Milestones in Reading

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1 Key Stage 1 Milestone 1 To read words accurately Key indicators Emerging (typical Year 1 child) Expected (more able year 1 child and typical Year 2 child) Apply phonic knowledge and Phonic knowledge begins to be applied Generally phonic knowledge is applied skills as the route to decode and skills from phases 2, 3 and 4 are and skills from phases 2, 3, 4 and 5 are words. used to decode words. used to decode words. Respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes. Read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught. Read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word. Read words containing taught GPCs and -s, -es, -ing, -ed, -er and - est endings. Read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs. Read words with contractions (for example, I m, I ll, we ll) and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s). There is a speedy response with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for phase 2 and phase 3 phonemes. Sounds begin to be blended in unfamiliar words (CVC, CVCC, CCVC, CCVCC, CVCe and CCVCe) containing GPCs that have been taught. Common words begin to be read, and unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word are noted. Words with known GPCs begin to be read and -s, -es, -ing, -ed, -er and -est endings are noticed. With support, phonically decodable words of more than one syllable are read. Common contractions (for example, I ll, I m, we ll) begin to be read. There is the beginning of an understanding that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s). There is a speedy response with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all phase 2, 3 and 5 phonemes. Alternative sounds for graphemes begin to be included. Sounds are blended accurately in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught. Generally, common words, including the first 100 high frequency words, are read and unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in a word are noted. Generally, words with taught GPCs and -s, -es, -ing, -ed, -er and -est endings are read. Generally, phonically decodable words of more than one syllable are read with accuracy and fluency. Generally most contractions are read accurately and there is understanding that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s). Secure (more able year 2 child) Phonic knowledge is applied independently and skills are used to decode words. There is a speedy response with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all phonemes, including alternative sounds for graphemes. Sounds are blended independently in unfamiliar words using taught GPCs. Common exception words are read independently, and unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in a word are noted. Words with taught GPCs and -s, -es, - ing, -ed, -er and -est endings are ready independently. Phonically decodable two- and threesyllable words are read independently and with accuracy. Knowledge of the different uses of the apostrophe is applied to maintain understanding.

2 Read aloud accurately books that are consistent with phonic knowledge and that do not require other strategies to work out words. Re-read these books to build up fluency and confidence in word reading. Read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes. Read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above. Read words containing common suffixes. Read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word. Read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered. With the support of a teacher, books that are consistent with phonic knowledge are read aloud with at least 90 per cent accuracy. Books begin to be re-read with some accuracy and fluency. Some phrases begin to be read fluently. Words are read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far (up to phase 5). Alternative sounds for graphemes begin to be recognised. Words of two or more syllables that contain the graphemes taught so far (up to phase 5) are read accurately. Words containing common suffixes, including -s, -es, -ing, -ed, -er and -est endings, are read. Common words are read, and unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in a word, are noted. Most words are beginning to be read quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered. Generally, books that are consistent with phonic knowledge are read aloud with at least 90 per cent accuracy. Generally, books are re-read with some fluency, pace and expression. Words are read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far (phase 5 and beyond), and alternative sounds for graphemes are recognised. Words of two or more syllables that contain the graphemes taught so far (phase 5 and beyond) are generally read accurately. Words containing common suffixes, including -s, - es, -ing, -ed, -er, -est, - ful, -ly, -ment, -ness, -y and tion endings, are generally read. All common exception words are read, and unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in a word, are noted. Most words are generally read quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered. A wide range of appropriate books is read independently, fluently and accurately. Books are re-read independently with fluency, pace, phrasing and expression. Words are read accurately and independently by blending the sounds in words, and alternative sounds for graphemes are recognised. Words of two or more syllables are read independently with accuracy and fluency. Words of two or more syllables that contain the graphemes taught so far are spelled independently. Knowledge of word formation and a more extensive range of prefixes and suffixes is used to construct the meanings of words in context. All common exception words are read independently, and unusual correspondences between spelling and sound, and where these occur in a word, are noted. Most words are read independently, quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered.

3 To understand texts Read aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation. Re-read books to build up fluency and confidence in word reading. Discuss events. Predict events. Link reading to own experience. With support, books that are closely matched to an improving phonic knowledge are read aloud with at least 90 per cent accuracy. With support, books are re-read with some fluency, pace, phrasing and expression. Confidence is shown in word reading. With support, main events or key points are understood in a text that is read accurately or listened to. With the support of a teacher, a simple story is sequenced and the significance of the title and events is discussed. With prompts, predictions are made as to what might happen, in both books that are read accurately and those that are listened to, on the basis of what has been read so far. With support, links are beginning to be made between what is read or heard and personal experiences. With the support of a teacher, unfamiliar words are sounded out accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation. Books are re-read smoothly, with fluency, pace, phrasing and expression. Generally, pleasure in reading is developed by discussing the sequence of events in books and how items of information are related. With prompts, the story is retold from the text and illustrations. Generally, predictions are made as to what might happen, in both books that are read accurately and those that are listened to, on the basis of what has been read so far. Generally, links are made to personal experiences, drawing on what is already known or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher. Books that are closely matched to an improving phonic knowledge are read aloud with at least 90 per cent accuracy. Unfamiliar words are sounded out accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation. Without support, books that are closely matched to an improving phonic knowledge are read aloud with at least 90 per cent accuracy. Books are re-read independently, smoothly and with fluency, pace, phrasing and expression. Without support, comments are made on events in the story using quotations or references from the text appropriately. Plausible predictions are made independently based on knowledge of the text. Predictions are justified by referring to the text without support. Independently, reading is related to personal experience, other peoples experience and previous reading.

