). The use of chitosan to enhance photodynamic inactivation against Candida albicans and its drug-resistant clinical isolates. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14(4): Chung YC, Chen CY (2007). Antibacterial characteristics and activity of acid-soluble chitosan. Bioresour. Technol. 99: Chung YC, SU YV, Chen CC, Jia G, Wang HL, Wu JC, Lin JG (2004). Relationship between antibacterial activity of chitosan and surface characteristics of cell wall. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 25 (7): Costa EM, Silva S, Costa MR, Pereira M, Campos DA, Odila J, Madureira AR, Cardelle-Cobas A, Tavaria FK, Rodrigues AS, Pintado MM (2014). Chitosan mouthwash: toxicity and in vivo validation. Carbohyd. Polym. 111: Dutta J, Tripathi S, Dutta PK (2012). Progress in antimicrobial activities of chitin, chitosan and its oligosaccharides: a systematic study needs for food applications. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 18(1):3-34. Elkholy SS, Salem HA, Eweis M, Elsabee MZ (2014). Synthesis and characterization of some acyl thiourea derivatives of chitosan and their biocidal activities. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 70: Fernandes CJ, Tavaria FK, Soares JC, Ramos OS, Monteiro MJ, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2008). Antimicrobial effects of chitosans and chitooligosaccharides, upon and, in food model systems. Food Microbiol. 25: Fernandes JC, Eaton P, Gomes AM, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2009). Study of the antibacterial effects of chitosans on Bacillus cereus (and its spores) by atomic force microscopy imaging and nanoindentation. Ultramicroscopy 109: Fujimoto T, Tsuchiya Y, Terao M, Nakamura K, Yamamoto M (2005). Antibacterial effects of Chitosan solution against Legionella pneumophila,, and. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 112: Geng, X, Yang, R, Huang, J, Zhang, X, Wang, X (2012). Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis. J. Appl. Oral Sci. 20(6): Giner MJ, Vegara S, Funes L, Martí N, Saura D, Micol V, Valero M (2012). Antimicrobial activity of food-compatible plant extracts and chitosan against naturally occurring micro-organisms in tomato juice. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92: Guo Z, Xing R, Liu S, Zhong Z, Ji X, Wang L, Li P (2007). The influence of the cationic of quaternized chitosan on antifungical activity. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 118: Helander IM, Nurmiaho LEL, Ahvenainen R, Rhoades J, Roller S (2001). Chitosan disrupts the barrier properties of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71: Hii IM, Chang HL, Lin LC, Lee YL, Liu YM, Liu CE, Chen CH, Cheng YR, Chang CY (2013). Changing epidemiology of candidemia in a medical center in middle Taiwan. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. Xx:1-10. Huang J, Jiang H, Qiu M, Geng X, Yang R, Li J, Zhang C (2012). Antibacterial activity evaluation of quaternary chitin against and. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 52: Ing LY, Zin NM, Sarwar A, Katas H (2012). Antifungal Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Correlation with Their Physical Properties. Int. J. Biomater. 2012: doi: /2012/ Jeon SJ, Oh M, Yeo WK, Galvão KN, Jeong KC (2013). Underlying mechanism of antimicrobial activity of chitosan microparticles and implications for the treatment of infectious diseases. PLoS One 9(3):e92723.
