Chapter -1 INTRODUCTION

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1 Chapter -1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION Energy is the most important component for economic development in a country. It plays a vital role in human welfare as all important activities of development are dependent on the use of energy. It is one of the indices of the measurement of prosperity in a country, which is often being used by the per capita energy consumption. Thus, one of the most important tasks of the country's planning process is to ensure that there is a sharp increase in the production of energy and its effective utilization to increase and its consumption pattern with respective to the forms of energy and sources also tends to change. The main aim of the thesis is to elucidate the importance, viability and feasibility of solar application in the modern economy. Future, the importance of Biogas energy as a good means to control pollution and save conventional fuels is also dealt. The purpose here is to bring the importance and economic viability of biogas energy as a good alternate to the conventional energy sources which are costly and scarce in nature. Biogas energy applications can indeed be good alternate to meet the rural energy crisis and substitute the conventional sources like coal, petrol, and natural gas, etc. Emphasis is made on the accessibility and use as well as the knowledge of solar application in the present economy and an attempt is made to view the future prospects of the development of Biogas energy in various countries in various countries and various biogas applications. 1.1 METHODOLOGY The use of biogas energy is nothing new; it has been used for time immemorial. But the fact is that all the biogas energy that is been used does not come into account or into the books. It is very difficult to calculate the actual amount of Biogas energy has region 1

2 would be using. Similarly there are many such loopholes in the calculation of the use of Biogas energy. Only that biogas energy is considered that gets converted into some kind of useful energy in commercial sense. The data in this regard is not available in continuous manner as in some year more stress and development took place due to government policies and in some years it has been ignored. A comparative study has been made with some solar application that has developed in India and in the rest of the world. A study has also been done as how much of conventional energy can be saved if these biogas applications would be used. Future an attempt is made to explain about the prospects of the future development. Attempts are also made to explain about the prospects of future development. Attempts are also make to explain the economic Payback period, ARR, NPV, IRR and Benefit -Cost ratio's. Calculations are done in this respect for Family Biogas plants, and study is made to understand the conventional energy saving by other Bio mass applications too. In total the aim of this dissertation is to explain the Biogas is and alternate for the Rural Energy Crisis. That is to say, molding of Biogas energy into useful form can give solution for the present rural energy crisis that the world is facing 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY IN RURAL AREAS Ability to do work is called Energy. Energy is the basic ingredient of all modern societies and its per capita consumption is regarded as a standard for advancement of a country. Energy is required to fulfill the basic needs of a human being like food, shelter, clothing, health, sanitation and education, etc. In rural areas energy is mainly used for cooking, heating and lighting purposes. The energy demand for the cooking is the most common in rural household sector. Most of the rural households, are using firewood, vegetable and agricultural waste, dung cake for cooking purposes. On the other hand majority of the household use kerosene for lighting purposes. 2

3 Rural household sector uses with commercial and non-commercial forms of energy. The consumption of any particular type energy depends on various social and economic factors. In the rural areas, the majority part of the total energy consumption is accounted by non-commercial sources i.e., fuelwood, animal waste, agricultural waste and other bio-mass sources. The non-commercial sources are available to zero or negligible cost, it is an important sources of energy for the rural poor. Fuelwood is an important fuel in the rural households. In the rural areas, 90% of the households development dependent on fuelwood. Energy is whatever form is used, it is vital for conducting daily activities in rural areas. For example, in agricultural pump sets, small scale and cottage industries, cooking etc Forms of Energy Energy is found in different forms, such as light, heat, sound and motion. There are many forms of energy, but they can all be put into two categories, potential and kinetic Potential Energy Potential energy is stored energy and the energy of position -gravitational energy. There are several forms of potential energy. (i) Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. It is the energy that holds these particles together. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and propane are examples of stored chemical energy. (ii) Stored Mechanical Energy is energy stored in objects by the application of a force. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy. 3

4 (Hi) Nuclear Energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom-the energy that holds the nucleus together. The energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart. Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called fission. The sun combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in a process called fusion. (iv) Gravitational Energy is the energy of position or place. A rock resting at the top of a hill contains gravitational potential energy. Hydropower, such as water in a reservoir behind a dam, is an example of gravitational potential energy Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is motion-the motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects. (i) Electrical Energy is the movement of electrons. Everything is made of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are made of even smaller particles called electrons, protons, and neutrons. Applying a force can make some of the electrons move. Electrons moving through a wire is called electricity. Lightning is another example of electrical energy. (ii) Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant energy. Solar energy is an example of radiant energy. (Hi) Thermal Energy, or heat, is the internal energy in substances-the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances. Geothermal energy is an example of thermal energy. 4