4 Join in with stories or poems. Check that reading makes sense and self-correct. Infer what characters are like from actions. Ask and answer questions about texts. With support, familiar or predictable phrases in stories or poems are recognised and there is participation. With the support of a teacher, checks are made that the text makes sense while reading, and inaccurate reading is corrected. With support, simple inferences are made about characters, based on what is said or done in books that are read accurately and those that are listened to. Role play is used to identify with and explore characters. With the support of a teacher, specific information is located in response to a simple question. With support, simple questions are asked about the text. Generally, there is participation in stories or poems. This involves keeping pace, taking note of punctuation and using it to keep track of longer sentences. Generally, checks are made that the text makes sense while reading, and inaccurate reading is corrected. Generally checks are made that the word(s) that have been decoded fit with what else has been read and make sense in the context of what is already known. Generally, simple inferences are made about characters, based on what is said or done in books that are read accurately and those that are listened to. For example, there is understanding of simple cause and effect and what may have prompted a character s behaviour in a story. Role play and other drama techniques are used to identify with and explore characters. Generally, specific information is located in response to a simple question in books that are read accurately and those that are listened to. Straightforward questions can be answered and asked about a text. Without support, there is participation in stories or poems. This involves keeping pace, taking note of punctuation and using it to keep track of longer sentences. Interest in longer texts is sustained. Independent self-correction takes place to ensure that reading makes sense. There is independent recognition of how characters are presented in different ways and responses are made to this with reference to the text. Without support, reasoned judgements are made on characters actions. Information is located independently, confidently and efficiently by using appropriate skills and strategies. Relevant questions are asked about texts, and questions are answered using evidence from the text.

5 Discuss favourite words and phrases. Listen to and discuss a wide range of texts. Recognise and join in with (including role-play) recurring language. Explain and discuss understanding of texts. With support, responses to and discussions of a text are beginning to be supported by identifying words/phrases that are liked. With support, a wide range of poems, stories and non-fiction is listened to and discussed. This includes texts at a level beyond those that can be read independently. With support, there is recognition of and participation in recurring language and predictable phrases in stories and poetry. During role play, recurring language and/or familiar story language, such as Once upon a time, Not now, Bernard, begins to be tried out. With support, a text that has been listened to can be explained and discussion of an understanding of it begins to take place. Generally, favourite words and phrases in a text are identified and discussed, for example, language choices, such as rhyme or alliteration, or sparkling as a good word choice. A wide range of poetry, stories and non-fiction is listened to and discussed, and views are expressed. This includes texts at a level beyond those that can be read independently. Turns are taken and what others say is listened to. There is some awareness that writers write for particular purposes. Generally, there is recognition of and participation in recurring language in stories and poetry. During role play, recurring language and/or familiar story language, such as Once upon a time, Not now, Bernard, are tried out. Expression, volume and action begin to be used in order to show an understanding of performance. Generally, an understanding of books, poems and other material is explained and discussed. This includes texts that are listened to and those that are read independently. Significant words and phrases are identified independently and there is the beginnings of an ability to consider the effect on the reader, for example, by identifying the language used to create moods and build tension. Without support, a wider range of texts is listened to and discussed. There is an understanding of how style and vocabulary are linked to the purpose of the text. Without support, there is recognition of and participation in with recurring language in stories and poetry. During role play, expression, volume and action are used in order to show an understanding of performance. Without support, a text is clearly explained and an understanding of it is discussed. Links are beginning to be made between different texts.

6 Discuss the significance of the title and events. Make inferences on the basis of what is being said and done. With support, there is discussion of the title, blurb and illustrations, and there is the beginnings of an understanding of their purpose. Simple questions or predictions based on the title, blurb or illustrations begin to be generated. With support, simple inferences begin to be made on the basis of what is being said and done. Generally, the title, blurb and illustrations are located and discussed and there is an understanding of their purpose. The title, blurb and illustrations begin to be used to help make informed choices, for example, to choose a book that will help during research. Generally, inferences are made on the basis of what is being said and done. Without support, the title, blurb and illustrations are located and discussed, and their purpose is understood. The title, blurb and illustrations are used effectively to help make informed, independent choices. Independently, inferences are made on the basis of what is being said and done and evidence from the text is beginning to be used

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