8 154 Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. Ji QX, Chen XG, Zhao QS, Liu CS, Cheng XJ, Wang LC (2009b). Injectable thermosensitive hydrogel based on chitosan and quaternized chitosan and the biomedical properties. J Mater Sci. Mater Med 20: Ji QX, Zhong DY, Lü R, Zhang W Q, Deng J, Chen X G (2009a). In vitro evaluation of the biomedical properties of chitosan and quaternized chitosan for dental applications. Carbohyd. Res. 344: Jiang L, Wang F, Han F, Prinyawiwatkul W, No HK, Ge B (2012). Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antimicrobial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives. J. Appl. Microbiol. 114: Kreusch A, Karsaedt AS (2013). Candidemia among adults in Soweto, South Africa, Int. J. Infect. Dis. 17:e621-e623. Kulikov SN, Lisovskaya SA, Zelenikhin PV, Bezrodnykh EA, Shakirova DR, Blagodatskikh IV, Tikhonov VE (2014). Antifungal activity of oligochitosans (short chain chitosans) against some Candida species and clinical isolates of Candida albicans: Molecular weight -activity relationship. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 74: Kulikov SN, Shumkova Y (2014). Effect of Chitosan on Lysostaphin Lysis of Staphylococcal Cells. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 157(2): Kumaresapillai N, Basha RA, Sathish R (2011). Production and Evaluation of Chitosan from Aspergillus Niger MTCC Strains. Iran J. Pharm. Res. 10(3): Lee BC, Kim MS, Chol S, Kim YK, Kim TS (2009). In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharides against Vibrio vulnificus. Int. J. Mol. Med. 24: Li B, Liu B, Shan C, Ibrahim M, Lou Y, Wang Y, Xie G, Li H, Sun G (2013). Antibacterial activity of two chitosan solutions and their effect on rice bacterial leaf blight and leaf streak. Pest Manag. Sci. 69: Li R, Guo Z, Jiang P (2010). Synthesis, characterization, and antifungal activity of novel quaternary chitosan derivatives. Carbohyd. Res. 345: Liu H, Tian W, Li B, Wu G, Ibrahim M, Tao Z, Wang Y, Xie G, Li H, Sun G (2012). Antifungal effect and mechanism of chitosan against the rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. Biotechnol. Lett. 34: Lou M, Zhu B, Muhammad I, Lin B, Xie G, Wang Y, Li H (2011). Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of chitosan solutions against apricot fruit rot pathogen Burkholderia seminalis. Carbohydr. Res. 346: Mansilla AY, Albertengo L, Rodríguez MS, Debbaudt A, Zúñiga A, Casalongué CA (2013). Evidence on antimicrobial properties and mode of action of a chitosan obtained from crustacean exoskeletons on Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 97: Mellegård H, Strand SP, Christensen BE, Granum PE, Hardy SP (2011a). Inhibition of Bacillus cereusspore outgrowth and multiplication by chitosan. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 149: Mellegård H, Strand SP, Christensen BE, Granum PE, Hardy SP (2011b). Antibacterial activity of chemically defined chitosans: Influence of molecular weight, degree of acetylation and test organism. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 148: Moon JS, Kim HK, Koo CH, Joo YS, Nam HM, Park YH, Kang MI (2007). The antibacterial and immunostimulative effect of chitosan oligosaccharides against infection by isolated from bovine mastitis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 75: Patel JK, Patel RP, Amin AF, Patel MM (2005). Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesion glipizide microsphere. AAPS PharmSciTech. 6(1):E Pedro RO, Takaki M, Gorayebb TCC, Del Bianchi VL, Thomeo JC, Tiera MJ, Tiera VAO (2013). Synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity of quaternary derivatives of chitosan on Aspergillus flavus. Microbiol. Res. 168: Peña A, Sánchez, NS, Calahorra, M (2013). Effects of Chitosan on Candida albicans: Conditions for Its Antifungal Activity. Biomed. Res. Int. 2013: Prado AGS, Macedo JL, Dias SCL, Dias JA (2004). Calorimetric studies of the association of chitin and chitosan with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 35: Raafat D, von Bargen K, Haas A, Sahl HG (2008). Insights into the mode of action of chitosan as an antibacterial compound. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(12): Rhoades J, Roller S (2000). Antimicrobial actions of degraded and native chitosan against Spoilage organisms in laboratory media and foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(1): Roller S, Covill N (1999). The antifungal properties of chitosan in laboratory media and apple juice. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 47: Sajomsang W, Pattarapong G, Saesso S, Ovatlarnporn C (2011). Antifungal property of quaternized chitosan and its derivatives. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 50: Sarasam AR, Brown PS, Khajotia SS, Dmytryk JJ, Madihally VS (2008). Antibacterial activity of chitosan-based matrices on oral pathogens. J Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 19: Simunek J, Brandysova V, Koppova I, Simunek Jr J (2012). The antimicrobial action of chitosan, low molar mass chitosan, and chitooligosaccharides on human colonic bacteria. Folia Microbiol. 57: Tayel AA, Ibrahim SIA, Al-Saman MA, Moussa SH (2014). Production of fungal chitosan from date wastes and its application as a biopreservative for minced meat. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 69: Tayel AA, Moussa SH, Opwis K, Knittel D, Schollmeyer E, Nickisch- Hartfiel A (2010). Inhibition of microbial pathogens by fungal chitosan. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 47: Tsai T, Chien HF, Wang TH, Huang CT, Ker YB, Chen CT (2011). Chitosan augments photodynamic inactivation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55(5): Ueno H, Mori T, Fujinaga T (2001). Topical formulations and wound healing applications of chitosan. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 52: Valle MGV, Hernández-Lauzardo AN, Guerra-Sánchez MG, Mariaca- Gaspar GIM (2012). Chitosan as an alternative to control phytopathogenic fungi on fruits and vegetables in Mexico. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 6(37): Van der Mei HC, Engels E, Vries J, Dijkstra RJB, Busscher HJ (2007). Chitosan adsorption to salivary pellicles. Eur. J. Oral Sci. 115: Wu Z, Liu Y, Feng X, Liu Y, Wang S, Zhu X, Chen Q, Pan S (2014). Candidemia: incidence rates, types of species, and risk factors at a tertiary care academic hospital in China. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 22:4-8 Yang C, Li B, Ge M, Zhou K, Wang Y, Luo J, Ibrahim M, Xie G, Sun G (2014). Inhibitory effect and mode of action of chitosan solution against rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1. Carbohyd. Res. 391(4):48-54 Younes I, Sellimi S, Rinaudo M, Jellouli K, Nasri M (2014). Influence of acetylation degree and molecular weight of homogeneous chitosans on antibacterial and antifungal activities. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 185:57-63.
UNIVERSITÄTSKLINIK FÜR INNERE MEDIZIN I Abteilung für Infektionen und Chemotherapie Mikrobiologische Laboratorien 3P Univ. Prof. DDr. A. Georgopoulos Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A - 1090 Wien, Austria Tel.:
7 General discussion Chapter 7 Microbial adhesion onto the surface of medical implants, like hip prostheses and urinary catheters, followed by biofilm formation, often leads to infections on these implants.
307 Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 15 (No 4) 2009, 307-311 Agricultural Academy ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF SODIUM BENZOATE, SODIUM NITRITE AND POTASSIUM SORBATE AND THEIR SYNERGISTIC ACTION IN
Use Nisus products to stop wood decay, kill & prevent mold, eliminate odors and control insects. 2 Become certified in Nisus Mold-Care program. Remove all wet and unsalvageable building material from the
Use Nisus products to stop wood decay, kill & prevent mold, eliminate odors and control insects. 2 Become certified in Nisus Mold-Care program. Remove all wet and unsalvageable building material from the
Antibiotic susceptibility Antibiotic: natural chemicals produced by bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, plants or animals, and either inhibits or kills other microbes and/or cells Chemotherapeutic agent: A
-page one- ADVANTAGES OF USING PEROXYACETIC ACID (PAA) IN WINERY SANITATION OPERATIONS INTRODUCTION PAA is a stabilized equilibrium solution that is EPA approved for numerous uses, including circulation
CONTROLLING MICROBIAL GROWTH IN WINE Learning Outcome. This chapter reviews the many practical features of importance involved in understanding wine microbiology. The student will gain an understanding
Environmental monitoring using a rapid nondestructive automated compendial method Andrew Sage, Principle Scientist Rapid Micro Biosystems New England PDA 16 May, 2008 1 Overview overview of the automated
MISCIBILITY AND INTERACTIONS IN CHITOSAN AND POLYACRYLAMIDE MIXTURES Katarzyna Lewandowska Faculty of Chemistry Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń, Poland e-mail: email@example.com
Antibacterial activity and toxity of silver Nanosilver versus ionic silver Libor Kvítek 1 Aleš Panáček 1, Robert Prucek 1, Jana Soukupová 1, Markéta Vaníčková 1, Milan Kolář 2 and Radek Zbořil 1 1 Regional
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE READY-TO-USE PLATED MEDIA PA-255082.02 Rev.: June 2003 BD Modified CNA Agar BD Modified CNA Agar with Crystal Violet INTENDED USE BD Modified CNA Agar is a selective medium for the
Lecture 3 Dr. Ismail I. Daood Medical Microbiology Culture Media : Culture media are used for recognition and identification (diagnosis) of microorganisms. The media are contained in plates (Petri dishes),