5 (iv) Motion Energy is the movement of objects and substances from one place to another. Objects and substances move when a force is applied according to Newton's Laws of Motion. Wind is an example of motion energy. (v) Sound is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate-the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave Conservation of Energy To scientists, conservation of energy is not saving energy. The law of conservation of energy says that energy is neither created nor destroyed. When we use energy, it doesn't disappear. We change it from one form of energy into another. A car engine burns gasoline, converting the chemical energy in gasoline into mechanical energy. Solar cells change radiant energy into electrical energy. Energy changes form, but the total amount of energy in the universe stays the same Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency is the amount of useful energy you get from a system. A perfect, energy-efficient machine would change all the energy put in it into useful work an impossible dream. Converting one form of energy into another form always involves a loss of usable energy. In fact, most energy transformations are not very efficient. The human body is a good example. Your body is like a machine, and the fuel for your machine is food. Food gives you the energy to move, breathe, and think. But your body isn't very efficient at converting food into useful work. Your body is less than five percent efficient most of the time. The rest of the energy is lost as heat. You can really feel that heat when you exercise. 5

6 1.2.4 Sources of Energy We use many different energy sources to do work for us. Energy sources are classified into two broad groups renewable and non-renewable. In the India, most of our energy comes from non-renewable energy sources. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, propane, and uranium are non-renewable energy sources. They are used to make electricity, to heat our homes, to move our cars, and to manufacture all kinds of products. These energy sources are called non-renewable because their supplies are limited. Petroleum, for example, was formed millions of years ago from the remains of ancient sea plants and animals. We can't make more petroleum in a short time. Renewable energy sources include biomass, geothermal energy, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy. They are called renewable energy sources because they are replenished in a short time. Day after day, the sun shines, the wind blows, and the rivers flow. We use renewable energy sources mainly to make electricity. Electricity is different from the other energy sources because it is a secondary source of energy. We have to use another energy source to make electricity. Since the Non-conventional (Renewables) energy sources provide environment friendly non-polluting energy, it helps keep atmosphere and environment clean and safe. Moreover it is available locally, therefore it will reduce transmission costs losses. Their development and utilization will enhance rural development and will bring about a positive change in the life style of our rural folk. 1.3 DETERMINANTS OF RURAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION The main determinants of the energy consumption in rural areas are, family size, farm size, income, landholdings etc. The family size influences least compared to al other. The season also an important variable in assessing bio-mass energy availability and 6

7 utilization in different regions. Thus, with increases in income or farm sizes, the people switch-over from non-commercial to commercial forms of energy sources. 1.4 DATA TO BE USED IN THE STUDY The main sources for such data collection are: Tata Energy Directory and Year Book, Published by Tata Energy Research Institute (TER1), New Delhi, Various Issues. " Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy sources (MNE's) - State and Central government reports. NEDCAP - Non-Conventional Energy Development Corporation, A.P Economic Intelligence Service: India's energy sector, CMIE, Various Issues Economic Survey: Govt, of India, Ministry of finance, Economic Division, Various Issues. National accounts statistics: Statistical abstracts, Central Statistical Organization, Various Issues. National Sample Survey Organization reports ( ) " NCAER reports Sarvekshana - Various Issues 1.5 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS The thesis is divided into eight chapters. Chapter - I: Introduction including presentation of the study and structure of the thesis. Chapter II: Rural Energy Crisis: An Empirical Analysis deals with the Rural energy consumption patterns, Per capita income, Problems of Rural energy crisis and Alternatives of the Rural energy problem with the help of NSSO data regarding the energy consumption of different fuels in rural areas. Chapter - III: Rural Energy in India: deals with the Evolution of Rural energy or Renewable in India, Rural energy supply and demand, Rural energy development in 7

8 India, Impact of Rural energy on society - environment - natural resource base etc and finally it explains the Integrating Rural Energy with Rural Development. Chapter - IV: Bio-gas Technology in India: explains Evolution of Bio-gas Technology in India, Popular Bio-gas plants in India and Contribution of KVIC and NPBD for the development of Bio-gas Technology in India. Chapter - V: Bio-gas plant - Technical feasibility: An overview - the technological concepts, components, methodology, design and construction of bio-gas plants are discussed. Chapter - VI: Bio-gas: A Sustainable Rural Energy Alternative explains the role and benefits of energy, particularly Bio-gas (Renewable) energy in sustainable rural development with the help of different experts views and with the available date regarding the Energy Potential and Efficiency. Chapter - VII: Economic Analysis of Bio-gas plants in India with the help of Payback, and other discounted flow methods i.e, NPV, IRR and B:C ratio. 8

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