Introduction Tim Sandle www.pharmamicro.com Cleanrooms and environmental monitoring Contamination sources Contamination control The human microbiome and the microbial ecology of people Case study: Microorganisms
Product Information KATHON CG Preservative A Highly Effective, Broad Spectrum Preservative for Rinse-Off Haircare and Rinse-Off Skin Care Products General Dow has driven the progress of isothiazolinone
Doctor of Philosophy Program in Microbiology FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Naresuan University 171 Doctor of Philosophy Program in Microbiology The time is critical now for graduate education and research
University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects University of Tennessee Honors Program 5-2014 Antimicrobial Activity of
CERTIFICATE OF ACCREDITATION In terms of section 22(2) (b) of the Accreditation for Conformity Assessment, Calibration and Good Laboratory Practice Act, 2006 (Act 19 of 2006), read with sections 23(1),
Campden BRI food and drink innovation Predictive microbiological models What are they and how can they be used in the food industry? PREDICTIVE MICROBIOLOGICAL MODELS: WHAT ARE THEY AND HOW CAN THEY BE
General Trends in Infectious Disease Four phenomena underline the increase in ID problems: Aging population Increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients Increased mobility of the population Newly emerging
National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System - Enteric Bacteria A program to monitor antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals Antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens is an important
Chapter 7 Lecture Notes: Control of Microbes by Physical and Chemical Agents I. Definitions A. Antimicrobial agent = general terms for an agent that kills microbes or inhibits their growth 1. prefix designates
TURIN Historical capital of Italy City of Art, Nature, Food and Sport Turin is crossed by the Po river, the Italy s longest river The Mole Antonelliana (1863-1889), 167.5 Meters tall is the symbol of the
Fast-fermented dry sausage without chemical additives/preservatives enriched with natural extracts of antioxidant and antimicrobial olive polyphenols Brief Presentation of the Product This is a research
VANTOCIL IB is a highly effective, fast-acting biocide for use in the formulation of disinfectants for the food processing and manufacturing industries. It has excellent activity against food pathogens,
Microcyn Technology Life-Altering Advance in Tissue Care The patented Microcyn Technology mimics the same oxychlorine composition as that manufactured by neutrophils in the body s immune system. Neutrophils
Strategies for Control of Listeria monocytogenes AFDO 2010, Norfolk, VA James Marsden Regents Distinguished Professor Jasdeep Saini Kansas State University Listeria monocytogenes Small Gram + rod, facultative
Sky Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management Vol. (9), pp. 101-105, December, 013 Available online http://www.skyjournals.org/sjssem ISSN 315-8794 013 Sky Journals Full Length Research Paper
Accepted for Publication, Published online October 13, 2014; doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0018. The latest version is at http://ajtmh.org/cgi/doi/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0018 In order to provide our readers with timely
Effect of Denture Wearing on Occurrence of Candida Species in the Oral Cavity Hiroyuki Mizugai, DDS, PhD* Emiko Isogai* Kimiharu Hirose Itsuo Chiba* *Department of Preventive Dentistry, Health Sciences
Urinary Tract Infections Leading cause of morbidity and health care expenditures in persons of all ages. An estimated 50 % of women report having had a UTI at some point in their lives. 8.3 million office
Claim#:021914-174 Initials: J.T. Last4SSN: 6996 DOB: 5/3/1970 Crime Date: 4/30/2013 Status: Claim is currently under review. Decision expected within 7 days Claim#:041715-334 Initials: M.S. Last4SSN: 2957
GCSE Additional Science Module B4 The processes of life: What you should know Name: Science Group: Teacher: R.A.G. each of the statements to help focus your revision: R = Red: I don t know this A = Amber:
Microbicide KATHON LX1400 Microbicide for Latex Preservative Description KATHON LX1400 microbicide is a formulation for latex emulsions developed following consultations with key customers in this market.
Stress-response and survival strategies of Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus, sigma factors, polymerase, molecular biology, bioinformatics Marcel Tempelaars Bacillus cereus is a food pathogen that is often
Production of penicillin Learning objective: To be able to identify useful products from microorganisms To be able to identify the microorganisms used and the main stages in the production of penicillin.
EFFECT OF A POLYVINYL ALCOHOL AND SELECTED AUXILIARY SUBSTANCES ON THE PROPERTIES OF THERMOSENSITIVE HYDROPHILIC GELS CONTAINING LACTIC ACID COMPLEXED WITH CHITOSAN Katarzyna Małolepsza-Jarmołowska Chair
Enterococcus sp. 90 Min. Identification of E. faecalis, E. faecium and Other Enterococci from Positive Blood Cultures Ampicillin and Vancomycin Resistant E. faecium PNA FISH identified E. faecium a median
SAST II - Novel Electrochemical Scaffolding Technique for SAST Luigi De Nardo firstname.lastname@example.org Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica G. Natta Outline 1. Why scaffolding in medicine?
GENE CLONING AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY What is recombinant DNA? DNA from 2 different sources (often from 2 different species) are combined together in vitro. Recombinant DNA forms the basis of cloning.
The general structure of bacteria The uni-cellular organisms Viruses Herpes virus, HIV, influenza virus The procaryotic organisms Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Neisseria
THESES OF DOCTORAL (PH.D.) DISSERTATION UNIVERSITY OF WEST HUNGARY FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES INSTITUTE OF FOOD SCIENCE IMRE UJHELYI DOCTORAL SCHOOL OF ANIMAL SCIENCES Director of Doctoral
Chair of Chemistry of Biogenic Resources TU München - R&D activities - Chair of Chemistry of Biogenic Resources Schulgasse 18, 94315 Straubing, Germany Sieber@tum.de www.rohstoffwandel.de Locations Freising
MICROBIAL BIOFILM Leiv Sigve Håvarstein NORWEGI IAN UNIVERS SITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Biofilms: The social life of microorganisms Aggregates of microbial cells at interfaces -solid-liquid -liquid-liquid -liquid-gaseous
CHAPTER 6: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY YEAR III PHARM.D DR. V. CHITRA INTRODUCTION DNA : DNA is deoxyribose nucleic acid. It is made up of a base consisting of sugar, phosphate and one nitrogen base.the
Ribosomes as Antibiotic Targets www.biochemj.org/bj/330/0581/bj3300581.htm Ware, Bioscience in the 21 st Century, 2009 PERSPECTIVE Widespread use of antibiotics after WWII improved human health globally
IMCAS-BRC: toward better management and more efficient exploitation of microbial resources Xiuzhu Dong Biological Resources Center Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Challenges Global
POLYTRIM (polymyxin B sulfate and trimethoprim ophthalmic solution, USP) Sterile DESCRIPTION POLYTRIM (polymyxin B sulfate and trimethoprim ophthalmic solution, USP) is a sterile antimicrobial solution
Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
JUNE 2012 COMPOUNDING PHARMACY SOLUTIONS PRESCRIPTION COMPOUNDING WWW.CPSRXS. COM We customize individual prescriptions for the specific needs of our patients. INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Acne 2 Cutaneous Candidiasis
2013 Indiana Healthcare Provider and Hospital Administrator Multi-Drug Resistant Organism Survey Antibiotic resistance is a global issue that has significant impact in the field of infectious diseases.
Biotechnology s oratories Biotechnology Name Location Person in Charge Programs Served Courses Served General Biology W12-039 Zahra Yassin General Microbiology M12-132 Aisha Echtibi General (Basic Course)
Kurt Espersen ICU 4131 Rigshospitalet Copenhagen Difficult to Diagnose Systemic Candidal Infection Immunsuppression in critically ill patients Frequent manifestation of fungus in ICU Fungi were isolated
Approaches to Infection Control Considerations for PTAs in the Clinic Objectives Describe the basic characteristics of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Discuss the locations, advantages, and disadvantages
CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS MICROBIOLOGY AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? WHO / TDR / Crump WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? Microbiology is more relevant than ever in today s world. Infectious diseases are a leading health-related
7- Master s Degree in Public Health and Public Health Sciences (Majoring Microbiology) Students should fulfill a total of 38 credit hours: 1- Basic requirements: 10 credit hours. 150701, 150702, 150703,
NATRApHASE phcp (Patent Pending) Natural Pre-Harvest Potato, Tomatoes and Parsley Barrier Control against the Fungi Phytophthora Infestans and Alternaria solani Table of Contents Page 1-2 NATRApHASE phcp:
University of Sa o Paulo at Ribeira o Preto College of Nursing. WHO Collaborating Centre for Nursing Research Development. Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil. RENAIDST Rede Nacional NASAL COLONIZATION BY MICROORGANISMS
Workshop on CBRN Defence 22-24 October 2013 Brussels Destruction of Bacterial Spores by Solar UV Radiation Dr. Ralf Möller (representing the DEBACS project team) German Aerospace Center (DLR e.v.) Institute
The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) Strategic Plan 2012-2016 Table of Contents Background... 2 Mission... 3 Overview of Accomplishments, 1996-2011... 4 Strategic Goals and Objectives...
Nosocomial Infections in the ICU Gonzalo Bearman MD,MPH Associate Hospital Epidemiologist Nosocomial Infections 5-10% of patients admitted to acute care hospitals acquire infections 2 million patients/year
Raw Milk Quality Tests Do They Predict Fluid Milk Shelf-life or Is it time for new tests? Martin Wiedmann Milk Quality Improvement Program November 3, 2011 Fluid milk shelf life What defines shelf life
USING TRICHODERMA SPECIES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS IN VIET NAM Tran N. Ha Hanoi University of Agriculture Email: email@example.com, (Received: May 7, 2010; Accepted: May 2010) ABSTRACT are
CURRICULUM VITAE Yong-Cheol Park, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Research Associate Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005-1892, U.S.A. Tel) 1-713-348-3304, Fax) 1-713-348-5154,
A Microbiology Services Company Lab Services Research - Consulting - Regulatory Company description is a microbiology services company specializing in antiinfective discovery and development for the pharmaceutical,
FC01 CELLS s are tiny building blocks that make up all living things. s are so small that you need a microscope to see them. ANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL This is the control centre of the cell. It contains chromosomes
BIOTECHNOLOGY Levels: 11-12 Units of Credit: 1.0 CIP Code: 51.1201 Prerequisite: Biology or Chemistry Skill Certificates: #708 COURSE DESCRIPTION is an exploratory course designed to create an awareness
The Need for a PARP in vivo Pharmacodynamic Assay Jay George, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer, Trevigen, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD For further infomation, please contact: William Booth, Ph.D. Tel: +44 (0)1235
The ecological role of essential oils and their possible therapeutic activities Marco Valussi! www.infoerbe.it! www.marcovalussi.it Why do plants produce SM? The received view : coevolutionary arms-race!
NEW SELECTIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL MEDIUM FOR COAGULASE-POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ALLOWING RAPID GROWTH AND STRAIN DIFFERENTIATION' SYDNEY M. FINEGOLD AND EDWARD E. SWEENEY Departments of Medicine, Veterans Administration
Selection of Disinfectants for Use in the Pharmaceutical Industry Tim Sandle Head of Microbiology Bio Products Laboratory Introduction Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces are essential steps for maintaining
INTRODUCTION Women s International Pharmacy Telephone: (800) 279-5708 FAX: (800) 279-8011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.womensinternational.com In humans it is generally accepted that
16 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity. Define toll-like receptors. Differentiate physical from chemical factors, and list examples
Exercise X IMViC Tests IMViC tests are used to study the physiological characteristics of bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriaceae, especially Escherichia and Enterobacter. The biochemical characteristics
Local Section Seminar Basics of UV Disinfection April 17, 2014 Joseph Moore, P.E. DuBois-Cooper Associates, Inc. 1 Presentation Outline Basics of Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection Components of UV Disinfection
CHAPTER 10 BACTERIAL GROWTH Eye of Science / Science Photo Library WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? Increase in numbers is one of the requirements for infection. This increase is dependent upon bacterial growth.
Chitosan Inhibits pbr322-amp R transformation in Escherichia coli DH5α Chongmyung Kim, Nur Ridzwan Nur Saidy, Rebecca Fu, Rui Wang Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, JUlY 199, P. 168-1612 Vol. 28, No. 7 95-1137/9/7168-5$2./ Copyright 199, American Society for Microbiology BacT/Alert: an Automated Colorimetric Microbial Detection System
1 Lecture Objectives: Why study microbiology? What is microbiology? Roots of microbiology Why study microbiology? ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICAL APPLIED SCIENCE BASIC SCIENCE The science of microbiology Microbiology
Vol. 24, No. 13 Research Report December 2012 Use of Antimicrobials to Extend Shelf Life in Fresh Catfish Fillets Sovann Kin, M. Wes Schilling, Brian S. Smith, Taejo Kim, J. Byron Williams, and Juan L.